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3.2. Studying of history of socialists-revolutionaries in the early thirties - the middle of 1950th

From the beginning of 1930th interest to history of Party of socialists - of revolutionaries has considerably fallen. It has been caused by a number of the reasons. In the course of inner-party struggle (1923-1929) In Bolshevik party I.V.Stalina's personal dictatorship was generated.
Having eliminated influential competitors - L.D.Trotskogo, G.E.Zinoveva, L.B.Kameneva, N.I.Buharina from execution of imperious powers, the Stalin group has set the task to spend complex revaluation istoriko - a revolutionary heritage, including to liquidate carriers alien to Marxism and personally to I.V.Stalinu of methodology, to create conditions for theory duplicating «two leaders» - V.I.Lenina and I.V.Stalina. Then last large blow has been struck to not Bolshevist opposition, shown in indicative process over mythical «Country labour party». Process over it was the action of intimidation of all far-outers and attempt definitively to discredit in agony populism in the opinion of broad masses. Besides, the power wished to present A.V.Chajanova and N.D.Kondratyev as "originators" of that heavy economic situation in which there was Soviet Union on a boundary of 1920-1930th During agriculture collectivisation. Ideological pressure in a domestic historical science is considerable ужесточилось210. On the other hand, the network of scientific institutions during this period has considerably extended. So, the history and philosophy AN branch the USSR has generated 8 scientific research institutes, 2 constant commissions, a museum of history of religion and Archive of Academy of sciences, analogues which was not during the period самодержавия211. The works published during this period, had scientifically - popular, propaganda or publicistic character. To the researchers developing partijno-political problems, because of ideological pressure it was necessary or to adapt under new conditions, or to replace themes Researches. There was a transformation of the domestic Historical school. The linear approach became a unique direction in the Soviet methodology formatsionnyj. Top took scholasticism, a support not on a concrete historic fact, and on the schemes simulated in offices of party propagandists. The general deterioration of a historiographic situation during this period was to the full reflected and in carriers of scientific knowledge - historians. So, in A.I.Zevelev's memoirs results an episode from conversation with academician I.I.Mintsem known for the developer of questions of history of revolution and civil The wars, taken place in 1959. On a question, «why the majority of the former listeners of Institute of red professorate in 1930th have been subjected to repression, and you, ponomarev, Pelsh and few others have escaped?», I.I.Mints has answered: «Yezhov has brought to Stalin of the file and has reported:« Minz composes and extends bad jokes about companion Stalin ». Stalin has risen and, having walked on an office, has objected:« I do not trust yours To informants ». Next day Yezhov brings the new file from which follows, that Minz speaks about Stalin precisely about the great leading figure in science». Probably, no more than the apocryphal story, however in it it is possible to find it and rational зерно212.
Probably, during this period historians who after I.V.Stalina's leaving in the world other would consider it as "the coryphaeus of all sciences» were necessary. Other known researcher, istoriograf H.J1. Rubinshtejn, the author of books about the Constituent assembly and Russian historiography, has undergone to the pejorative criticism in Years of struggle against so-called cosmopolitism. It has been expelled From walls istfaka the Moscow State University, and then from Library institute and with The big work has got a job in Istoriko-archival 118 Institute. Four years has spent in jails and the known expert in history eserovskih V.V.Garmiza's governments has been rehabilitated in 1955. As we see, during the considered period from reprisals the large scientists who have been "treated kindly" by the power have not been insured even. That then it is possible to speak about position of historians, in which role of lawyers I.V.Stalin did not act personally. As believes a number of modern researchers, as an occasion to the developed historiographic situation I.V.Stalina's known letter «About some questions of history of the Bolshevism» in magazine edition «Proletarian revolution» (1931г has served.). After occurrence of this document it became definitively clear"to historians, that the Bolshevism was always and in all the rights, and its opponents are doomed to a place in« a garbage basket of history ». The collection of articles published on the following year E.M.Jaroslavskogo« the Third force »(M, 1932), actually Designated the scheme of falsifications of activity Not Bolshevist parties, became a megaphone of Stalin instructions and instructions for two next decades. In the subsequent one more Decision of Central Committee VKP has been published () «About propaganda activities in the near future» where it was spoken about necessity especially to explain, that «the Marxism at us has grown and has got stronger in struggle against populism