the Conclusion

the Historiography of creation and activity of Party of socialists - of revolutionaries has passed a difficult and inconsistent way of development. The first impulse of the reference to the given problematics has been set both eserami, and their political opponents soon after party occurrence.
Historiography formation eserov occurred under the influence of a number of the factors which role varied in due course. At the beginning interest to party history eserov "was warmed up" by political and ideological struggle in Russia in which socialists - revolutionaries accepted the most active participation, then - aspiration of the Soviet historiography to prove legitimacy of an one-party mode and its representatives who have won in Civil war. Actions of the parties representing alternative visions of the future of Russia, including eserov, appeared obviously illegal. The mite in a problem historiography was brought by ideological opposition between Soviet and emigrantsko - foreign directions in studying eserov. Then actually scientific factors began to influence formation of historiography PSR, such as opening of archives, holding conferences, the organisation of problem councils, a historiographic fashion, research interest. Conditionally in a party historiography eserov it is possible to allocate a number of the periods differing among themselves on volume of solved problems, statement of problems, to a condition istochnikovoj bases, methodological approaches. In our opinion, in a domestic historiography eserov was five basic periods of generalisation of historical knowledge: 1901 - 1917, 1917 - the end of 1920th, the beginning 1930 - the middle of 1950th, the middle 1950 - the end 1980 h, the end 1980 - the beginning of 2000th years. In a foreign historiography of Party of socialists-revolutionaries it is necessary to designate two periods: the beginning 1920 - the end of 1930th, the beginning 1950 - the beginning of 2000th years. History PSR even during party existence became time and again a subject of fierce political debates. The same destiny has comprehended domestic historiography PSR which for decades of the development has passed difficult enough way, having reflected fluctuations of a political conjuncture and change of imperious modes. During present time when the public situation has radically changed, the economy became again multistructure, the one-party political system has left in the past, possibilities have opened and there were requirements for really scientific studying of history of party eserov. To realise these requirements and possibilities, it is necessary to get rid, first of all, from excessive ideologizatsii and political partiality with which from the moment of the occurrence the historiography of Party of socialists-revolutionaries suffered not less, than a historiography of other politically engaged themes. The historiography eserov in autocracy practically did the first steps. Besides in imperial Russia scientific studying of activity of revolutionary parties was not welcomed, it was faster a prerogative of the guarding organisations. Despite it, a number of approaches and the estimations sounded by representatives of various directions of socially - political thought, has made certain impact on the subsequent studying of history of Party of socialists - of revolutionaries. In struggle against autocracy bases for subsequent, really scientific studying PSR have been put in pawn, history concepts eserov, received the further development both in domestic, and in a foreign historiography were generated.
After Bolshevist revolution in the USSR special establishments, scientific councils on studying of history of parties, first of all Bolshevist have been created, numerous shots of researchers are prepared, coordination of their actions on the scale of all country is adjusted. At the same time rigid frameworks of official communistic ideology essentially held down creative process of scientists according to history PSR. The considerable attention was given first of all to display "conciliatory", and then "counterrevolutionary" activity of Party of socialists-revolutionaries. The great value in a theme historiography had studying of problems of allocation from PSR parties left eserov, bolyyevistsko - levoeserovskogo the block and its disintegration. Without research of this union, according to the Soviet historians, it was impossible to generate objective representations about folding in the USSR of an one-party system. The given questions were to some extent shined at all stages of the Soviet historiography, and it became in works of the most various level, character, appointment. In 1917-1920th the Soviet literature about eserah had the purpose, mainly, to justify actions of Bolsheviks and to discredit socialists-revolutionaries. Compositions of those years were based on rather narrow circle of sources. Historians and politicians were excited mainly with a problem of political destruction PSR, errors and party miscalculations in struggle for the power. The scientific analysis was in most cases substituted for unfounded charges. Nevertheless, in 1917-1920th in the Soviet historiography a number by that, basically on history PSR in days of Civil war has been planned, the certain actual material is saved up, the basis for the subsequent development of a historical science in the USSR is put in pawn. Some steady stamps of the Soviet propagation of 1920th (About a "petty-bourgeois" essence of socialists - of revolutionaries, eserovskom terror against Bolshevist