the Beginning of studying of history of Party of socialists - of revolutionaries

The historiography of Party of socialists-revolutionaries was distinguished always by high degree politizirovannosti. The beginning of XX century - time of collision of various ideological concepts of historical development of the country.
Rough character of development of that epoch was in many respects defined by opposition of the political and social forces reflecting different vision of the present and the future of Russia. Sharply there was a problem of a choice of variants and models state and social development - Monarchic, konstitutsionno-democratic and In a revolutionary way-socialist. All classes and layers of a then society have been interested in country updating almost, but each of them wished to make it in own way. The Political strike occurring in the beginning of XX century in Russia, was struggle for what should become model of this updating. Political parties of Russia have arisen later, than in the Western Europe and the USA. It has reflected various stadialnyj level of all system of public relations in Russian empire and the West European countries. Other was in it and Order of occurrence of parties on their social stratification: in the beginning parties of socialist orientation, then liberal and, at last, were issued by the conservative. By 1906 process of registration of socialist parties, including eserov which have spent constituent congress, basically has come to the end. The analysis of this event is important as in respect of the defined Summarising of the Russian political process of the XX-th century, and in respect of conceptual judgement of history of party eserov as a whole. Development of Russia in poreformennyj the period was accompanied by certain successes of capitalism in the industry, its penetration into the village, more and more obvious there were signs of disintegration of a community and social stratification of peasantry. New socioeconomic relations put a problem before populists to find the place at this historical stage. Accepting the name "socialists-revolutionaries" which was used earlier by participants of "National will», populists underlined continuity with revolutionary movement of previous decades. At the same time socialists - revolutionaries otmezhevyvalis from reformism of liberal populists, as well as from hobbies for conspiratorial ideas which were peculiar to imitators of "old" populism. In numerous disputes and debates the ideology of socialists-revolutionaries was born. More all ideas eserov reflected aspiration to modernise the country on-krestjanski, having kept its agrarian shape. The real maintenance eserovskogo socialism consisted in that by means of slogans about freedom, equality and justice to mobilise the people for consecutive liquidation of the rests of a feudal system. The new name revolutionary populists designated only the intentions which should be embodied in the theory and to concretise in the program and tactics. This problem was incurred by a number eserovskih circles and the organisations which have appeared in the middle of 1890th Among them were «the Union of Russian socialists-revolutionaries» in Bern (1893г.), the Kiev group of socialists-revolutionaries and «the Union of socialists - of revolutionaries» in Saratov (1895-1896). A message to Occurrence of the organisations of socialists-revolutionaries was served by a number of circumstances: contemporaries named hunger and cholera revolts in the 1891-1892 which have flashed in various provinces of Russia.
They have again sharply put before democratic intelligency of a problem of village, studying of a life, psychology and mood of peasantry. Leaving from a life of leaders of previous generation of populism was other message to occurrence eserovskih groups. Promotion of youth which not only did not consider idea of populism doomed, but also firmly believed, that in such mainly country country, as Russia, the future not behind Marxism, and behind populism. But not behind the old is naive-romantic populism idealising a subsistence economy, a socialist considering the peasant by the nature, and behind the updated populism, free from former errors and hobbies. The contemporaries analyzing the reasons of occurrence of party eserov, named thereupon also a series of successful acts of terrorism against the most odious representatives of autocracy and evolution democratic on an orientation of the domestic literature. On books and N.K.Mihajlovskogo, G.I.Uspenskogo, S.T.Semenova, A.V.Peshehonova's articles and others, writing on a country theme, one generation of socialists-revolutionaries has grown not. Country revolts in 1902 in Poltava, Kharkov and the Voronezh provinces have once again confirmed confidence eserov in necessity of creation uniform revolutionary партии69. Process of formation PSR of these eserovskih the organisations has appeared long enough. Only at constituent congress eserov, the 1905-beginning which has taken place in the end 1906, it was possible to confirm the program, to accept the charter and to sum up ten years' history eserovskogo movement. Attempts repeatedly undertaken before (congresses in 1897 in Voronezh and Poltava, in 1898 in Kiev) to unite in party appeared ineffectual. On any question of the theory, tactics, party building in эсеров environment there were considerable disagreements which only became aggravated in due course. Interest to Party of socialists-revolutionaries has arisen actually from the moment of an exit of the statement for creation of this ' at The organisations. Association of foreign groups and narodnicheskih structures in the country in party eserov has drawn attention first of all of politicians. The professional historical science eserov has avoided a question on occurrence and party genesis. It has been caused by a number of the reasons: the general condition of a historical science in autocratic Russia, its priority purposes and problems, a concrete problematics of researches of that time, organizational conditions of activity of scientific institutions, absence necessary istochnikovoj bases, methodological approaches to studying of the Russian political parties etc. The domestic historical science in the beginning of XX century has been concentrated in large megacities, first of all in the European part of Russian empire. Traditionally it associated with collectives of istoriko-philological faculties Moscow, St.