and on the basis of defeat of its ideological positions, means and political strike methods» 213. It is interesting, that in Central Committee VKP Decision () L.D.Trotsky, G.E.Zinoveva and L.B.Kameneva's "terrorist" plans on elimination of the higher Soviet management were treated, how continuation eserovskoj concepts of individual terror. Also affirmed, that the named persons never were marksistami, social democrats, and always professed narodnicheskuju the concept of the individual 1 9П Terror and consequently have killed S.M.Kirova. The day before «the Big terror» Central Committee VKP () the decision about "zachistke" has made of the former participants moderately-socialist parties. «About operative work on socialists-revolutionaries» from November, 13th, 1936 chiefs of Managements of People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of republics, edges and areas were in detail informed by the order of the people's commissar of internal affairs of the USSR of N.I.Ezhova on "activization" of subversive activities were eserov (both right, and left), directed on a party reconstruction eserov and the organisation of wide insurgent movement. The people's commissar of internal affairs Has set the task «to reveal all eserovskie groups and singles - of terrorists, to introduce in eserovskuju circle of skilled scouts, to strengthen the control over exiled eserami, in particular, M.A.Spiridonovoj, I.A.Majorovym and I.K.Kahovskoj, as The most dangerous organizers of anti-Soviet actions and Heads levoeserovskogo undergrounds in the country ». The next stage of arrests and courts over were eserami has begun. Thereupon it is necessary to notice, that in 1939 in the Main archival management of People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the USSR under the special task of the new people's commissar of internal affairs of L.P.Berii the card file of "counterrevolutionary and anti-Soviet elements», in particular «the administrative board and members the right - and levoeserovskih the organisations» 214 is formed. In 1937 in magazine «Proletarian revolution» I.V.Stalina's letter «About the textbook of history VKP has been published (», marked that fact, that the Stalin treatment of history of parties and movements henceforth becomes unique and conclusive. The next year there was «History VKP () the Short course». Central Committee VKP commission (under which edition this work has been published, has come to conclusion that «the way of struggle selected populists with tsarism by means of separate murders, by means of individual terror was erroneous and harmful to revolution... Therefore the Marxism in Russia could 1 ' U'U To grow and get stronger only in struggle against populism ». Members of the commission of Central Committee VKP () believed, that already G.V.Plehanov has struck a crushing blow on populism, having proved, that sights of populists have no anything the general with scientific socialism though they and named themselves socialists. The primary goal - «to finish populism» as the enemy of Marxism, - according to the commission, has fallen to V.I.Lenina's lot. It has shown, that the present revolutionaries and the socialists, wishing to destroy tsarism, populists, and marksisty are not. The reasons of occurrence of party eserov, as, however, and a mention of this fact in «Histories VPK (the Short course» are absent. There are no mentions of this party and on the pages devoted to events of revolution 1905-1907 the Period with 1903 for 1914 by a group of authors was characterised as «time of the statement of Lenin correctness in Bolshevist party, struggle against various opportunistic currents and sights». According to authors of the Big Soviet encyclopaedia, Published during the period 1940 - first half 1950 - h, party eserov has arisen in «result of association of the various Hostile to Marxism and working class of circles and groups »215. Authors BSE asserted, that substantive provisions of the agrarian Programs eserov are the program of fists, and Individual terror eserov - generation petty-bourgeois «Theories of heroes and crowd». They wrote, that the party program Represented «eclectic connection of shreds of the doctrine Old Russian populism with revizionistski The forged Marxism »216. We managed to reveal four researches, devoted To problematics of the first years PSR. «Victorious overthrow» Populism have undertaken P.Soboleva, P.Zhdanov, M.Shestakov and 1 Again E.M.Jaroslavsky. The Good few of texts of their works citations make of I.V.Stalina's book of "a Leninism Basis», and also endurance from «Histories VKP (. The Short course». Authors have drawn a conclusion, that socialists-revolutionaries were lineal heirs of "liberal" populists, and as a whole narodnicheskoe the direction year from a year is forward 1 Evolved towards revolutionism loss. They believed, that revival narodnicheskogo movements in the name of party eserov has occurred under the influence of gaining in strength country movement, and it represented the left wing of bourgeois democracy. Not troubling itself the deep analysis, researchers assotsiirovali "liberal" populists with narodnicheskim a direction of emancipating movement as a whole. As E.M.Jaroslavskogo's brochure «populism Defeat» unsubstantially affirmed, that «the party eserov has shown the bourgeois essence still to and