leaders, "kulatsko-eserovskih" mutinies, etc.) were strongly fixed in the domestic literature, and meet to this day. The following period (1930 - the middle of 1950th) is allocated with decrease in research interest to party history eserov, reduction of total of works, the superficial approach, opisatelstvom, bibliografichnostju, the analysis of history PSR only within the limits of struggle against them Bolsheviks. Source study PSR worried in 1930 - the beginning of 1950th full decline - accessible documents were not used even. Could not be and speeches About the publication of materials on history PSR (in 1920th they still met). Interest to studying of history of the Russian political parties has revived in second half 1950th, having reflected favorable consequences of some indulgence of a political mode in the USSR. Sources on history PSR became more accessible, the considerable quantity has gradually been entered into a scientific turn eserovskih documents from the central and local archives. And though the party history eserov still long time was studied only against struggle against them Bolsheviks, interest to the analysis of activity most PSR, its evolutions gradually increased. In the USSR research process has accepted the systematised, purposeful forms, and at direct participation of the state. Such state of affairs has affected in the double image results of activity of scientists. On the one hand, various establishments and specialised councils about studying of history of parties have been created, certain scientific shots are prepared, coordination of their creative efforts, especially after carrying out of some conferences is adjusted. On the other hand, researchers have been compelled to work in rigid frameworks of official ideology and to use uniform methodology. Naturally, inconsistent there was also a final analysis of considered process. In whole he can be characterised as artificial synthesis enough high level of the best works of the Soviet historiography and excessively politized, quite often torn off from a reality, generalising conclusions. In this situation especially careful analysis of the corresponding literature as it perfectly reflects process of political evolution of the whole epoch in domestic history is necessary. Revaluation practically all positions of the Soviet history, begun in the late eighties and especially actively proceeded in 1990th, has mentioned a party historiography eserov. Today more than obviously, that the unequivocal estimation of activity PSR at modern generation of domestic and foreign historians cannot be. Though costs of change of a research paradigm should affect a historical science of 1990th, for a party historiography eserov last decade did not become "lost". The majority of authors has refused statements of the Soviet historiography and consider activity PSR as one of possible variants of socialist development of the country, not realised for a variety of causes, such, as: the weakest party discipline mismatching a course of revolutionary changes the concept of the civil world in 1917 The compelled correction of terms of carrying out of an agrarian reform and then - confusion, strategic and tactical errors, splits among eserov, the retaliatory policy of the Bolshevist and White Guard authorities, etc. In a modern Russian science have affirmed, thus, many theses of a foreign historiography stated still during the period of "cold war. At the same time domestic historians have managed to put variety of new problems and it is essential to add developed representations about party history eserov. Creation of a new scientific picture of history PSR is promoted by publication and involving process in a scientific turn of the sources which use was impossible earlier or is complicated. To number of the most significant questions which have received illumination in the domestic literature, the reasons of occurrence of Party of socialists-revolutionaries, its genesis, a social base, number at different stages, the party program, quantity and placing of the organisations, mutual relations with other parties and public organisations, the relation to a political system, strategy and tactics, the internal and external reasons of defeat and leaving from historical arena concern. As consequence, researchers managed to reveal a party place, as in imperial, and the Soviet Russia. Special interest of researchers has caused the period Great ! The Russian revolution 1917-1922 when PSR has appeared not only as legal party, but also it has appeared the most mass political organisation of the country. Achievements of a historiography in the field of split studying eserovskih the organisations in 1917 are considerable. Scientists have come to conclusion, that process of consolidation left eserov has displayed a situation occurring in politically active part of a society which insisted on the immediate termination of war, an establishment of the power of Councils of all levels, creation of the homogeneous socialist government. Despite lacking special generalising works on problems of mutual relations of Party of socialists - Revolutionaries and peasantry, their alliance always was in sight of historians who have come to conclusion about considerable disagreements between partners concerning socialism construction in Russia, that as a result has led to deep crisis of party, and in a consequence and to its defeat. Active studying of the reasons of political destruction PSR, destinies of the former party members in 1920 1930th This process, closely co-operating became the pleasant phenomenon, goes at two