2.2. Mechanisms and factors of political socialisation in the Russian political space

Consideration of political socialisation as difficult dynamical process allows to speak about it as sets of factors, conditions, means, methods and to assume, thus, presence of certain mechanisms. Such approach is of great importance for adequate understanding of a role and a place of political socialisation of the person in a life of a modern society as forms representation about the given phenomenon, its essence and functions, and also the is social-psychological nature and the technological party of political socialisation.

Research of a problem of the person in political system and the further development of the concept of political socialisation has demanded profound studying of those intrapersonal mechanisms without which interaction of the person and a policy is impossible. To it pushed political scientists and inquiries of the practice requiring knowledge of how activity of political institutes, parties and the organisations is reflected in consciousness and behaviour of people; what psychological mechanisms operate political socialisation; that induces the person to political participation. Political practice, real political processes have put on the agenda a mastering problem psychological knowledge of the person. All leading parties are interested in reliable levers on behaviour of citizens, say, during elections. They are irritated by the processes occurring in individual and mass political consciousness: first of all growth of political cynicism, disbelief to the authorities, disappointment in ideology. Constant care of politicians is the motivation of participation of citizens in the official policy. Not less important for them to understand and those psychological reasons which lead to radical, antigovernmental activity, to participation in mass movements. We will allocate only three major psychological categories (consciousness, behaviour and motivation) which studying the practical policy especially requires.

Comprehension of importance of the human factor for the political analysis has led to occurrence of special area of researches on a psychology and political science joint — political psychology. Its formation occurred under the influence of opposite styles of political thinking and different approaches to the decision of practical problems, against struggle of two tendencies in the relation to the person in the politician: tehnokraticheski-manipuljatorskoj and humanistic.

In western political psychology HH of century orientation to a manipulation the person in political ends which is based on disbelief in reason and a civil maturity of the person prevailed. Psychological researches were expressly or by implication used by political practice and propagation for creation of "an image of the enemy» which serves as a substantiation for force application in international and in internal policy concerning those who does not divide belief in values of "the free West». These tehnokrati-cheski-manipuljatorskie installations dominate and in those concepts of socialisation which are based on bihevioristskoj psychology, internally it is similar to it.

However along with them approximately from the middle of 70th years in political psychology other treatments of the person in the politician in the West were put forward. In these treatments there are the first, still shy enough sprouts of that subsequently has been named by "new political thinking». Humanistic orientation of political researches is connected and with others

Theoretical approaches in psychology, first of all kognitivizmom and "humanistic" psychology.

The political psychology took on arms practically all existing models of the person.

Such schools, as biheviorizm, kognitivizm and "humanistic" psychology are most widely used for the political analysis.
Biheviorizm concentrates efforts to behavioural structures, neglecting value of consciousness, motivational characteristics of the person. Kognitivizm, on the contrary, concentrates on mechanisms of formation of political consciousness, «a political picture of the world», «political handwriting» individual. The "humanistic" psychology offers the model of socialisation where the main mechanism are requirements.

Considering group of psychological mechanisms of political socialisation we will stop on:

1. The behavioural;

2. Mechanisms of formation of political consciousness;

3. potrebnostnyh.

Political psychologists from all diverse displays of the person were involved, first of all, with a behaviour phenomenon: both for the theory, and for practice of a policy especially important as the person in this or that situation what will be its real actions — for or against the authorities will arrive.

The category "behaviour" cannot be useful to the description of corresponding forms of the political activity having external expression. It is possible to allocate the whole spectrum of various forms of political behaviour where enter as display of political activity in parties, movements, spontaneous actions, and cases switched off of political системы.1

The person and its behaviour in the politician are considered as the subject and object of political relations, and just as object of manipulation from system. Activity of the person in the politician cannot be shown only to external displays. In psychology discriminate forms of display of the person: instinctive, skills and reasonable, 1 where actually behaviour in narrow sense are skills. This psychological treatment should be considered in research of the most different kinds of political behaviour: aggression and solidarity, apathy and activity, revolutionary revolt against a mode and support of this mode, the protest and the adaptation.