during revolution 1905-1907 Already then esery have found out propensity to enter the agreement with cadets. In I Duma in 1906 they were included into group trudovikov». E.M.Jaroslavsky noticed, that «in II Duma the imperial prime minister P.A.Stolypin has prosecuted the Duma fraction sotsial - 127 Democrats, but has not touched eserov ». The majority of members of their deputy group has parted on houses. Central Committee PSR has called for long struggle, the first step in which should become preparation to general забастовке217. P.Soboleva's this position has carried to the reasons of failures and defeats of all revolutionary movement in Russia in 1905-1907 218 Soviet historians at this stage asserted, that during the period between two revolutions esery steels"sotsial-chauvinists", and in the subsequent« sotsial - kornilovtsami »219 were blocked with liquidators against Bolsheviks, then. Opening the reasons of national trust to party eserov in 1917, historians wrote: «In February and March, 1917 while Bolsheviks supervised over direct struggle of weights in streets, conciliatory parties grasped deputy places in Councils, 131 Forming in them the majority ». Stopping on a problem of political success eserov in the spring of 1917, Central Committee VKP commission (editing« History VKP (. The Short course », explained this fact« the huge petty-bourgeois wave which has overflowed everything, suppressed conscious proletariat not only numerically, but also ideologically ». As other reason was called qualitative change in structure of the proletariat in the conditions of world war when 40 % of workers have appeared at the front and were 1Я2 Are replaced by yesterday's peasants and shopkeepers. Occurrence eserov - V.M.Chernova and A.F.Kerenskogo in the first coalition Provisional government in May, 1917, was estimated by historians - Bolsheviks as their direct transition in camp counterrevolutionary буржуазии220. They wrote, that «V.M.Chernov began to pour in process of the forces water on an inflaming fire in village» 221. Thus, the Soviet historians began to consider Party of socialists-revolutionaries as the "counterrevolutionary" organisation which has become on a way of struggle against own people already in May, 1917. Affirmed also, that «in an attack of a panic of N.D.Avksentev has let out, that mensheviki and esery revolution tailed after and have taken part in struggle with Kornilovym only because were afraid to lag behind the weights which have left forward. Later, on November, 11th, 1917,« the counterrevolutionary organisation - «Committee of rescue of the native land and revolution» - led by eserami 135 Has lifted in Petrograd mutiny of cadets » In single instances in the historical literature of the given period there were the estimations which obviously are not keeping within the general concept the Soviet historiography of a problem. So, group of authors BSE wrote about "eserovski" adjusted workers, 136 Lifted mutiny on Votkinsk and Izhevsk factories. From a position of an official Soviet historiography such estimation was almost that a nonsense as the proletariat in understanding of historians could not be "eserovskim", being an unconditional support of Bolshevist party. Though I will repeat, that it is only separate, and it is possible, and a casual estimation in the characteristic of the most "progressive" class. Further historians repeated traditional charges that esery have killed M.S.Uritskogo and V.V.Volodarsky also have made «rascally attempt» at a life V.I.Lenina. E.M.Jaroslavskogo's statement about execution eserami was "novelty" top on the given problematics and 147 menshevikami 26 Baku commissioners. As the editorial commission of Central Committee VKP ascertained (), «for white terror against Bolsheviks esery have been subjected red terror and crushed in considerable points of the Central Russia all some» 222. There were the works mentioning activity eserov during the period nepa that was not characteristic for the literature of 1920th years limited, as a rule, with an epoch of Civil war. The substantial party of the given researches was not beyond the illustrative review of actions of Bolsheviks on liquidation eserov. Esery, according to E.B.Genkinoj and 139 N.P.Mamaja., tried to organise kulachestvo in gangs for struggle against the Soviet power, got into cooperation for the purpose of its internal decomposition. In works actual discrepancies contained also: E.B.Genkina, for example, asserted, that 12 defendants sentenced to execution eserov on process of 1922 have appealed, after which the sentence decision VTSIK has been recognised by conditional. Actually any appeal was not, and the idea to suspend sentence execution, under L.D.Trotsky's certificate, proceeded from Bolshevist руководства223. Party of the left socialists-revolutionaries in the literature 1930 - The middle 1950 - h it was estimated differently. Affirmed, that with left eserami, standing in 1917 on positions of the Soviet power, the agreement has been entered into. «However this agreement with left eserami has existed only before signing of the Brest world and formation of committees of the poor when in peasantry there was a deep stratification and when left esery, more and more reflecting interests kulachestva, have lifted mutiny against Bolsheviks and have been crushed by the Soviet