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«Scientific-theoretical bases of research of a problem of formation of readiness for professional work»

In the chapter I the basic attention is given the characteristic of readiness for professional work in system professionalizatsii the subject, to the analysis of structure and the readiness maintenance, and as available approaches to development and formation of readiness of the future psychologists in vocational training system.

In a modern psychological science concerning concept "readiness" there is no standard interpretation that is caused by an ambiguous semantic word meaning. K.K.Platon has allocated three value of the term «readiness for work» which have defined approaches to readiness research: as the result of labour education expressed in desire to work, necessity comprehension to participate in joint labour activity; as readiness for the certain work which has become by a trade, as result of vocational training, education and a social maturity of the person; as readiness to immediately coming in known or possible conditions of activity, as a condition of psychological mobilisation.

Within the limits of the functional approach, readiness is surveyed as a time situational condition of "mood" of the person on activity (N.D.Levitov, K.K.Platon, A.T.Puni, P.A.Rudik, etc.). Such understanding of readiness as the special mental condition of the person providing success of performance of professional problems, has allowed scientists to survey its numerous forms: as the equipment (A.G.Asmolov, L.G.Bzhalava, A.S.Prangishvili, D.N.Uznadze, etc.), as a prestarting condition in sports (V.A.Alatortsev, F.Genov, A.T.Puni, etc.), as battle readiness (M.I.Djachenko, L.A.Kandybovich, V.A.Ponomarenko, A.M. Stoljarenko, etc.), as vigilance and readiness for extreme situations (V.N.Pushkin, h.p. nersesjan), as time readiness and working capacity (N.D.Levitov), etc.

In psihologo-pedagogical researches in the tideway of the functional approach readiness is surveyed as a psychological spirit, actualisation and the adaptation of possibilities for successful actions in certain conditions (N.D.Levitov, K.K.Platon, etc.), as ability to mobilise necessary physical and psychological resources for activity realisation (A.B.leo, V.G.Myshkin, etc.). The modern understanding of readiness for professional work within the limits of the functional approach characterises it as a condition of concentration of possibilities of the person reaching to the higher degree, shown before, at performance and on termination of activity (A.V.samojlik).

The personal approach to understanding of readiness as qualities and properties of the person is based on concrete value of concept, i.e. readiness for professional work as result of vocational training and training. Such context, especially actual within the limits of problems of professional formation, has allowed researchers to define readiness: as property and quality of the person (A.A.Derkach, M.I.Djachenko, L.A.Kandybovich, etc.); as «implication of abilities» (B.G.Ananev), as a spectrum of professional abilities (abilities) (V.A.Yakunin); as implication of a professional orientation and professional consciousness (V.A.Slastyonin, L.B.Schneider, etc.); as the steady characteristic of the person (F.N.Gonobolin, N.V.Kuzmin, A.I.Scherbak, etc.) . The main feature of readiness as steady system of qualities of the person consists that it is formed beforehand, does not demand formation directly ahead of performance of the certain task, being shown as an orientation.

The analysis of functional and personal approaches has shown discrepancy of such simplified differentiation of the phenomenon of readiness that (B.F.Lomov) speaks reference of mental properties of the person to a category system.
Therefore in modern researches scientists cease to survey readiness only as a mental condition or as quality of the person, and represent it as integrativnoe formation of personal features of the person and its situational mental conditions. Such system treating of readiness accenting unity and interaction of its personal and functional components, allows to survey readiness for activity: as dialectic interrelation of a mental condition and quality of the person (T.B.Gershkovich, K.M.Duraj-Novakova, R.D.Sanzhaeva, etc.); as a steady condition of the person (E.P.Korablina, L.V.Maltsev, S.N.Fokeeva, etc.) ; As hierarchical system of professionally important qualities and the properties of the person necessary and psychologically sufficient for effective activity (L.N.Zaharova, B.A.Sosnovsky), as integrativnoe professionally important quality (G.I.Vahromova, V.V. Korobkova).

The conceptual basis of our understanding of readiness for professional work is made by results of researches of M.I.Djachenko and L.A.Kandy-bovicha, K.M.Duraj-Novakovoj, L.N.Zaharovoj, N.V.Nizhegorodtsevoj and V.D.Shad-rikova, R.D.Sanzhaevoj, etc., opened dialectic unity of readiness as mental condition and property of the person, and allowing to characterise readiness as a complex various, but the interconnected personal and functional characteristics of the subject necessary for effective realisation of professional work.

