1.1. Theoretical approaches to studying of history of party eserov

The theoretical analysis of concept "party" has allowed modern researchers to offer its following definition: «Party - an active part of a society (group of people), in most cases the adherents, united in the political organisation which is setting as the purpose realisation of political interests not only the members, but also a certain part of the people.
A party functional purpose - a gain and government realisation; thus the party is guided by a set ideologem» 10. In antiquity political parties represented the legal groupings of the citizens which have arisen for the purpose of achievement of certain political and clan interests. Later, at Middle Ages stage, political parties were estimated as religious-political structures of the closed type as which example can serve gvelfy and gibelliny, Giza and Huguenots. From the end of XVIII century political parties began to get lines of the klassovo-political organisations. Especially obviously this tendency was showed in Great French bourgeois revolution and traditionally associates with zhirondistami and jakobintsami. According to T.Gobbsa, the reason of origin of political parties consisted in the spirit of contradictions between people, them интересами11. Parties were perceived as political The institute embodying human rights to association with others as the form of display of personal freedom (A de Tokvil). At a stage of mass parties of XIX century researchers have revealed in them of the carrier rallying people of "ideal", the doctrine, (B.Konstan's) doctrine. In the end of XIX century of party already aspire to subordinate all displays of political activity of the person (M.J.Ostrogorsky) 12, and K.Marks in parties has seen the tool of "updating" of mankind. Though in the historical literature in lots frequently Were called as the clans developing round any kondotera in Italy epoch of the Renaissance, and the committees preparing qualification elections in the Great Britain of the Victorian period, the present parties in their modern understanding have arisen only in Europe and the USA in 1870-1880th years. The bases of the political sociology which has been put in pawn in the end of XIX - the beginning of XX centuries E.Djurkgejma, M.J.Ostrogorskogo, M.Vebera, R.Mihelsa's works have allowed to draw a conclusion on political parties as the organisations developing in indissoluble communication with wreck absoljutistskih of feudal modes, soslovnoierarhicheskoj structures of a medieval society and The authoritative political power. In their opinion, party Arise during an epoch of formation of the general suffrage as a unique way legitimatsii the power and qualitative expansion of the rights of parliament. Agreeing as a whole with the given conclusion, we will notice, that process of occurrence of political parties though passed in Russia under obvious influence of the West, in something repeating it, but at the same time had also national features. In particular, in occurrence of domestic political parties in Russia was absent both the suffrage, and parliament or body, its replacing. In the West the majority of parties was created from parliamentary fractions or in elections in power representative bodies. In autocratic Russia many parties have arisen even before Duma creation though as has fairly noticed S.V.Leonov, «elections in I State Duma have played, probably, a main role in registration of the majority of parties» 13.
As basis for occurrence of political parties the social generality of groups and corporate interests in the West served. In Russia, «combining in themselves some historical and cultural age, from the early Middle Ages till XX century» 14, accurately structured social interests were absent; thus, the Russian parties quite corresponded to features and a level of development of the Russian society. The order of occurrence of parties in Russia is unique also. «The national will» (1879-1881) was the first organisation which has declared the party status. Then organizational Socialist national parties of Armenia, Georgia, Poland and Lithuania, having numerous national diasporas in more developed, than Russia, the countries of Europe were issued. Only after that the all-Russian socialist parties began to be created. As separate researchers believe, political parties in Russia were actually spread интеллигенцией15. In their opinion, they were for Russia the phenomenon alien, alien, foreign. V.N.Brovkina's maxim that esery have appeared the unique large Russian party leaning not on foreign, and on Russian on the roots идеологию16 is interesting thereupon. In certain degree occurrence of parties in Russia has reflected the conflict between standing on the agenda Modernisation and traditsionalizmom. S.V.Leonov marks: «owing to the Russian traditions and nestrukturirovannosti social interests the ideology not only played the leading part in a parties creation, their models of statehood, but dominated in their practical activities» 17 more often. Rather independent role of ideology has resulted the domestic partogenez to such lines, as divisibility, instability, Radicalism and oppozitsionnost. And intelligency Compensated in this process a role and not issued Russian bourgeoisie. As consequence, many Russian parties of less European "coincided" with classes and large social groups. Among the characteristic signs inherent in programs of the Russian political parties of the first quarter of XX century, modern historians have noticed also such, as accent on strengthening of a role of the state in economy, social and other spheres. According to researchers, this requirement was inherent both conservative, and radical партиям10. At the same time Programs of radicals differed presence of unrealistic doctrines, their state models recklessly taken in the basic points from the Western Europe. Among them experts mark: the general and equal suffrage, democratic freedom, the 8-sentry the working day, which Were absent in more developed and more democratic, than autocratic Russia, the West countries. Domestic parties were faster «the great parties anxious more Adherence to principles, rather than in what can result following to these principles »18. Their foggy and ambiguous doctrines of a state system combined in themselves liberal and radical values. Against occurrence and growth of quantity of socialist parties in the West R.Mihels, M.Veber, M.J.Ostrogorsky dominations of the party have seen the tendency to increase of a role of party devices to the detriment of private soldiers partijtsam, bjurokratizatsii, Leaders and elite. In their