power» 224. The history of activity left eserov not only was deformed, but also elementary perverted. So, according to A.M.Pankratovoj, «in November, 1917 at the All-Russia congress of country Councils Lenin has demanded from"left"eserov refusal of conciliation with right eserami. Reckoning with wishes of weight of peasants, Bolsheviks have suggested"left"eseram to enter into the government. Under the pressure of country weights"left"esery have been compelled to accept conditions of Bolsheviks and have sent the representatives in Sovnarkom». Concerning ratification of the Brest contract categorically affirmed, that "left" esery have entered into arrangement with trotskistsko-buharinskoj gang of warmongers and have organised counterrevolutionary plot. Conspirators planned to break the Brest world, to dethrone the Soviet government and to kill Lenin, Stalin and Sverdlova »225. Historians noticed, that «left esery from a permission and Trotsky and Buharin's consent have lifted counter-revolutionary insurrection in Moscow. At the same time left eser Bljumkin, subsequently agent Trotsky, has got into the German embassy and has killed Mirbaha - The German ambassador in Moscow. Under Lenin's direct management the Soviet power resolutely liquidated levoeserovskuju adventure. The party "left" eserov has definitively turned in counterrevolutionary burzhuazno-kulatskuju party /g - 143 Also it has been crushed by the Soviet power ». According to spirit «Histories VKP (. The Short course» The big Soviet encyclopaedia, the history textbooks, separate "scientific" works characterised left eserov as the enemies of the Soviet power operating in the union with the secret adherents - L.D.Trotskim, G.E.Zinovevym, N.I.Buharinym, L.B.Kamenevym. The Soviet historians continued to confirm: «Their mutinies and diversions have been organised The embassies of the countries Antanty which have become at the head of struggle against the Soviet power, in the areas which have been not occupied with Germans »226. During the considered period the works devoted to history left eserov, are actually individual. It is possible to name the book V.Parfyonov "Defeat" left »eserov. (M, 1940), I.Nikitinskogo, G.Kostomarov, A.Korolevoj227's publications and G.I.Guzhvenko's sketch« Bashkiria in struggle for October »(Ufa, 1941) in which separate fractional information about left eserah Ufa contained. At the same time in the second volume« in the USSR »the positive estimation of activity of one of leaders left eserov Krasnoyarsk A.P.Lebedevoj228 was given to History of civil war. Then there was a number of publications about S.G.Lazo, which to the introduction in August, 1918 in RKP (was the party member of the left socialists — revolutionaries - интернационалистов229. The question on the agreement of Bolsheviks and left eserov was considered in the given works, however authors saw only time tactical interest of Bolshevist party in this block. The behaviour left eserov in block existence was characterised by negative only image. As wrote A.S.Smirnov, «as a result of ignoring of a known positive role which have played left of petty-bourgeois parties in struggle for the revolutionary decision of not complete problems of bourgeois-democratic revolution, the facts of free or involuntary support by them of Bolsheviks caused a damage to scientific illumination of process of a gain of workers of peasants on the party of October revolution, belittled value of Lenin tactics of struggle for uniform revolutionary front» 230 "Counterrevolutionary" and "blasting" activity eserov has found reflexion in the spirit of «Histories VKP (the Short course» in A.Filimonova, V.Minaeva231's works. In them there were some new data about struggle with eserami. For example, it is possible to consider as opening V.Minaev's statement (based on materials of litigation of 1938 on business «anti-Soviet pravotrotskistskogo the block»), that attempt at Lenin in August 1918 Year it has been made by the block «trotskistov,« the left communists », zinovevtsev,« left »and right eserov» at the initiative of N.I.Buharina232. Problem of the Soviet historians 1930 - the middle of 1950th display of process of "slipping" was moderate socialist parties after Bolshevist revolution to terror and intervention support. Work H is indicative. J1. Rubinshtejna about the Constituent assembly where the author concerns activity of party of socialists-revolutionaries. Right esery, marks H.JT.Рубинштейн, paid the big attention to convocation of this representative body, as they «... Firmly counted that« the first day »the Constituent assembly becomes last day to the Soviet power» 233. However «counterrevolution plans» as the author informs, have been broken: «after leaving of Bolsheviks the Constituent assembly has ceased to be the Constituent assembly». Analyzing results and Constituent assembly lessons, H.JI.