Into a political science of idea biheviorizma have entered thanks to acquaintance of political scientists to works of known American psychologists of J. Dollar-yes, N.Millera and O.Maurera representing classical, or conventional, a variant of this theory. The problem of formation of behaviour in the course of socialisation was described by them as nauchenie the person to certain samples of behaviour under the influence of stimulus of an environment. Political scientists R.Sire, F.Grinstajn, R.Lane have transferred this representation on political processes. They have described political socialisation as nauchenie to certain forms of political behaviour, an event in the corresponding political environment, slightly having altered for this purpose the known formula «stimulus - reaction».

Ideas of the behavioural approach have received the development in research of various forms of aggressive behaviour, behaviour of the protest, revolutionary performances. Political psychologists leant thus against the so-called Jelsky model developed Dollardom still in 30th years for an explanation of formation of aggressive reactions. According to Dollardu, the aggressive behaviour is not congenital reaction, and result nauchenija. Such type of behaviour is formed in the course of socialisation, and to it precedes frustratsija. Studying socialisation experience, political bihevioristy hope to understand the reasons of wars, revolutions, conflicts and revolts. They search for these reasons in psychological dissatisfaction of any major human requirements which leads to aggressive behaviour.

As to actually psychological mechanisms of occurrence of aggressive behaviour they the person is formed and fixed in a course sotsiali-zatsii.1 During political socialisation gets experience frustratsii and aggressive behaviour which has individual character. Mechanical addition of experiences of set of individuals yet does not give experience of a class, the nation, партии.2 Besides, neither revolution, nor movement of the protest or discontent with any system it is impossible to reduce only to aggression display, that is substitution of the objective analysis by negative political installation is inadmissible. It is important to notice, that having opened the psychological reasons of aggressive behaviour, it is impossible on it stop, see in them a final explanation of the political phenomena, reducing social, economic and their other reasons to the psychological.

1 See: Marylin V. S. Lectures on psychology of motives of the person. - Perm, 1991. - С.100.

2 See: Levitov N.D.Frustratsija as one of kinds of psychological conditions//psychology Questions. - 1997 - № 6.

3 See: Lasswel H. Political Socialization as a Policy Science//Hend-book of Political Socialization.

The treatment of socialisation in conventional biheviorizme has influenced a number of modern politiko-psychological researches. So the concept of the American political scientist of G.Lassvella which has offered the contextual approach to the analysis of political socialisation was extended. It is based on the main thesis bihevioristskoj psychology about stimulating influence of environment on the person during its socialisation. The political environment, it agree Lassvellu, influences the person not directly, and through system of the organised public institutes and values. It has presented this process in a following kind: its participants aspire to values (the power, well-being, love, respect etc.) through institutes (the state, army, a family, school etc.) Owning resources and meting them. All participants of political processes are divided Lassvellom into socialising agents (SR) and socialised (SE). Status SR is a status "adult", accepting and carrying out the important political decisions, meanwhile as SE in any political process have the status of "unripe" people and are passive object of socialisation.

Fuller account of the social maintenance the stimulus, going from Wednesday to the person, disclosing of psychological mechanisms of transfer of these public, political requirements in internal structure of the person is investigated by other version biheviorizma — social biheviorizm, or school «social nauchenija». This direction is connected with names of the American psychologists A.Bandury and R.Uoltersa.

Their analysis of the major mechanism of socialisation — internalizations by the person of norms and values of a society — became the large contribution to the socialisation theory. These theorists have receded from classical canons biheviorizma from it dvuhchlennoj the scheme «stimulus — reaction». They have entered into this formula the third, intermediate member — installation. Thus theorists «social nauchenija» recognised the leading part of the social environment in formation of the person and in the empirical researches have tried to find roots of behavioural reactions of the person in society requirements, in-ternalizuemyh the child from the very first шагов.1

See: Bandura A. The Self-System in Reciprocal Determinism//American psechology.-1978. - Vol. - 33. - № 4.