-Petersburg, Warsaw and some other universities. The historical science has been at that time presented by several directions and schools of historians. The state or istoriko-legal school presented by names of S.M.Soloveva, B.N.Chicherina and N.D.Kavelina was the most influential current within the limits of a liberal historiography. The same group was adjoined by V.O.Kljuchevsky. The named researchers believed, that «history as the science should serve not to any group, and all society. In this case it becomes a natural core of culture which strengthens statehood, than preconditions of realisation of public relations» are created. Such position was caused by historically developed feature of the Russian statehood. As believes thereupon M.D.Karpachev, «except reprisals, the Russian statehood kept on religious self-connection of peasantry with the tsar in which basis there was an irrational feeling» 70. Historians recognised above class character of the imperial power. In their opinion, all way of Russian life in all its displays could not be changed violent by. The unique exit consisted in gradual modernisation of an existing system and lifting of national education. The special role in this process was taken away to the state and intelligency. Unlike educators XVIII The century, offered the linear approach and declared, that the history "is universal" and in it the general and objective laws on character operate, logicians of recurrence adhered to S.M.Solovev and V.O.Kljuchevsky. The opinion about «catching up and cyclic» development of Russia has been stated for the first time P.J.Chaadaevym and subsequently is supported by N.J.Danilevskim. Both believed, that Russia is out of the western civilisation and moves on a vicious circle. To the same conclusion V.O.Kljuchevsky who wrote was declined: «Typological difference of Russia from the West consists in a universal role sobornosti and state roles in the organisation of a life of the country, in suppression of private interest by it and political opposition. Such opposition did not maintain military-technical rivalry with the West, and it forced the state to carry out reforms, hastily borrowing another's experience» 71. Some other sights adhered the pupil V.O.Kljuchevskogo P.N.Miljukov. In its opinion, «Russia develops in the tideway of the West European laws with the slowed down rates of growth inherent in it. However unlike the West social and economic development of Russia went mainly under the influence of the state, from top to down» 72. For P.N.Miljukova's sights underestimation of a role economic both social factors and role revaluation государства73 was characteristic. Absolutely opposite approach was used by other pupil V.O.Kljuchevskogo - M.N.Pokrovsky. It has risen on a position of linear interpretation of historical process in which basis the materialistic concept of understanding of history has laid down. Under the scheme of linear development of history, law of change of socioeconomic structures of M.N.Pokrovsky brought the facts of the Russian validity with a corresponding explanation: Russia owing to a development originality is called To catch up and overtake western страны74. Professional historians in autocracy have not left any estimations, judgements and conclusions about Party of socialists-revolutionaries. Under the art remark V.O.Kljuchevskogo, «history is that there was hundred years ago, and all About That after already politician ». Naturally, being contemporaries of occurrence PSR, professional historians were familiar with activity eserov on periodicals materials. They were excited with the permission country, working, national, student's and other topical questions of the Russian validity. At the same time, being representatives of the academic science, vysokoobrazovannymi and Highly paid experts, they in the majority connected the further destiny of Russia not with revolution, and with reforms and autocracy concessions. As it was already marked, the Party of socialists-revolutionaries has appeared object of attention of professional politicians. In Nikolay's board II practically all political forces representing both the governmental camp, and various party structures, have to some extent reacted to a birth of new party. As a rule, subjective predilections of the authors representing different directions of public thought, have influenced definition of a place of party eserov, roles of its leaders, on disclosing of relationships of cause and effect, on an estimation of events and a general characteristic of that epoch. The historiography eserov in autocracy practically did the first steps, on the character representing historical publicism. Besides in imperial Russia scientific studying of activity of revolutionary parties was not welcomed. It was faster a prerogative of the guarding organisations and Particularly separate case of gendarmes. The work, one of the best till present time in respect of a saturation the actual material, shining history eserov till February, 1917, is written by the security guard - The intellectual, the gendarme colonel A.I.Spiridovichem who has made the outstanding career first of all on struggle with PSR. Published in 1916, it has begun steady representation about eserah as practically exclusively intelligentsko - terrorist организации75. The basis of this work was made by the lectures read by the author on courses of gendarme officers. The first, pre-revolutionary edition of the book was limited and to destination especially practical. Dispatched to gendarme and security establishments the book should fill up knowledge of workers of these establishments of party eserov as about the dangerous political opponent and to make struggle against it more effective. On the basis of own supervision, and also the documents withdrawn at arrests eserov, A.I.Spiridovich has come to conclusion, that the reason of occurrence PSR are, on the one hand, idealism of considerably adjusted youth, «with contempt» concerning the property and consequently singing of a country community, with another - antimonarchic and antiorthodox propagation which is long since conducted in lines of settled way of life. According to the gendarme historian, the radical intelligency could indulge in conversations on socialism, being on expense at parents or at the government, paying to it the grant. The disappointment of populists in peasantry has induced many radicals to choose as struggle means individual terror in this connection A.I.Spiridovich has drawn a conclusion, that they aspired to reach two purposes: to demoralise the government and to show To peasantry vulnerability of a monarchy at which those looked with awe. He wrote: «On a twist of fate and under the invariable law for all revolutionary Russian parties of second half of last century, the pivotal bosses of this« narodnicheskoj »it have appeared Russian party Gots, the Minor, Gershuni, Rubanovich, Natanson, Azef. To speak here about love to Russia and about care of Russian people it is not necessary» 76. Stating an estimation of one of large eserovskih groups - Kiev, A.I.Spiridovich noticed, that «esery in 1903 in weight did not own. The party just developed. Their Kiev committee consisted then of Jews. Supporters of party in Kiev was then intelligent Jewish youth, mainly maidens. Influence Gershuni has affected that all of them raved terror.... Circles at eserov was a little. Workers gravitated either to Bundu, or to Russian social democrats» 77. According to the author, after Manifesto publication on October, 17th, 1905 esery within two months could not develop independent tactics, and, completely having become puzzled, followed cadets. Only in questions of terror they showed certain independence, it is literally idolising it. The conclusion about eserah as it is exclusive intelligentsko - the terrorist organisation he gave reason painful perception and a corresponding estimation ruling circles of acts of terrorism. One of the important plots to whom the gendarme historian has addressed, the problem of financing PSR was. Having analysed the receipts which have got to his hands, reports, sheets, A.I.Spiridovich has come to conclusion, that the