Рубинштейн concludes: «Together with uchredilkoj the people of Soviet Union have dumped in a garbage hole of history of party of petty-bourgeois democracy, uchredilovtsev, menshevikov and eserov. These parties became pity small groups fascist najmitov, spies, saboteurs, wreckers, true 152 Servants of organizers of intervention against the USSR ». Last thesis was rather characteristic for researches of those years. In works the illustrative approach when under the ready, in advance made schemes the actual material stole up dominated. Historians often only declared separate positions, not complicating themselves proofs. During the considered period have received certain development the regional researches connected with studying of activity PSR in days of Civil war on местах234. In articles V.V.Garmizy, G.Mikhalev, R.A.Taubina a number of new data about history Komucha contained, the role right eserov in the organisation of country revolts of 1918-1921 th years was underlined. At the same time the analysis of all reasons of these performances, a social composition of their participants was absent. Practically were not developed in the literature 1930 - the middle-1950 of theoretical aspects of a problem. The unique work of such plan containing basic "methodological" installations, it is possible to consider all the same Short course «Histories VKP (». * * * * 1. Higher school development in the USSR includes many the difficult and inconsistent moments. 1920th were in this respect especially dramatic, as there was a collision of two tendencies — aspiration of authorities to centralisation of educational institutions and representation of old professorate about democracy, necessities of preservation of an autonomy of the higher school, aspiration to leave it out of a policy. During this struggle the government has not stopped before prospect of loss of a mental potential of Russia for the sake of acquisition of monopoly for formation. 2. Consolidation of numerous shots of the Soviet historians has been carried out, historical faculties of universities are restored. The domestic historiography has replenished with works on history of the Soviet period, including about Bolshevist revolution, Civil war and intervention. The Saratov province//Uchen, notes Saratov un y. Т.1. Вып.1. 1939. S.3-46; Mikhalev G.Razgrom kulatsko-eserovskogo mutiny in the Tambov province//Scientific notes of the Tambov teacher's college. Вып.1. 1941. S.31 - 61. The work developed in this direction has united considerable collective of the Soviet historians (I.I.Mints, E.B.Genkina, A.M.Pankratova, I.E.Razgon). 3. The general decline which studying of the Russian multi-party system in 1930 - the middle of 1950th worried, was to the full reflected and in researches on history of Party of socialists - revolutionaries. The given theme was mentioned only in passing, more often from the point of view of struggle of Bolsheviks with eserami, in works on history VKP (). By our calculations, in 1934-1954 3 dissertations on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of historical sciences have been devoted mutual relations of Bolsheviks and their political opponents. The publications which have appeared during the considered period, did not differ neither on politikoideologicheskoj orientations, nor on methodological positions of their authors. In them it was underlined, that the Bolshevism history is history of struggle and defeat of "petty-bourgeois" parties. 4. The party of socialists-revolutionaries has lost the slightest right to expression of interests of the people. Its activity has been named among principal causes of defeats and revolutionary movement failures in Russia. Throughout several decades the power demanded from scientists to shine history eserov (and not only in the popular popular literature, but also in works applying for scientific character) only in the spirit of «Histories VKP (. The Short course». 5. The slightest deviation from Stalin formulations threatened not only moral obstruction, but also physical violence. As consequence, to the middle of 1950th in historiography PSR there was a situation at which the majority of large aspects of a problem at the best have been only designated. \ Researches after Soviet Union Necessity serious multiplane histories of Party of socialists-revolutionaries became obvious.?
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A source: Kononenko, Anatoly Anatolevich. Historiography of the creation and activities of the Socialist Revolutionary Party in the years 1901-1922. / Thesis / Tyumen - 2005. 2005

More on topic 3.2. Studying of history of socialists-revolutionaries in the early thirties - the middle of 1950th:

  1. the Beginning of studying of history of Party of socialists - of revolutionaries
  2. CHAPTER 6. Studying of history of Party of socialists - revolutionaries the Russian emigrants and foreign researchers
  3. CHAPTER 3. History illumination eserovskogo movements in publications 1917 — the middle of 1950th
  4. § 1.3. The Paleoekonomichesky direction in studying of settlements of the early Middle Ages.
  5. 4.1. Party of socialists-revolutionaries as object of scientific researches
  6. § 1.1.2. Studying of settlements of an epoch of the early Middle Ages in the North Caucasus.
  7. 6.1. The Russian emigrants about Party of socialists - of revolutionaries
  8. Researchers about socialists - revolutionaries after autocracy overthrow
  9. Kononenko, Anatoly Anatolevich Istoriografija. of creation and activity of party of socialists-revolutionaries in 1901-1922 / the Dissertation / Tyumen, 2005
  10. § 1.4. Multidisciplinary researches in landscape poselencheskoj archeology of an epoch of the early Middle Ages.
  11. § 6.5. A Kislovodsk hollow in the early Middle Ages - «breeding kingdom» ash-tigorov?