2 See: Yaroshevsky M.G.Spetsifika of determination of mental processes//psychology Questions. - 1972. - № 1. - С.95.

To school «social nauchenija», as well as to biheviorizmu as a whole, the estimation, given known for the historian of psychology M.G.Jaroshevskim who noticed is applicable, that «the concept biheviorizma at all its historical limitation and inability to investigate radical questions of human existence is deterministicheskoj. To overcome it, not receding from fundamental principles of scientific thinking, it is possible, only having developed concepts and the methods adequate to higher forms of determination of behaviour, instead of returning research thought in deadlock indeterminizma and pluralism».

Step forward in the analysis of process of internalization have made h.p. Vygotsky, A.N.Leontev, A.R.Lurija, recognising the leading part of factors of an environment in formation of personal structures, essentially new concept of the activity, activity of the person, through which and in which process such steady intrapersonal regulators of behaviour which allow to make behaviour independent of pressure of an environment are stage by stage formed approved. Thus, socialisation is understood not as passive acceptance of social norms and values, and as an active choice their person on the basis of already developed at it under the influence of social factors of the environment rod orientations.

Offered social biheviorizmom trehchlennaja the behaviour model where except Wednesday and behaviour the installation which is the intermediary between first two members enters, has been accepted on arms by many modern political researchers, especially in the field of electoral behaviour. Interest to political installations has arisen in connection with necessity to consider public opinion as the factor influencing an outcome of elections. The opinion is only one of kinds of the political installation, differing instability. The second appearance of political installation — a disposition, or the general relation has deeper roots. The third kind of installation studied in political science, are belief (beliefs), i.e. the installations having deep roots in the person.

In the course of socialisation all set of various installations which become a source of the subsequent political behaviour for the person is formed. Than more intensively, installation is stabler and informativnee, it is especially probable, that the person will operate according to it. Therefore value of installations for political forecasting is so great. However predictions on concrete questions turn out not always successful. When it is a question of enough simple forms of political behaviour, for example about voting it is possible to predict precisely enough its results on polls. So, in the Great Britain

Representative sample of 1500 persons gives an error in ±3 % in 95 % of cases. However explanatory ability of researches such is rather limited, demands additional methods and attraction of more thorough causal explanation of the political phenomena.

When the political behaviour accepts more difficult or "not orthodox" forms (for example, behaviour of the protest against the governmental policy), predictions go right much less often owing to more difficult motivation. American political psychologist S.Makfejl wrote, that in its research of racial disorders in a number of North American cities conformity between installations and behaviour constituted 8-9 % of sample.

Political psychologists bihevioristskoj orientations see the reason of instability of opinions exclusively in the nature of the person, including its the integral characteristic of behaviour of the person. So, English political scientist D.Kavanah explains these that fact, that only in 13 cases from 20 at repeated interviewing people choose the same position on concrete in-prosu.1 These fluctuations, being imposed against each other, give cumulative effect within the limits of the nation.

Political installation really is the major mechanism of political consciousness and behaviour of the person, their starting mechanism. But in the political analysis, probably, it is not enough to refer only to the psychological mechanism as that. Instability (or firmness) opinions, belief and other kinds of installations depends, from our point of view, not only on their importance for the person at present, but also from their maintenance in a context of political process. The policy possesses the mechanisms for influence on personal opinions (and they have at all only psychological character).