budgetary fund eserov developed of donations, incomes of publishing, ekspropriatsy and rather insignificant membership dues. Arrived in party cash desk of the sum and from the foreign states. A.I.Spiridovich specifies in Central Committee PSR reception in 1905 from the American petroindustrialists of one million francs with the obligation to divide it between all revolutionary parties. Americans gave money on the organisation of strikes on oil deposits of brothers Nobel in Baku. The considerable sums, according to A.I.Spiridovicha, have been transferred eseram from the Japanese government in the Russian - Japanese war and позднее78. Its differentiation on groups was other problem to which the gendarme historian has paid attention, revealed by it mnogoslojnost eserovskogo movements. So, in atmosphere of mess and A.I.Spiridovich's confusion has particularly and accurately shown, that attempt at P.A.Stolypina has been organised on August, 12th, 1906 not PSR, and eserami-extremists then the party eserov has definitively refused cooperation with this group, and E.F.Azef also has transferred in Department of police names of executors теракта79. Using documents of Department of police, A.I.Spiridovich has shined actions of socialists-revolutionaries in the largest cities of the European part of Russia. For the first time they accepted activity of "the Workers' party of political clearing of Russia», the created G.A.Gershuni in Minsk, so-called southern «Parties of socialists-revolutionaries», «the Union of socialists-revolutionaries», the organised A.A.Argunovym in Saratov. In A.I.Spiridovich's estimations represents and characterises socialists-revolutionaries and their struggle as the actions full of cruelty and brutality. For this purpose there were not only professional, but also personal reasons. After attempt of terrorists at the author his wife was ill with heavy mental illness and has soon died. A.I.Spiridovicha's main conclusion about Party of socialists - of revolutionaries as it is exclusive intelligentsko - the terrorist organisation, unfortunately, does not promote understanding of a true place and role PSR in struggle against autocracy. A.I.Spiridovicha's class approach in a history estimation eserov turned around the black-and-white scheme Russian partogeneza. Many aspects eserovskogo movements, in particular, the legal forms of revolutionary struggle widely applied eserami at that time, - are not shined, though in the majority of the editions socialists-revolutionaries did the basic accent on propagation of mass forms of revolutionary struggle, popularisation of program requirements. Only after the publication 1918 of the book of the former worker "ohranki" V.K.Agafonova in a scientific turn included data on actions of the foreign gendarme agency introduced in eserovskie структуры80. About this party of political investigation A.I.Spiridovich did not know and accordingly could not shine it. Work with foreign rezidenturoj was headed by P.I.Rachkovsky receiving data is direct from E.F.Azefa. As believed A.I.Spiridovich, police Department has not managed to prevent rallying eserov in party though had for this purpose possibility. The theme of provocations in the ranks of PSR has drawn attention of other former employee of political investigation of L.P.Menshchikova81. In 1909 he has emigrated from Russia and has made a number of sensational statements for the provokers introduced in revolutionary parties, having put to that essential harm to police Department. L.P.Menytsikov has in detail considered E.F.Azefa's role in formation of Fighting organisation PSR and the reason which have allowed it to play so long a role double агента82. As a whole, representatives of the governmental camp represented eserov groundless dreamers, the impulsive rebels sowing harmful illusions, dangerous enemies of an existing system, interests of Russia. So, in the letter A.I.Spiridovichu of S.V.Zubatov characterised eserov as «homebrew party of incorrigible utopians, organic besporjadochnikov and sentimental wild beasts» 83. The conclusion S.V.Zubatov motivated with that terrorist methods of struggle eserov levelled Christian interdictions for blood prolithium. Thus, conservatives considered, that the reason of occurrence of party eserov is noxious influence of "abstruse" doctrines of the West which has found a fertile field among intelligency. For the majority of conservatives of concept "revolutionary", «the street propagandist», "terrorist" and "Jew" Were almost synonyms. In published in «Moscow Sheets »in 1906« the Management of the chernosotentsa-monarchist » It was said, that everyone who «wishes to limit now The autocratic power of the Russian tsar », is internal The enemy of Russia operating in the union with external enemies. At It it was explained, that «internal enemies» are: «Constitutionalists, democrats, socialists, revolutionaries, 18 Anarchists and Jews ». A.I.Spiridovich has given a little bit other treatment« internal enemies of the state ":" they are thieves, Swindlers, murderers, spies, socialists and in general all who go against a sovereign and an internal order in the country »84. Social base PSR, according to conservatives, the Jewish and Russian intelligency made. The party program directly contacted M.A.Bakunina, A.I.Gertsena and P.P.Lavrova's surnames. Ideologist PSR conservatives named N.K.Mihajlovskogo. As a whole the Party of socialists-revolutionaries was estimated as «the representative of original Russian socialism with ephemeral basic dream of Russian intelligency, that our country community can be easily used as a step to transition to a socialist system, that our peasant a natural socialist. In revolutionary numbers party Was the direct follower of party «National will» from it 20 The tactical motto "The end justifies the means". Characterising works of representatives of liberal camp, it is necessary to notice, that they were created in active ideological and practical struggle between liberals and eserami. Therefore in publications of liberals it was impossible to avoid The political pointedness raised by the emotional okrashennosti estimations and conclusions. It is characteristic in this respect Recognition of left liberal N.A.Berdjaeva: «I could not adjoin to To socialists - to populists or socialists-revolutionaries, as They began to be called. The psychological type was alien to me 21 Old Russian revolutionaries ». According to N.A.Berdjaeva, by 80th years of XIX century narodnichesky the socialism has been got rid, and revolutionary movement could not develop further under its banner. The known philosopher believed, that to Russian Disgust was always peculiar to populism to burzhuaznosti and fear of development of capitalism in Russia. It trusted in special ways of development of the country, to mission of Russian people to resolve a social question better and more likely, than in the West. Under N.A.Berdjaeva's art remark, «in comparison with Marxism the old Russian socialism was represented by the phenomenon provincial» 85. As considered N.A.Berdjaev, occurrence of "National will» which put a political end to dethrone autocracy exclusively by terror, obviously testified to populism crisis. The known philosopher gave reason for the judgement that the revolutionary intelligency was undeceived in peasantry