opinion, the given aspect was showed in technical inability of the big weight of people to management, in a management irremovability. And ideology gradually It was introduced in a victim to a naked pragmatism, success on elections, parties turned to type associations «all suffice» 19. Then M.Veber has formulated a conclusion about parties as associations where members of the organisation try to achieve the power for the leaders capable further to provide «spiritual and material advantages» to active members партий20. Basically at all levels of socialist parties selectivity reigns, but in practice powerful oligarchical tendencies are found out. Much more important role in the party is played by the doctrine as personal rivalry takes the form of struggle of various ideological currents. Besides, the party falls outside the limits actually a policy, grasping economic, social, family and other spheres. At studying of political parties in Europe there are approaches where the attention is accented on organizational aspects of activity of parties. So, in particular, R.Mihels asserts, that political parties, like any hierarchically constructed organisation, inevitably degenerate in this or that form of oligarchy; democracy is impossible owing to human nature, essence of political strike and the institute of the organisation. Parties start to be considered as an integral part of the state political system (M.Djuverzhe); and also as the organisations aspiring to support of the people for the purpose of reception of the authorities (J. La the Half-barn, M.Vejner) 21. Modern American political scientist S.Koen allocates four types of parties: party - avant-guard of a class (a Lenin estimation); party for elections (USA); parliamentary party (Europe); party - club with a generality of sights, interests and inquiries. Functions of parties by researchers are subdivided on internal and external. The party budget, Central Committee elections, maintenance of relations concern the internal between party bureaucracy and rank-and-file members. To external - changes of the higher political power, institutsializatsija political participation of citizens, selection and rekrutirovanie political leaders and elite, political socialisation. Researchers carry participation in elections, propaganda, change of structure of ruling group to the basic methods of party activity at the expense of own представителей22. The overwhelming part of foreign researches of political parties, according to the large French political scientist M.Djuverzhe ^ is connected mainly with their analysis доктрин23. Such orientation follows from liberal representation about party in which it is considered, first of all as ideological association. «The party is a generality of the persons publicly professing the same doctrine», - wrote B.Kostan in 1816. This concept has led to occurrence of set of the interesting researches opening more likely history of political ideas, than history of political parties. Within the limits of comparative studying of parties foreign colleagues were limited almost exclusively to the description of influence of doctrines on structures which is much less significant, than it is accepted To think. D.JUm it is thin has noticed in the «Experience about parties» (1760), that the program plays the basic role the first stages of formation of parties when it serves association Isolated individuals, but then on the foreground leaves The organisation whereas the platform becomes only an accessory, 24 - Better also you will not tell! According to M.Djuverzhe, the essence of political parties, on the contrary, more full and most deeply reveals in their organisation; the party is a generality on the basis of certain organizational structure; character of these structural base units and a way of their integration into a single whole essentially influences its social-class structure and doktrinalnoe unity; efficiency of activity of party and even principles and methods of this activity are most directly defined by the most steady characteristic of party — its base organizational structure. The Marxist concept of party - a class, replaced the liberal concept of party - doctrines, focused scientific researches in other direction. Communications between a standard of living, a trade, education, an origin were studied. These researches are rather essential, though are not indisputable. Nevertheless and such scheme in something is justified: the bourgeoisie and proletariat, perhaps, also do not form two classes which are in strictly economic interrelation, but they characterise two social statuses, two way of life which accurate distinction clears up the problems, concerning structures of parties, their ideological платформ25. Investigating essence and various forms of social alienation, K.Marks fairly criticised practice of parliamentarism, formality of the rights and freedom of the person in klassovo the divided society. Having incorporated to working class struggle, its doctrine has put in pawn bases of essentially new type of the political organisations - the mass socialist parties which have become by one of the important factors of the statement and practical realisation of the general suffrage and as it is represented, enormous expansion of the democracy and its exit on new qualitative level. A priori it seems, that as the main motive power of formation of political associations the generality of political doctrines acts. However the facts not always confirm this assumption. Frequently it appears, that the first impulse gives desire to protect professional interests, and only then there is a doctrine. A huge role in formation of political parties can play both secret societies, and underground groups. In that and other case it is a question of the organisations created in political ends, but an operating out of electoral and parliamentary field; the first - because do not want, the second - because cannot, being all time under the threat of an interdiction from the outside. When interdiction threat disappears, underground groupings tend to be transformed to parties. The given structures are characterised as the discrete organisations (i.e. modest, constrained, undercover). In our case - underground. Such is an origin of Party of socialists - of revolutionaries. Moreover, it is necessary to ascertain at once influence of genesis of party on its definitive structure. In a case with socialists - revolutionaries clearly, that the support on the underground organisations was justified also by possibility quickly to reproduce structure of a secret society if the governmental prosecutions compel it to