In essence both conventional, and social biheviorizm, studying mechanisms of political socialisation, aspired to use them in the practical purposes — for the control over behaviour of the person. This problem dares all versions bihevioristskoj theories. But - perhaps, anywhere it is not put so accurately as in radical biheviorizme which leader is American psychologist B.Skinner.1 to understand its technology of the control, it is necessary to consider in the beginning its treatment of psychological mechanisms of socialisation. In Skinner's works and its followers socialisation is considered by analogy to biological processes of adaptation of an organism in the environment. Adaptation for it in essence also is a socialisation synonym. Between adaptation of behaviour of a rat in a labyrinth and socialisation of the person in a society we will not see a basic difference as also that, and other process is considered by Skinner as display of the general law of interaction of an organism with Wednesday. Certainly, Skinner perfectly understands, that the social environment makes to the person more difficult demands, than the experimenter - to a rat. However, in its opinion, it is complexity technical, quantitative, instead of qualitative character.

One of the central ideas in Skinner's concept is antiexchanges-talizm, that is the aspiration to put outside the brackets the psychological analysis a consciousness category. «Not the person influences the world, and the world influences the person». The person only passive recipient of the signals arriving from Wednesday. Its theory of behaviour does not exclude some activity of the person. The most valuable practical conclusions skinnerovskoj theories just also are connected with possibility of management of behaviour of the person by means of self-programming.

The understanding Skinner of the control follows from its simplified model of the person. Time the person is passive and only responds on signals of environment, hence, the control problem over its behaviour is reduced to corresponding organisation of stimulus, i.e. Such environment which is imperceptible, automatically made on people socialising impact. Skinner considers, that it is erroneous to believe, that the problem consists in releasing people. It consists in improving the control over them.

Already at the previous steps of evolution the nature carried out the rigid control over behaviour of all live. So ability to submit to the control is put biologically in pawn in the person, and it is no wonder, that it so easily accepts religious interdictions or economic necessity. Cultural evolution is considered Sknnnerom as perfection and strengthening of the natural control.

Skinner has opposed texnocratic representations politolo-gov-industrialistov, standing up for perfection of technics of the external control. He has fairly assumed, that it is impossible to bridle population growth by the mechanical control over birth rate, hunger — synthetic products, and nuclear threat — antiballistic systems. However Skinner's conclusion consists not that social illnesses should be treated social means as it would be logical to assume. He searches for problem decisions in that, not changing a society, to change psychology of its separate members. It is the purpose. Means of its achievement is detailed study of system of "reinforcement" of behaviour.

Skinner's ideas have laid down in a basis of the numerous programs violent change of political behaviour was which purpose. As "stimulus" in them the electroshock, gene engineering, brain psychosurgery, aversivnaja therapy, medicinal obuslovlivanie were used. Skin-ner has given the bases for charge in barbarous use of psychology though to it and all its concept is not reduced. The most reactionary political circles have taken advantage of it, dreaming to carry out idea about transformation of rationally conceiving citizens into not arguing political robots. The psychological mechanisms of behaviour opened radical biheviorizmom, yielded it a new invisible control device.

Ideas radical biheviorizma about a manipulation the person to what its representation about socialisation as a matter of fact is reduced, have made doubtless impact on political practice in the USA and in other countries.

Development of steady belief, positions, outlooks is the major component of process of political socialisation of the individual. Presence of the developed political consciousness serves as a guarantee of stable participation, accurate ideological orientation without which «the political person» is inconceivable. But though any political system is interested in replenishment of the numbers, in support of supporters, in their service not for fear, and for conscience, different strategy of achievement of this purpose, as, however, both different tactical receptions and methods are possible.

The social psychologists studying problems of political consciousness, aspire to connect the public maintenance of this phenomenon to individual mechanisms of its functioning.

Meanwhile for a true estimation of a level of development of political consciousness it is necessary to take into consideration and communication of political consciousness with behaviour, and a measure of sensibleness of behaviour, and degree of the general development of the person. Research kognitivnyh structures of the person, age stages of their development, genesis of political mentality and character of process of political thinking, i.e. Studying of political consciousness "from within", from the person, — the important problem of psychology of a policy.

Thereupon the big interest for us is represented by works of the western political psychologists-kognitivistov. They obtain interesting data about process of mass and individual political consciousness.