Definition of a conceptual basis of readiness has allowed to correlate the given phenomenon with widely used in a modern psihologo-pedagogical science and practice by concept of competence. Being based on the analysis of modern approaches to competence as the difficult many-sided maintenance formed by set of shown knowledge, abilities, skills, abilities and the properties of the person necessary for successful professional work (V.I.Bajdenko, V.A.Bolotov, E.F.Zeer, I.A.winter, A.V.Mudrik, A.M. Novikov, V.V. Serikov, V.D.Shadrikov, S.E.Shishov, A.V.Hutorsky, etc.), in work is underlined, that readiness represents itself as patrimonial concept in relation to competence which is caused by socially-professional experience of the person (A.A.Derkach).

Proceeding from an integrated context professionalizatsii within the limits of psychological theories of development of the expert (V.A.Bodrov, E.F.Zeer, T.V.Kudryavtsev, A.K.Markova, L.M.Mitin, J.M.povarenkov, E.S.Romanov, A.R.Fonarev, etc.) The dialectic interrelation of readiness for activity and professional competence is opened. To each stage professionalizatsii there corresponds the certain characteristic of degree of possession of the person the professional work which top is professionalism as a highest level of professional development of the subject. Readiness for professional work occupies the first step necessary for the subsequent implication of professional competence and achievement of skill in professionalism structure, i.e. is the base to professionalism formation. Readiness for a trade is an initial component of professionalism, the precondition of success of forthcoming independent activity and a condition of achievement of professional competence and skill. Thus, readiness for professional work and professional competence correspond in work as characteristics of interfacing levels of professional development when competence is surveyed as the readiness shown in independent professional work.

Being based on results of research of the basic stages of formation of various kinds of readiness for activity (to J.M.Zabrodin, T.L.Buharin, I.A. Kalinin, etc.) and base approaches to the decision of problems of vocational guidance and profobrazovanija (V.I.Zhuravlyov, E.F.Zeer, E.A.Klimov, S.N.Chistjakova, etc.) is drawn by T.V.nester a conclusion that readiness for professional work is the multilevel formation arising during formation of a complex of its consecutive neoplasms. According to the age logic and the maintenance of professional self-determination, to the training extremity at the basic school at pupils readiness for the trade choice, making the necessary basis for formation within the limits of the senior profile school of readiness for training of a trade which, in turn, is the major condition of formation during high school training of readiness for professional work performance should be generated. « Curves »developments of each of neoplasms will gradually be transformed to"plateau", providing a basis for formation of a following neoplasm of readiness.

The carried out analysis has allowed to define readiness for professional work as a cumulative psychological neoplasm of the initial stages professionalizatsii (dovuzovskogo and high school), consisting in an orientation and ability of the subject to carry out the selected professional work according to standard demands which arises to the vocational training extremity. It allows to characterise readiness, first, as a category of the theory of the activity, specifying on the functional and personal characteristics of the subject necessary for successful performance of professional work; secondly, as the category of professional development specifying in achievement by the subject of initial level of professional development with corresponding degree of possession by activity, making a psychological basis of implication of competence and professionalism formation; Thirdly, as the category of vocational training expressing the purpose and cumulative result of the initial stages professionalizatsii and specifying in quality of vocational training.

Multilevel character of readiness testifies to its difficult structure. Leaning against the teoretiko-experimental representations saved up in a modern psychological science about readiness structure, in work the readiness description as much-urovnevoj is given,-specific and-componental system and its structure (tab. 1) is developed.

Tab. 1. Structure of readiness for professional work



In readiness for professional work it is necessary to allocate three its principal views: physical, psychological and special. Physical readiness is not surveyed in the given research as in psihologo-pedagogical activity it is not shown special, except for standard, demands to a physical condition of the subject. Psychological readiness reflects subject level of readiness for a trade which is made by the socially-psychological and individually-personal characteristics of the expert which are required in concrete activity. Accordingly in psychological readiness for professional work it is necessary to allocate subspecies: motivational readiness, personal readiness, kognitivnaja readiness. Special readiness reflects objective level of readiness which is made in detail-dejatelnostnye by characteristics of the expert, and is sectioned into two subspecies: theoretical and practical readiness. According to the offered integrated structure of readiness for activity it is necessary to allocate: - orientatsionnyj the component, which maintenance make an image of activity and the personal professional plan staticizing self-control of the subject; - the motivational component, which maintenance make professionally significant requirements, motives and the values of activity formed against steady interest and the positive relation to a trade; - the personal component, which maintenance make professionally significant properties of the person of the expert from among the characterologic, emotionally-strong-willed, moral, communicative and other qualities defining professional suitability of the person; - the operational component, which maintenance make the acquired knowledge, abilities of professional work.