and has decided to lean only against own heroism. Therefore the philosopher connected possible Russian revolution with the Bolshevism, considering sotsial - revoljutsionarizm the past этапом86. Liberal publicists condemned eserovskie desires 24 «To move people as automatic machines, instead of to learn them to move». P.N.Miljukov, P.B.Struve named eserov most revolutionary of all Russian parties and considered, that in its tactics the political naivety reaching belief in miracles laid. Their mad radicalism, according to authors of "Marks", has ruined or has detained an agrarian reform and has led treteijunskomu to revolution of 1907. A question on the one who more "revoljutsionen", was in details considered in a pre-October historiography, and the most thorough answer to it of a distance "vehovtsy". Considering a problem why in a society the opinion, that esery "more to the left of" social democrats, and anarchists and extremists "more to the left" eserov has settled, they have come to conclusion: « More to the left »the one who is closer to death, whose work is more dangerous not to a social order with which there is a struggle, and for the person of the revolutionary. In general, the socialist-revolutionary is closer to the gallows, than a social democrat, the extremist and the anarchist is even closer, than socialists-revolutionaries» 87. Liberals welcomed any aspirations eserov to more weighed actions, to parliamentarism. One of the most severe opponents eserovskoj P.B.Struve's programs marked «monstrous symbiosis of Slavophile and socialist ideas, a sample of full recklessness, theoretical and moral which unique purpose - osnovatelnee to pit a bar and muzhiks» 88. In its opinion, eserovsky the socialism crossed with chernosotenstvom, forming with it some internal and spiritual unity while at sotsial - democracies chernosotenstvo «are ideologically insignificant 27 Appendage ». P.N.Miljukov, accusing eserov in« absence of political insight », named them« incorruptible idealists »89. According to P.B.Struve and M.J.Gertsenshtejna, eserovskaja the agrarian program - a book lordly invention doktrinalnogo socialism which will not improve peasantry position, and 29 Will aggravate a country condition. Absolutely otherwise represented the agrarian program eserov some years after A.A.Kaufman and M.I.Tugan-Baranovsky. M.I.Tugan-Baranovsky has come to conclusion, that in the field of the industry is closer to true there were social democrats, and in the field of agriculture - эсеры90. On A.A.Kaufmanu, in the field of agrarian relations «populists have appeared are right, insisting on an originality of Russian economic relations» 91. Liberals absolutely differently, than conservatives, estimated the reasons of occurrence and a party place eserov in a political life of Russia. They connected its occurrence with sincere aspiration of democratic intelligency to serve the people. However ways of this "service" were characterised as utopian, torn off from realities of a social and economic life of Russia. So, P.N.Miljukov believed, that occurrence of Party of socialists-revolutionaries is connected with disappointment of old populists in the thesis about Russian people as a born socialist: « The state will not collapse from one spell of national spirit. Political reform should precede the social. The psychology of the won and disappointed revolutionaries-socialists of 80 and 90th years of last century met half-way this conclusion »92. Esery, according to P.N.Miljukova, differed from the predecessors that political requirements ahead of the social have put. At the same time them« revolutionary movement in 1905 far has not had time to get into weights; its role was replaced «with simulation of revolution by"intellectuals"93. Eserovsky publicists apologetizirovali the concept and tactics of the партии94. Its occurrence communicated them with the constant conflict between the power and the people. Revelry of the governmental reprisals, especially against participants of agrarian performances, student's excitements, has led populists to a conclusion about necessity of creation of the organisation leaning against a mass movement, including all working people, first of all proletariat, peasantry and intelligency. Esery considered, that after populism decline in 1890th for an intelligency part the moral debt of service to the people has found again circulation forms in the people, through development kruzhkovogo movements in cities. Consolidations separated narodnicheskih groups in uniform party as it is not paradoxical sounds, distribution to Russia of Marxism promoted. As recollected after V.M.Chernov, marksisty did the rate in "work" exclusively on «a class-Messiah, a class-saviour» - proletariat. The peasantry and intelligency remained to the populists believing, that the political party also is necessary to these social groups. «The name« es-era »as a specific designation of our current in Russian socialism was almost casually. Historically equally socialists - revolutionaries named itself both zemlevoltsy, and narodovoltsy, and chernoperedeltsy; even standing on the verge between liberalism and socialism narodopravtsy did not leave a name... Sotsialnorevoljutsionnoj parties of the national right» 95. A little occurrence of the name "socialists-revolutionaries" other founder and historian PSR differently explained A.A.Argunov. He wrote: «otmezhevyvajas from the term« the populist »who not only was not popular by then, and opposite, was used among liberals, revolutionaries,« the advanced public »with a neglect shade, revolutionary narodnicheskie the organisations underlined it relationship with« National will »which named itself socialists and revolutionaries» 96. Esery considered, that their party was not formed, and has united. It was essentially important definition as the parties which have signed the agreement on occurrence in party, from the very beginning remained at the sights at the theory and political strike tactics, that in a consequence has led to numerous crises and organizational disintegration PSR. The party of socialists-revolutionaries included three large organisations: so-called "northern" esery, "southern" esery and «the Workers' party of political clearing of Russia» (RPPOR). In work S.N.Sletova is shown complexity of registration of the party occurring under the scheme «all to a heap». So-called "northern" esery underlined the continuity with narodovoltsami and supported terror propagation. "Southern", on the contrary, categorically were against terror, and figures RPPOR, including G.A.Gershuni, have acted only for the political "HP Freedom and for terror. Social composition PSR was defined eserami as consisting «mainly from intelligency - the former exiled, studying youth and only separate •> about Representatives of workers ». The place in a political life of the country esery defined between marksistami and liberals. According to V.M.Chernova, «at populists and marksistov eventually the purpose one; in social policy. However, in the field of the agrarian legislation they, will possibly, seriously enough disperse... Liberals our fellow travellers... Until overthrow of autocracy and the statement of democratic freedom and self-management» 97. The recognition of the tactical failures eserami was combined with conviction that is result of the private reasons: works "ohranki", prevalence of social democracy in cities, insufficiency of forces and means, organizational miscalculations. Sometimes socialists-revolutionaries truly marked the organic defects inherent in the party: «If we were so are strong, as preachers and teachers of socialism, as people of revolutionary action, as tactics and strategists of revolution as heads of revolt, - we were extremely weak» 98. Eserovsky "otzovisty" accused party of propensity to opportunism, seeing it in the time termination of terror, hopes of the Duma. In turn, eserovskie "liquidators" criticised party for revolutionary actions, excessive as it seemed to them, hopes of weights and insufficient use of legal possibilities. Actually S.N.Sletov became the first historian of the party. In 1912 it has published «Sketches of history of party of the s.