In research of political consciousness the school of psychologists-kognitivistov is in the lead. Their political positions gravitate to the centre, and sometimes — and more to the left of the centre. But also in this direction the pragmatical orientation is brightly expressed: aspiration not simply to understand laws of formation of consciousness, but also to apply them with a view of management, манипулирования.1

The important role in researches of genesis of political consciousness psychologists-kognitivisty (-Piazhe, L.Kolbere, J have played. Adelson), searching for dependence between maturing of the informative device of the person and consciousness filling by the social maintenance. Thus thinking process became object of their studying, first of all. The idea about communication of age possibilities of the person to perception of certain political sense with character of the political information is represented fruitful. She allows to track process of political socialisation not only "from above", from positions of those institutes which aspire to attach the person to a policy, but also from the person. It is impossible to understand political mentality only as result of influence of the external social environment. There are also the internal laws operating thinking of the person, and they should be considered at the analysis of political socialisation.

Outstanding researches of process of formation of children's thinking have been carried out by Swiss psychologist Z.Piazhe. This psychologist posesses opening of basic distinction between thinking of adults and thinking of children. It managed to track laws of genesis of adult thinking and to allocate some stages in its development which have been considered by us in section 1.1. Dissertational research.

See: Schiller G.Manipuljatory consciousness. - M, 2003., SHerkovin JU.A.psychological of a problem of mass information processes. - M, 2000.

2 See: Adelson J., Green B. Growth of the Idea of Law in Adolescence//Developmental Psychology, 1969.

The political psychologists who are guided by ideas kognitivistov, checked them on samples of actually political thinking, i.e. Thinking of children about the government, laws, the individual rights of citizens and the public benefit. One of the first this work there has begun American political psychologist Adelson. Its research group has set the task not only to track, as the political thinking of young men with 11 till 18 years in Germany changes, England and the USA but also to compare different national models. Leaning against ideas Piazhe, Adelson has obtained the new data, concerning specificity of political socialisation.

These data testify to non-uniform development of political structures of the person at different stages of socialisation. So, it has appeared, that at the age of 11-13 years there is extremely fast development of political representations. In comparison with this period progress in 16-18 years is rather modest. Thus the thinking 14-year-old is concrete, is personalised and is egocentric. If to them speak about formation they mean the teacher, the pupil, the principal. When speak about the law they see before themselves the policeman, the criminal, court. It is mentioned the government — imagine the queen, the minister or the mayor. 15-year-old it is already capable to the abstract, generalised, is formal-logic thinking. It uses such concepts, as "power", «the individual rights», "freedom", "equality", etc. Adelson does a conclusion that on a measure kognitivnogo developments the first important change of political thinking is observed: it becomes abstract.

Further there is an expansion of time prospect of political thinking. The teenager unlike the child starts to realise the nearest and more remote influences of political events on the present and the future.

At early teenage age it yet does not distinguish sotsiotsentrizm. Political events, decisions, etc. Are estimated by it on their consequences for separate people as he is yet capable to see their value for groups and a society as a whole. To average teenage age some understanding of actions of the organisations and the institutes directed on the collective purposes, putting interests of a society over interests of the separate person is reached.

Changes not only character of reasonings, but also quality of the knowledge. Years of adolescence are noted by fast growth of political knowledge, including mastering of traditional political views, conventions. In the middle of the boyish period at the person the independent system of etiko-political principles is formed. Influence of principles on political judgements which frequently appear more strongly momentary and uzkoponjatogo interest with the years becomes stronger.

The conclusion from work Adelsona written in the early seventies is rather interesting: among teenagers the aspiration to real prospect of adults, than to youthful ideals is much more widely widespread. "Idealism" meets among them where less often, than discretion, care, scepticism and sobriety of estimations. Adelson reviews conclusions Pkazhe and Kolberga which in the researches of 50 and 60th years have received opposite dependences: in process of moral and kognitivnogo maturing at teenagers the aversion of political conventions accrues. Than above intelligence, teenagers to an existing society, political system are especially critical. Conclusion Adelsona sounds unexpectedly even to measures of everyday representations about a youth as time of impulses, dreams about world change to the best, romantic vision of the validity in general and politicians in particular.