Development of the allocated components of readiness occurs according to the mechanism of resolution of conflicts between operationally-technical and emotionally-motivational the aspects of the leading activity which has been put in pawn by D.B.Elkoninym in an age periodization of mental development. Behind the periods in which there is a primary development motivatsionno-potrebnostnoj spheres, the periods in which operational-technical possibilities and on the contrary are formed naturally follow. According to the given mechanism, at teenage age and an early youth (the option stage, on E.A.Klimov) during expansion of representations about a concrete kind of professional work and conditions of its performance is formed orientatsionnyj a readiness component; knowledge of a trade promote occurrence of professional interests, motives and values, pawning a basis of a motivational component of the future readiness for professional work. In a following age period – a youth, within the limits of vocational training there is a development of operational-technical possibilities of the subject in the form of mastering of ways of performance of activity, i.e. the operational component of readiness is mainly formed.

Thus, the analysis of the maintenance of the allocated components of readiness for professional work in their interrelation with its consecutive neoplasms specifies in the mechanism geterohronnogo developments of structure of the readiness, consisting in non-uniform and irregular formation of its components, and defining thereby two stages of formation of readiness – dovuzovsky and high school.

As formation of readiness for professional work makes psychological essence of vocational training, in disserta-tsii the modern theory and practice of vocational training of psychologists is in detail analyzed. In the late eighties – the beginning of 90th of there were the researches devoted to various aspects of vocational training of practical psychologists (N.A.amine, A.G.Asmolov, S.A.Borovikova, S.M.Godnik, A.A.Derkach, A.I.Dontsov, I.V.Dubrovin, V.P.Zaharov and N.JU Hrjashcheva, I.A.winter, E.A.kli, N.V.Kuzmin, A.K.Markova, V.S.Muhina, E.S.Romanov, etc.) . To extremity HH of century the saved up representations and experience of preparation of practical psychologists began to be made out conceptually (J.V.Vardanjan, F.Z.Kabirov, V.J.Ljaudis, A.A.Margolis, V.V. Rubtsov, L.V.Temnova, D.I.Feldshtejn, L.B.Schneider and dr). Conceptual models of vocational training of psychologists are accompanied by a considerable quantity of theoretical approaches and the technician of formation of various aspects of readiness of the future psychologists, including:

? Features and mechanisms of development of the person of the future psychologist and its separate parties (N.B.Burtovaja, G.P.Ivanov, T.A.Kazantsev, N.M.Pinegina, N.J.Samykina, A.V.grey, S.S.Tchebotaryov, O.E.Shmatko, etc.);

? Dynamics and features of formation of professional consciousness (D.E.Belova, E.G.Efremov, N.B.Kaznacheeva, D.V.Oborina, V.M.Prosekova, E.A.Khodyrev, A.O.Sharapov, Of this year SHvartskop, etc.), a professional orientation (A.A.Gopkalo, L.A.Yemelyanov, A.R.Musalaeva, etc.) and other aspects of professional development in the course of high school preparation of psychologists (G.M.Belokrylova, I.V.Zavgorodnjaja, T.V.overseas, M.V.Novikova, A.J.popova, E.V.Prokopyev, I.B.Tereshkina, Etc. Treshcheva, N.B.Shevkieva, A.V.Shilakina, other);

? Formation and development of the is professional-important qualities of the psychologist (I.V.Aksenova, I.K.Gavrilova, N.I.Nikolsky, A.P.Rozhkova, S.V.Tarasov);

? The praktiko-focused technologies of vocational training of psychologists (S.A. Berlin, D.K.Vojtjuk, I.A.Savenkova, etc.).

Despite the importance of the researches executed for the short period, in vocational training of psychologists there are many unresolved questions. The carried out analysis has allowed to classify a wide range of problems of the modern theory and practice of vocational training of psychologists on three groups: to that to learn how to learn, whom to learn. To modern demands of professional work experts bind the basic direction of the decision of a problem of conformity of quality of a psihologo-pedagogical education to realisation kompetentnostnogo the approach (V.P.Zinchenko, V.V. Rubtsov, V.D.Shadrikov, etc.) . The new form of representation of results of formation and an estimation of its quality in concepts kompetentsy demands carrying out professiograficheskogo the analysis of professional psihologo-pedagogical activity and a substantiation of innovative ways of realisation kompetentnostnoj a paradigm.
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A source: Lezhnina L.V.. Readiness of the psychologist of formation For professional work: stages, Mechanisms, technologies of formation. 2009

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