-river» In which aspired to prove, that the party was created not from above, and from below, efforts of the party cells separated in the beginning. Before S.N.Sletov's First World War together with others eserami has started to make the bibliography on revolutionary movement history in Russia, but war, and then  destruction have not allowed it to finish this work. In April, 1917 S.N.Sletova's basic work «To history of occurrence of party of socialists-revolutionaries» 99 was issued. Standing on the verge memuaristiki and historical research, it in a certain measure has shined some question, connected with the initial period of occurrence of Party of socialists-revolutionaries. Hopes of clearing of Russia esery the end of XIX century, according to S.N.Sletova, connected mainly with proletariat struggle, and at all peasantry. The historian marked, as in the summer of 1901 M.R.Gots, for example, vigorously opposed V.M.Chernova's attempts and E.k.breshko-Breshkovsky to begin propagation in village. Only after the beginning of peasants' revolts in the Poltava and Kharkov provinces socialists-revolutionaries have come to a common opinion and as wrote S.N.Sletov, have decided to begin the organised work in village. The Eserovsky historian marked also strain of relations in party between supporters and opponents of terror, and also those who rested hopes of mass country movement. On its personal observations, the apogee of terrorist moods in PSR has fallen to summer of 1904 when V.K.Pleve has been killed. Being disturbed «Influence which has terribly amplified in party of terror and zagovorshchichestva», S.N.Sletov left structure TSK100. S.N.Sletov's overall objective as the historian of party eserov saw in taking away PSR a leading place in the Russian revolutionary movement. Moral rehabilitation of the party which authority in connection with «business Azefa» in the opinion of the democratic public has considerably reeled was the important problem in this direction. With that end in view S.N.Sletov in a role of "the father - of the founder» PSR has shown G.A.Gershuni though as the direct participant of events perfectly knew, what not it, and E.F.Azef was true obedinitelem eserovskih circles and the organisations in party eserov. Later this point of view has affirmed as a domestic historiography and has been denied only last decade. Other question, S.N.Sletova who has drawn attention, concerned problems of theoretical and organizational differentiation in the ranks of PSR. The registration reasons in party of groups and fractions, from moderated to radical, were estimated by the author as exclusively subjective. Too different people have taken part in a party creation: «the organisation was not. There was, of course, a group of people personally familiar, without the certain rights, without the duties connected with each other» 101. Some of them called for an immediate social revolution, demanded revision of theoretical sights eserovskoj party, its methods of struggle, others in panic were afraid of real revolutionary work. According to S.N.Sletova, the vulgar socialism of the first stood on the verge with anarchism and has led to maximalism occurrence, and participation in emancipating movement of the second - to occurrence 44 Parties enesov. Works of leaders of social democracy of both currents represented first of all political documents. Authors pursued quite obvious aim: the day before The next parliamentary elections to show to voters the program purposes, a social base, the characteristic lines inherent in this or that political party, to urge them to vote for itself. In these cases did not do without known ogrublenija characteristics and estimations. Put into circulation during the pre-October period of history of Russia March and Lenin terminology was widely used not only in party, but also in the scientific literature of Soviet time. The third volume of the five-languid edition «Social movement in Russia in the XX-th century beginning» contained the analysis of history of all main political parties of Russia, including эсеров102. Subsequently in the Soviet historiography the given edition has received 46 The expressive name - «menshevistskii a five-volume edition». The author of section about PSR a social democrat P.P.Maslov believed, that before revolution 1905-1907 esery were only narrow group of adherents. Revolution has created preconditions for occurrence in Russia of the parties differing not only on social-class structure, but also on means and methods of achievement of the government. Though esery have been selected in the Duma, their Duma tactics was defined by a revolutionary situation and activity of broad masses out of parliament walls. Socialists - revolutionaries were, according to P.P.Maslov, party «street action»: though their amorphous fraction was present in To the State Duma, basic practical activities PSR spent not within the precincts of parliament, and at factories, factories, in villages and villages, in student's audiences. Terrorist activity eserov is considered by P.P.Maslov as result of the animosity caused by the governmental reprisals. The Menshevist historian writes about futility, especially after E.F.Azefa's exposure, this form of struggle. As a whole P.P.Maslov has drawn following conclusions: The-first Russian revolution has created «vivifying soil» for occurrence in Russia of the parties differing not only on social-class structure, but also on means and methods of achievement of the purposes. -Almost all parties tried to give out themselves for carriers of progressive ideas, but socialists-revolutionaries aspired to unite all revolutionary forces, and social democrats only proletariat. -Recession of revolutionary activity was appreciably reflected in a failure eserovskih bills in the State Duma. From the victory fact enesov over eserami in attraction of Labour group on the party of the agrarian bill P.P.Maslov has drawn a conclusion on aversion peasantry eserovskogo socialism, about preference it of a farmer way. Later P.P.Maslov even asserted, that after events on June, 3rd, 1907 the party eserov in effect has disappeared and politically anything itself did not show. He explained it a narrow doctrinaire attitude and political inexperience of leaders eserov owing to what they could not provide adequate conformity of the tactical Installations strategic задачам103. So, social democracy negatively estimated a birth of new political