Maturing of political consciousness can be accelerated or slowed down, and it is necessary to reveal those factors which do it possible. So, political psychologists-kognitivisty have been forced from vnutrilich-nostnyh to turn thinking mechanisms research in a direction of social factors, and first of all the factors connected with purposeful influence of the tutor. To number of such factors, or agents, mass media, political institutes, an education system etc. concern a family.

At children's and teenage age the political system renders integral and regular educational influence through school — the institute officially opened for political education from ruling classes. The political maintenance is built in the basic for the pupil activity — in training. Dominating values are brought in the maintenance prepodavaemyh courses. They get into consciousness of pupils thanks to the teachers protecting official political values, inspiring necessity of submission of the power.

Speaking about school influence as channel of political education, it is necessary to underline, that the leading role in formation of political thinking at children is played by the teacher through which person children perceive a policy.

Scientists in the researches show, that the system of preparation and selection of teachers has a certain ideological orientation. Known English experts in a problem of formation Morrison and Макинтайр1 underline, that already selection of teacher's elite is aimed at exercising administration of political socialisation of pupils. This category of teachers also does «accent on conservative problems of transfer of corresponding installations from one generation to another». It would be final, wrong to consider all teachers as homogeneous in the political and ideological relation weight.

For political education the purpose which is put by the tutor, is important, first of all, he wishes to generate what type of political thinking at the pupil. Without this purpose psychological mechanisms kognitivnogo developments cannot be correctly understood.

Kognitivistsky political psychologists were not limited to studying of political thinking and consciousness at children's and teenage age. Their researches became a stage in understanding of logic of adult political behaviour and consciousness. Special interest for practice those works in which are proved and checked in empirical researches of representation how there are political positions, represent belief, "handwriting" of citizens. In a channel kognitivistskoj political psychology there was a "consumer" concept of political socialisation.

See: Morrison A, Makintajr D.Shkola and socialisation. - M, 2000.

Representatives of the "consumer" concept allocate those aspects of political socialisation which are directed on creation at the individual of its own political "handwriting", pictures of the world and political to a reality, being guided with which it votes on elections, chooses the party, makes other political actions. The knowledge of these features of the person opens possibilities for forecasts of their electoral behaviour that is extremely important both for government agencies, and for separate political parties.

The English political psychologist X. Himmelvant explains, that its model of political socialisation is named by "consumer" to underline similarity «between decision-making at purchase of the goods and« acquisition »parties during elections. The voter searches conformity or the least discrepancy between the set of installations and sights and party platforms. Searches of such information on party positions can be successful or not, exact or deformed, and its own sights — changeable or stable. The habit to vote, is similar to attachment to certain shop or firm, and influence of reference groups reminds how the way of life of our friends or colleagues directs our predilections».1

From this the fact, that now neither the class, nor party, an accessory to trade union do not create community of interests, sufficient to affect loyalty to them, so, and on a choice at voting, X. Himmelvajt does a conclusion, that depending on an economic situation the voter on each elections anew makes the decision. What influences its decision? The representations got in the course of political socialisation. The researcher can find the answer to a question on the future of this or that party in them. Parties require studying of political consciousness of voters to find corresponding slogans.

Political psychologists were involved in "humanistic" model with new treatment of deep personal mechanisms of socialisation. Thanks to "humanistic" psychology the psychological category of requirements has been entered into a turn political research. Leaning against A.Maslou, S.Renshon, R.Inglhart's representations and a number of other authors have put the problem studying of a motivating role of requirements of the person during process of political socialisation. These authors fairly underline, that not simply benefit or «the political transaction», and the deep requirements of the person forming a basis of its belief, induce it to enter political process. These base representations are formed in the early childhood and though they have no political character, but make strong impact on political behaviour in the future.