make. There is variety of the external reasons which influence genesis of party and which should be considered in historical and historiographic researches. It is necessary to carry influence of social relations, spiritual factors, banks, the enterprises, industrial groups to them, both domestic, and foreign. In this case it is difficult to be beyond the general reasonings, reasons and hypotheses as intervention of these structures is always surrounded by deep confidentiality. But what were sources of parties of an external origin, i.e. not created within the precincts of parliament, they possess the whole complex of signs which accurately enough distinguish them from the parties which have arisen in electoral and parliamentary process. First of all the big centralisation is usually peculiar to them. The first begin with formation of the Central Committee, the second - from local structures. In a case with PSR committees and the local organisations were established at the initiative of the centre in which head there is a person which name is pledge at reception of financing from external structures or persons. In PSR such people, certainly, were V.M.Chernov, M.R.Gots, G.A.Gershuni and E.k.breshko-Breshkovsky. Strictly adhering to a basic principle of a historical materialism about a main role of broad masses in history, the Soviet historians, unfortunately, often bypassed other remark of founders of Marxism that the destiny of movement, especially in the beginning, in many respects depends on character of people at the head его26. Thereupon there is a question, how much western models of political sociology are entered in the Russian validity, whether they are adequate to it? Perhaps, the way is comprehensible to Russia to a democratic society certain reduced, passing formation of political parties. Probably, domination of the "big" money, selective technologies and some kind of plebistsitarnoj democracies when «the administrative resource» becomes the main tool of struggle for voices of voters, compensates a long way to a lawful state and a civil society? Hardly it is possible to agree with such judgement. Original value of the western models consists in ability to represent itself as explanatory and prognosticheskih principles. Not Party of socialists-revolutionaries followed "stack" in system of foreign approaches, and opposite, approaches to apply to the history analysis eserov to comprehend their essence. Most accurately modern approach to history illumination narodnicheskih parties the one-volume encyclopaedia «has reflected Political parties of Russia. The end XIX - first third of XX-th century». (M, 1996) where it is spoken: «Both Russian, and world experience convinces, that neither on the social composition, nor on social groups and the layers which interests are declared in programs and slogans, is not present and there can not be purely class parties. But a problem of their classification nesvodima to programmar. In the Russian variant especially she demands The account and other characteristics: on mentality, methods 20 Achievements of the purposes, to political semantics etc. ». New approaches are visible and at the party characteristic eserov. Following places of the foreword testify To it at least:« In Concrete conditions of Russia any plans of a socialist reorganisation of a society had no real material preconditions for their realisation.... These preconditions aspired to find out in traditional structures, public moods and aspirations (a country community), in national mentality (alienation from a private property, a collectivism).... The Centre of gravity theoretical, and then and practical activities of parties and movements of socialist orientation was reduced to violent overthrow of an existing authoritative mode, a break of continuity of the power and creation essentially other system of a state system... Radical lomke, from the point of view of socialists, was subject both all former economic and financially-credit system of Russia. In essence it was a question of liquidation (at once or stage by stage) a private property and creation of economy of socialist type »27. Summing up, it is necessary to allocate the most essential theoretical positions on which basis the decision of the problems put in the dissertation is carried out: 1. Historically parties were born during an epoch when broad masses have started to enter into a political life really; they have created those necessary frameworks which have allowed them to put forward own elite from the environment. 2. Value of political parties is the deepest reveals that they lead to creation of the new elite returning to concept of representation of its people authentic - and as a matter of fact unique sense. t 3. The organisation of political parties, undoubtedly, mismatches democratic ortodoksii. Their internal structure on the most essence avtokratichna and oligarhichna. Despite external visibility, their heads actually are not put forward by party members, and co-opted or appointed the centre; they tend to form the supervising class isolated from active workers, a certain caste, more or less closed in themselves themselves. 1.2.
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A source: Kononenko, Anatoly Anatolevich. Historiography of the creation and activities of the Socialist Revolutionary Party in the years 1901-1922. / Thesis / Tyumen - 2005. 2005

More on topic 1.1. Theoretical approaches to studying of history of party eserov:

  1. 5.1. Studying of genesis of party eserov
  2. the Beginning of studying of history of Party of socialists - of revolutionaries
  3. CHAPTER 6. Studying of history of Party of socialists - revolutionaries the Russian emigrants and foreign researchers
  6. § 1. Studying history
  7. 4.2. History studying levonarodnicheskih parties and the organisations
  8. Various approaches to studying kauzativov.
  9. 1.3. History of studying of an epithet
  11. 3.2. Studying of history of socialists-revolutionaries in the early thirties - the middle of 1950th
  12. History of studying of a biological variety
  13. history of studying of advertising in a humanitarian paradigm
  14. 1. Methodological approaches to studying of legal responsibility
  15. the Appendix 9. A writing-book for independent works on studying of history of local edge
  16. chapter 1. History of studying of irony: from antiquity to the PRESENT
  17. 1.1. Ambiguity: kinds and approaches to studying
  18. the argument: the basic concepts and approaches to studying
  20. 2.1.0 new approaches to studying of development of the Soviet/Russian - Mongolian relations in first half of XX-th century