party, the competitor on To socialist camp. It is indicative, that at II congress RSDRP in the resolution in relation to party of socialists - The revolutionaries, the offered P.B.Akselrodom, esery Were considered as «burzhuazno-revolutionary fraction». Activity of this "fraction", according to P.B.Akselroda, is harmful not only to political development of proletariat, but also for all-democratic struggle against абсолютизма104. In the resolution the thought on possibility of association RSDRP and PSR was condemned and was underlined, that «on occasion struggle against tsarism» with eserami «private agreements», and under Central Committee RSDRP control are possible only. From August till December, 1902 in each number of the newspaper "Spark" was located from two to four articles or the notes directed against eserov. P.P.Maslov, J.O.Martov, P.B.Akselrod saw in the agrarian program eserov only dangerous, harmful, petty-bourgeois, narrow-minded error, and party considered exclusively intellectual, «not socialist and besides as the weakest on the actual influence and value» 105. As believes S.V.Tjutjukin, «especially an uncooperative altitude to eseram and underestimation of their role in revolutionary Russian movement with firmness remained at menshevikov up to the First World War and only in 1917 were replaced by installation with blocking of defence elements of both parties, on the one hand, and internationalist - with another» 106. Others marksisty, in particular, Bolsheviks constantly "exposed" Party of socialists-revolutionaries in "melkoburzhuaznosti". Thereupon it is necessary to note V.I.Lenina and L.B.Kameneva's works, and also L.D.Trotskogo's left social democrat. Characterising social development of Russia in the beginning of XX century, B. I.Lenin noticed, that revolutionary movement in the country develops with amazing speed, there is a rough process of formation of parties, «stones for socially - political constructions which will define long-long destinies of all country» 107 are pawned. After party formation eserov in 1902 1903 V.I.Lenin concerned it as to the group which does not have WITH ') Accurate social base and not leaning against any class. He considered, that in the conditions of ideological "defeat" of populism and movement of revolutionary intelligency to sotsial - democracies esery occupied then intermediate position between Marxism and populism. The concept «a socialist - the revolutionary» was originally perceived by it as a direction including all supporters of the revolutionary 53 Struggle. V.I.Lenin ranked as it and social democrats as association eserov in party has occurred on the basis of agreements where the parties represented various sights at social and economic development of Russia and struggle tactics, and any time was not clear, what opinions become dominating in PSR. Besides the group «old narodovoltsev» in magazine «Bulletin of Russian revolution» has declared, that adheres «to a negative sight at village as a starting point of democratic revolution» 108. After the publication eserovskih articles in magazine «Russian riches», V.I.Lenin has come to conclusion, that sights of their authors "melkoburzhuazny" 109, they leave the roots in "old" Populism. Analyzing ideology of new party, V.I.Lenin marked: «the ancient populism renewed by the fashionable The European opportunism (a revisionism, bershtejnianstvom, Marx's criticism) makes all original ideological luggage of so-called socialists-revolutionaries »110. Feature narodnicheskih V.I.Lenin's ideas reduced to following positions: 1) Capitalism recognition in Russia decline, recourse. 2) Recognition of originality of Russian economic system in general and the peasant with its community, artel, etc. in particular. 3) Ignoring of communication of "intelligency" and juridichesko - political establishments of the country with material interests 57 Certain public classes ». As the class essence of socialists-revolutionaries was shown in process of growth of country movement, PSR, according to V.I.Lenina, more and more expressed interests and moods of peasantry, in certain degree was their ideologist. Errors and errors of socialists-revolutionaries consisted, marked V.I.Lenin, in that, as on peasantry and on bourgeoisie they looked more often as at abstraction, out of their possible evolution in the present and the future. As the resolution of V congress RSDRP marked, populists, including esery, «more or less close express interests and the point of view of broad masses of rural and small city bourgeoisie». In the basic philosophical work «Materialism and empiriokrititsizm» B. I.Lenin criticised V.M.Chernova in this occasion 16 раз111. He underlined, that «the small-scale production gives rise to capitalism and bourgeoisie constantly, daily, hourly, is spontaneous and in mass scale» 112. V.I.Lenina's newspaper article «Experience of classification of Russian political parties» has appeared in the autumn of 1906. In it it was underlined, that revolution and new election campaign demanded distinct definition of the relation to various parties, and «it is possible only on the basis of scientific, i.e. their class analysis» 113. V.I.Lenin named five basic types of the Russian political parties: 1) chernosotentsy; 2) oktjabristy; 3) Cadets; 4) trudoviki and 5) social democrats. In same article socialists-revolutionaries have been carried by V.I.Lenin to «to parties radical or radikalnichajushchej petty bourgeoisie». In «the project of the reference to voters» (November, 1906) 114 and article «Political parties in Russia» (May, 1912) 115 V.I.Lenin in a certain measure has repeated this characteristic, having written, that the party eserov is, in effect, not that other, as fraction of bourgeois democracy, fraction on the structure mainly intellectual, on the point of view mainly petty-bourgeois, on a theoretical banner - eclectically connecting the newest opportunism and starodedovskoe populism. Estimating results of I congress PSR, V.I.Lenin has stated an estimation to the inner-party currents which have appeared in эсеров environment: «the s.-river party at the first attempt a little opened and how many - nibud testifying to presence of the valid party membership of performance has broken up to three currents: 1) left -« extremists », 2) the centre - esery old type and 3) right - opportunists» 116. Later in article «As socialists - revolutionaries sum up revolution and as revolution has summed up to socialists-revolutionaries» the leader of Bolsheviks wrote: «Esery all time hid and could not hide the fluctuation between enesami and extremists» 117. In a number of V.I.Lenin's works has stated an estimation to tactics eserov in autocracy. In 1902 the leader of Bolsheviks in article «Why social democracy should declare resolute and ruthless war to socialists-revolutionaries?» Has condemned individual terror eserov: «In practice terror of socialists - of revolutionaries is than other, as single combat, Entirely condemned experience of history »118. Terror, according to Century And. Lenin, - the phenomenon class. Its individual character not Has strong communication with a revolutionary class what is Proletariat. At the same time V.I.Lenin has given as a whole Positive estimation to other tactical directions in Activity eserov, namely to agrarian