Among numerous human requirements which find the satisfaction in political activity, S.Renshon allocates such, as requirement to feel the personal control over occurring events. It pays it special attention, analyzing process of political socialisation. Object of such control are both political events, and political institutes, and, at last, behaviour of the individual. Last, actually psychological measurement of the personal control, assumes, that in process of a growing the person learns to constrain the emotions and it is reasonable to regulate the behaviour. However, it is known, that this step of a human maturity is reached far not by all individuals: many and do not test confidence of the acts, suffer from feeling of own insignificance, inability to supervise occurring round event, including the political. For With. Renshona it is obvious, that, the more the number of such citizens, the less political system can count on their support.

Sights at the person and R.Inglharta1's its socialisation are based on "humanistic" psychology. It contrasts with the socialisation understood as pressure of system on the person, socialisation as realisation of internal potentialities of the person, its emancipation.

For an explanation of political behaviour, R.Inglhart's its motivation involves the theory of hierarchy of requirements of A.Maslou: when basic needs in safety and material subjects are satisfied, on the foreground requirements for love, respect and self-actualisation are put forward. Proceeding from A.Maslou, R.Inglhart's this thought has assumed, that the youth unlike the fathers will prefer such values, as values of participation, love and an accessory more likely.

Thus, authors of the "humanistic" concept of political socialisation have created model of the person and the citizen, whose main valour is free participation in the politician which should promote disclosing of its person.

For the decision of the whole complex of the problems connected with influence of political system on the individual at creation of the concept of political socialisation there were combined efforts of political scientists and sociologists, definition of social mechanisms of political socialisation became result of that.

As D.Iston's such mechanism, J. Dennis, R.Hess and F.Grinstajn consider «political support» as means of stabilisation of political system.

Prominent feature of this concept is the accent on voluntary acceptance by people of political ends.

That fact, that political system operates only so far as as it is capable to create and support belief of separate individuals in its legality and justice, does not raise the doubts. A recognition on -

liticheskoj systems happens active or passive, opened or hidden, voluntary or forced, direct or indirect, realised or unconscious. In a word, it can be everyone. But, under the general rule, it should быть.1

The concept of "political support» is under construction on a number of assumptions: first, political installations of adults are an end-product previous nauchenija; secondly, their political behaviour is limited by these political installations; thirdly, set of these installations and activity of individuals has the major influence on the government and stability of a political life. These assumptions are based on confidence of theorists of support that «base children's feelings are superseded and change more difficultly, than that has been got later in a life», and that in «the moments of crises possibly returning of the person to the base representations».2

One more social mechanism of socialisation is role training. By means of this mechanism will be solved the major of an ideological problem: to rally, stabilise political system from within, first of all on the top floors of the power. But also at the bottom levels of political system this problem costs not less sharply: involving in a policy of ordinary citizens even in the most simple role — voters - demands certain degree of their participation, so, political skill and trenirovannosti in execution of this role. If training of representatives of elite in a society leans against century traditions and experience, a problem of political socialisation of ordinary citizens in such scale as now, never before it was put as never was so mass participation of ordinary citizens in political process. It also has put a role problem in the forefront.

According to B.D.Ivannikov, A.V.Pankratov, V.V. Sergeeva's approach consideration of the mechanism of political socialisation assumes definition «systems of is social-psychological relations by means of which its functions» 1 are realised. Components of this social process simultaneously are the elements of its mechanism characterised in the theory of political socialisation, as a rule, too as processes, but lower level - subprocesses. Them, for example, concern:

1) familiarising of the individual with existing political values and reference points;

2) process of reproduction of models of political consciousness and behaviour;

3) process of change by the individual of a political reality.