levels - all-Russian and regional, that creates a necessary basis for creation of large generalising works on history PSR, necessity in which is obvious. And if the purpose of the all-Russian researches is the history image eserov as a whole necessity of the regional approach is caused by that allows to reveal features of a problem, to show individual, characteristic lines inherent in exclusively regional party structures. Not a secret, that in separate years of the first quarter of XX century along with easing of traditional vertical communications the periphery role has essentially increased. The success of the actions spent by the centre, depended on how them will apprehend and realise regional authorities in which esery at times played the leading part, and on occasion and headed them. Summing up, it is necessary to designate three modern variants eserovskoj the paradigms, formulated by domestic and foreign historians: 1. The Eserovsky concept of agrarian modernisation of Russia Could result the country in the industrial Urbanistic society, at preservation of traditional culture. 2. The program eserov represented The socialist Utopia promoting to increase industrially - industrial and agrarian backlog of Russia from the West countries. 3. The party eserov is estimated as sotsialnodemokraticheskoe reformist movement The European type, on the one hand, and radikalnoekstremistskaja, the destructive group which has cleared the way for a totalitarian mode, with another. At the same time we will notice what early to stop on reached in questions of revealing of number and social composition PSR. This direction demands creation of uniform criteria and a technique of statistical calculations. Search of the new sources containing personal data about leaders eserov, the facts of their participation in acts of terrorism, in activity of Fighting organisation PSR, in the state and public structures, trade-union and co-operative movement is necessary. It is impossible to consider finished studying of history of attempts on V.I.Lenina. Contacts eserov with proletariat mass organisations are only fragmentary reflected. Same it is possible to tell about their communications with revolutionary representatives of army. At last, would be useful to make the chronicle of party life PSR (1901-1922). It is important to continue studying of various forms of activity eserov in prisons, on penal servitude, in settlement places. In this case the uniform technique of the account of their organisations, libraries, political performances, runaways on will during the pre-revolutionary period and after political amnesty of 1917 is desirable. It is necessary to find out degree of influence of socialists - of revolutionaries on local residents, to establish character of their mutual contacts. It is useful to track from the scientific point of view evolution of sights of members PSR, in the First World War. Thus rather interesting the question on perception eserami ideas oboronchestva and porazhenchestva is represented. Till now there were not considered questions of joint struggle against autocracy of socialists-revolutionaries and sotsial - democrats. Party and human relations, certainly, should intertwine. From these positions the given problem was never considered, as well as questions of tactics developed subsequently the left block. Insufficiently developed question of financing of party eserov at different stages of its existence waits for the researchers. Experience of studying of history of Party of socialists-revolutionaries proves fruitfulness of its consideration as a whole as uniform organism. However it does not exclude research of separate aspects and stages of a party life. Researchers do not create yet a complete scientific picture of history of Party of socialists - of revolutionaries though the similar work devoted to history PLSR, was highly appreciated both foreign, and the Russian colleagues. Fruitful research of history of party eserov in many respects could be promoted by the active publication corresponding bibliographic, • documentary, Source study editions. Certain steps to this direction are already made by publishing house "РОССПЭН" that underlines importance of continuation of this work. Publication and involving process in a scientific turn of new sources creates a necessary basis for creation of large generalising works on history PSR in 1917-1920th, the requirement in which is obvious, as well as in the integral work similar existing in 60-80th of XX century CPSU History. The history of Party of socialists-revolutionaries is closely connected with # The major events of history of Russia the first quarter of the XX-th century. Its studying expands our representations about a political life of the country, an essence of the Russian revolutions, the reasons of a victory of a Bolshevist variant of modernisation of Russia, and defeat liberal and is moderate socialist parties. The tendency which has outlined in 1990th years to unbiassed studying of party eserov, along with the publication and use as more as possible a wide range of sources, allows to hope for occurrence of new researches in which this work will be continued. ?
<< | >>
A source: Kononenko, Anatoly Anatolevich. Historiography of the creation and activities of the Socialist Revolutionary Party in the years 1901-1922. / Thesis / Tyumen - 2005. 2005

More on topic the Conclusion:

  1. the Conclusion
  4. the Conclusion
  5. the Conclusion
  7. the Pathomorphologic conclusion
  13. the Conclusion
  15. the Conclusion
  18. the Conclusion
  20. the Conclusion