terror and ekspropriatsijam. In work «Guerrilla war» the leader Bolsheviks spoke about ekspropriatsijah, as «to the exclusive To the form of social struggle which have apprehended bosjacheskie Population elements, ljumpeny and anarchist groups »119, and Specified, that for example, the Marxism differs from «all Primitive forms of socialism that does not connect movement with Any one certain form of struggle, and demands 68 Historical consideration of a question on struggle forms ». According to L.B.Kameneva, party occurrence eserov communicated with specific interests of two forces, «not having the socialist future: intelligency and Peasantry »120. In V.M.Chernovu's answer« Decomposition es - 70 erov », L.B.Kamenev characterised party eserov« as tipichnointelligentskuju the organisation, with strongly expressed gravitation 71 To peasantry ». This"combination", in its opinion, has not stood test by time. On the one hand, the party has not executed the problems in peasantry in revolution 1 ROZKOT, with another - intellectual elements have come off weights, having created the, already purely intellectual groups« national socialists »with liberal smack and left eserov - with smack obviously анархическим121. As believed JI.Б.Каменев, the party eserov «was created not as reflexion of constant force, and as a time combination. While a social democracy problem was the organisation of working class for struggle for ultimate goals, and a democracy gain only an episode... For populism this episode settled all» 122. The populism, in understanding JI.Б.Каменева, «as reflexion of expectations and aspirations of the peasantry knocked down by the landowner will die, when the autocracy in Russia» will be destroyed. However, JI.Б.Каменев stipulated conditions for existence in poslerevoljutsionnoj Russia a democratic mass peasants party: if «the old populism» throws out an intellectual habit for a board to shake between liberalism and anarchism and will definitively refuse the claims for socialism. In its opinion, for populism after revolution 1905-1907 there has come an epoch of full revision of all "values" of its program and тактики123 of which they have not taken advantage. Socialism eserov, on JI. B.Kamenevu - «petty-bourgeois, petty-bourgeois». In it the enormous role was played by purely intellectual tendencies of individual terrorist struggle against autocracy. The same intellectual groups Constantly "capitulated" to cadets, have shown the full inability to resist to liberalism. Characterising party eserov during the interrevolutionary period, JI. B.Kamenev has stopped on these two aspects: dependences eserovskoj ideologies and politicians from bourgeois liberalism, and also «intellectual renunciation» of revolutionary mass struggle and the unscrupulous adventurism propagandised by B.V.Savinkovym in the novels «the Horse pale» and «what was not». Inclined to aphoristic nature J1. D.Trotsky opredelennee other social democrats has expressed aversion of that propagandised esery, having stuck the Russian peasant a label «Janus in bast shoes». To socialists-revolutionaries JI.Д.Троцкий incriminated unscientific nature, reactionism of "country socialism», "melkoburzhuaznost". Special fault eseram made «zatushevyvanie class distinctions between proletariat and peasantry, entering of split into proletarian numbers». On L.D.Trotskogo's belief, «the city is more conscious and obrazovannee than village - and consequently the proletariat should be the leader of country movement» 124. L.D.Trotsky also has stated the estimation eserovskoj to the Fighting organisation and, in particular, to E.F.Azefu. «Secret azefshchiny - out of most Azefa; it - in that hypnosis which allowed its associates to put on party a finger in ulcers of provocation and to deny these ulcers; in that collective hypnosis which not Azefom has been created, and terror as system. That value what on party tops gave to terror, has led, on the one hand, to construction absolutely isolated fighting nadpartijnoj to the organisation which have become by the obedient weapon in hands Azefa, with another - to creation round it the persons successfully practising terror. Already Gershuni has surrounded the place with a semimystical aura in the opinion of the party. Azef has inherited from Gershuni the aura together with a post of the head of the fighting organisation» 125. It is more than attention contemporaries gave to practical realisation of the basic ideological principles of socialists - of revolutionaries and, in particular, to terror, and also their participation in revolution 1905-1907гг. D.S.Merezhkovsky and Z.N.Gippius, mirovozzrencheski far from revolutionaries, nevertheless saw in heroism and sacrifice of terrorists, in unity of their life and belief unconsciously religious relation to freedom. In the researches devoted to revolutionary movement, a number of authors, including eserovskih, marked accruing influence of party among proletariat, peasantry and the soldier's weights, especially shown in revolution 1905-1907, and also the reasons of the subsequent неудач126. In particular, K.R.Kocharovsky's visible populist wrote: «Socialists-revolutionaries in five years - 1902-1906'гг. - have gained huge victories - have won almost all peasantry (in the person of"conscious"elements), half of the revolutionary intelligency, an appreciable part of proletariat (in Petrograd - half), but have not broken sotsial - democracy definitively. Also could not make it for the reason however idle time, so deep: they have not opposed to their doctrine the doctrine. But only it could give a full victory to populism for for it waited and thirsted for Russian people, - 78 Also waits and thirsts for each people in the world from socialism ». Unlike the predecessors - revolutionary populists, socialists-revolutionaries did not deny presence of capitalist way in a national economy, but specified in its weak development. In Russia they regarded the first revolution as intermediate between bourgeois and socialist. As the main problem esery considered entering of consciousness into spontaneous movement of country and working weights. But unlike Bolsheviks esery did not underestimate a role of the person in history and independent movement of weights, that is 79 Spontaneity of revolution. Under the influence of PSR and at it Direct participation have been formed All-Russia The country union, the unions of intelligency and employees. Never In Russia it was not observed such quantity of the most different Public actions and periodicals. As mushrooms After a rain, one for another there were political parties 80 The most different directions. And the Party of socialists - of revolutionaries has appeared the unique, real competitor of other socialist direction of the theory and practice - social democracy. Thus, in autocracy there was extensive enough literature about PSR, having the strongly pronounced politized character and which with konservativnoohranitelnyh, liberal, social democratic and 78 GARF. Ф.5847. Оп.1. Д.67. Л.40, 41. 79 RGASPI. Ф.274. Оп.1. Д.5. Л.12. 