The analysis of the mechanism of process of political socialisation assumes necessity of consideration of each of the specified subprocesses which internal structure in aggregate gives the systematised picture of the mechanism political to socialisation of the person.

In familiarising of the individual with existing political values and reference points action of mechanisms of sociopolitical adaptation and interiorizatsii is allocated. Sociopolitical adaptation - the active adaptation of the individual to is social-legal conditions, to role functions in the politician, to political norms. It is a special sort "grinding" to social groups and the organisations, the institutes which are representing itself as the environment of ability to live of the person. Interiorizatsija - process of inclusion of political values and norms in private world of the person. During functioning of mechanisms of is social-legal adaptation and inte-riorizatsii there are not only realised, supervised, purposeful, but also spontaneous, spontaneous processes in mentality and out of it, influencing education личности.2

Ivannikov B.D., Pankratov A.V., Sergeys V.V. Lichnost in political sphere: socialisation in a context of problems of safety of a modern Russian society. - Stavropol, 2003. - With. 12.

See: I.S.psychology's Game of an early youth. - M, 1989. - С.19.

The essence of reproduction of models of political consciousness and behaviour as component of the mechanism of process of political socialisation consists in depersonifikatsii the apprehended and acquired samples of political thought and political action, their transfer of private world of the person in the world of social relations. Here the important problem is that frequently in political consciousness and behaviour is reproduced not that is deeply apprehended, interiorizirovano, that is casual, situational is included in a motivational field of consciousness of the individual, and, depends in many respects on external changeable factors. Empirical researches, especially in sphere of electoral activity show, that the political position articulated by the person mismatches its true position, and researches of collective behaviour convince of ambivalence of political activity of the person under influence in large quantities-psiholsgicheskih phenomena.

Subprocess of change by the individual of the political reality, representing itself as result of all previous processes, cannot be comprehensively comprehended without the detailed account of all specified before elements of the mechanism of political socialisation. Besides, change by the individual of a political reality occurs under the influence of a different sort of factors of not political character that assumes in the course of studying of the mechanism of political socialisation of the person the account of an ecological, social and economic and spiritual continuum to which, growth of threats of the public safety in particular concerns.

As resource basis of action of the specified subprocesses-mechanisms of political socialisation the political culture of a society, political culture of social groups, and also the political consciousness of the individual specifically reflecting specified kinds of culture acts.

Within the limits of the most generalised consideration проблемы1 it is possible to allocate 3 basic groups of mechanisms of political socialisation:

1) internalization - mastering by the person of requirements of an environment (political system);

2) interaktsija - interaction with the political environment;

3) eksternalizatsija - expression of political orientations of the person. Thus, different scientific schools select different approaches to

To consideration of mechanisms of political socialisation from the most generalised (internalization, interaktsija, eksternalizatsija), through subprocesses, up to rather concrete (psychological - programming, social nauchenie etc.; social - political support, role training; and others.).
<< | >>
A source: Temeryan A.A.. Political socialization in a transforming Russian society. 2005

More on topic 2.2. Mechanisms and factors of political socialisation in the Russian political space:

  1. 2.3. Features of process of political socialisation in the conditions of a modern Russian society
  2. 1.3. Ethnic identity as the factor of political socialisation in a transformed Russian society
  3. Temerjan. A.A.political socialisation in a transformed Russian society, 2005
  4. 1.1. The concept and essence of a phenomenon of political socialisation
  5. 1.2. Conceptual directions in researches of political socialisation
  6. 3.2. Counteraction mechanisms pravoradikalnym to the organisations in the Russian political practice
  7. Subject factors of perception of the political leader Influence of the subject factor on process of political perception
  8. Temporalnye factors of perception of the political leader
  10. the Prototype of the ideal political leader as an element of a political context of election campaign 2012г.
  11. § 4. Access to the information on activity of political parties and other public associations, and also other socially - political information
  12. 1.2.3 Communicative and temporalnye perception factors Communicative factors of perception of the political leader