80 Tjutjukin S.V.decree. soch. С.11. narodnicheskih positions considered party history eserov from the moment of its occurrence and till 1917. As a rule, eserovskie authors aspired to show the reasons of formation PSR, to popularise the party program on agrarian, national, working, municipal and to other questions to create an image «true fighters with autocracy». Their opponents - Conservatives, liberals and especially social democrats shined the separate plots connected with a concrete embodiment during a life eserovskih ideologem, aspiring to show their utopianism and naivety (first of all on an agrarian question and individual terror). It is necessary to ascertain, that such questions as a party social base, its structure, practical activities, have appeared during this period are shined avariciously for the reasons of absence of scientific interest, political angazhirovannosti authors, konspirativnosti PSR. Pre-revolutionary historians and publicists characterised PSR as structure, free from the forms, adjoining on laxity. P.N.Miljukov, P.B.Struve, V.I.Lenin, J.O.Martov, L.D.Trotsky, L.B.Kamenev explained amorphy of party eserov razmytostju a social base, differentiation of interests and distinction of the status of the social groups which are a basis of party. In their opinion, the ideological tolerance erected eserami in a rank of party building and caused by aspiration to unite whenever possible as it is possible bolshy a spectrum of oppositional forces, has led to absence of internal unity, existence of fractions. «The full confusion, full inability to understand though something from this, that occurs at all on eyes, wreck of all hopes, all ideology and struggle methods, in other words, capitulation in the face of counterrevolution - here a picture of our revolutionary populism in all its shades» - such characteristic Parties of socialists-revolutionaries has given out Russian sotsial - 81 Democracy in 1909. * * * * So, association narodnicheskih groups in Russia and behind its limits in Party of socialists-revolutionaries remains noticed by contemporaries as PSR has incurred responsibility for accurately planned and often successful attempts at representatives of the government in Sankt - Petersburg, Moscow and other regions. In connection with the obvious importance of this party in the Russian political life of the beginning of XX century, a number state, public and the politicians, representing time absolutely opposite ideological concepts, have devoted the publications to the analysis of its activity. Already from the moment of the occurrence the Party of socialists-revolutionaries has appeared in epicentre of the sharpest ideological struggle. Secondly, istochnikovaja the base of an initial stage of a historiography of Party of socialists-revolutionaries represented various on type, a kind and an origin documents. It included as policy statements eserov, containing theoretical positions narodnicheskoj the state system concept, and a various sort the appeals reflecting problems and tactics eserov in struggle against autocracy. In 1911 materials have been published is judicial - court of inquiry at Central Committee PSR on business Azefa. On occasion, for example, in manuals for military men of the separate D1 Kamenev J.Vokrug azefovshchiny//"Proletarian". №42. 1909. On February, 12th. Cases of gendarmes were involved the documents intended for inner-party using grasped at arrests eserov. At the same time secret character of activity PSR considerably limited istochnikovuju base of an initial stage of a historiography. Thirdly, the organisation of researches of history PSR was formed basically within the limits of propaganda projects of other parties and carried out in the form of istoriko-party sketches. The major methodological principle of studying of parties already then was partijno-class. Fourthly, in the majority of publications of the period of autocracy, behind an exception, naturally, frankly monarchic, parties eserov the place of the full was taken away The participant of a political life of the country, playing the role in 82 To party structure of a society. "Annals" of a party life of the country which was conducted by liberals, social democrats and esery, represented the initial operative sketch of scientific history of time. It was distinguished by haste of conclusions, political pointedness and nothing the covered tendentiousness. Moreover, almost all authors of the given stage unilateral estimations of many events and the phenomena, the extreme points of view, an illustrative method according to the facts are inherent in judgements. So, for example V.I.Lenin, putting forward in many respects interesting ideas in the methodological relation, did not adhere to them in About? As confirmed L.B.Kamenev, «any public group has the right to die, only having resolved the problems put before it... The Populism - in the broad sense of the word - as reflexion of expectations and aspirations of the peasantry knocked down by the landowner, will die, when the autocracy in Russia» will be destroyed. Kamenev L.B.decomposition es-erov//Between two revolutions. M, 2003. С.227. To practical research work, being guided by concrete interests of political strike. Fifthly, in struggle against autocracy bases for subsequent, really scientific studying PSR have been put in pawn, history concepts eserov which have received the further development both in domestic, and in a foreign historiography were generated. Well-known, that sotsial - democratic, including Menshevist approaches to studying eserov became a methodological basis of works of the Soviet historians. In turn concepts of representatives of an is conservative-guarding direction have formed a basis of works of some the western "Sovietologists" representing so-called "traditional" school.
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A source: Kononenko, Anatoly Anatolevich. Historiography of the creation and activities of the Socialist Revolutionary Party in the years 1901-1922. / Thesis / Tyumen - 2005. 2005

More on topic the Beginning of studying of history of Party of socialists - of revolutionaries:

  1. CHAPTER 6. Studying of history of Party of socialists - revolutionaries the Russian emigrants and foreign researchers
  2. 3.2. Studying of history of socialists-revolutionaries in the early thirties - the middle of 1950th
  3. 4.1. Party of socialists-revolutionaries as object of scientific researches
  4. 6.1. The Russian emigrants about Party of socialists - of revolutionaries
  5. Kononenko, Anatoly Anatolevich Istoriografija. of creation and activity of party of socialists-revolutionaries in 1901-1922 / the Dissertation / Tyumen, 2005
  6. Researchers about socialists - revolutionaries after autocracy overthrow
  7. 1.1. Theoretical approaches to studying of history of party eserov
  8. 5.1. Studying of genesis of party eserov
  9. § 1. Language on arms of party ideology of the beginning of the XX-th century
  10. 4.2. History studying levonarodnicheskih parties and the organisations
  11. § 1. Studying history
  12. 1.3. History of studying of an epithet
  14. History of studying of a biological variety
  16. history of studying of advertising in a humanitarian paradigm
  17. the Appendix 9. A writing-book for independent works on studying of history of local edge
  18. 1.2. The second stage of studying of antiquities katakombnogo time in pool of the Top Don (the beginning of 60th - the end of 80th of the XX-th century)
  19. chapter 1. History of studying of irony: from antiquity to the PRESENT