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the Urgency of research and problem statement

the Problem of formation of readiness for professional work was and remains key for the psihologo-pedagogical theory and vocational training practice. Its basic purpose in «Concepts of modernisation of a Russian education for the period till 2010» names achievement of new modern quality of vocational training with orientation to the international standards, namely «preparation of the qualified employee of corresponding level and a profile, competitive on a labour market, competent, responsible, freely owning the trade and focused in the interfacing spheres of activity, capable to effective work on a speciality at level of the world standards, ready to constant professional growth …».

Despite appreciable expansion of researches in this area, the contradiction between inquiry of a modern society about highly prepared expert and insufficient level of real readiness of graduates of high schools to professional work is more and more designated. To the full it concerns and new directions of vocational training and activity, in particular, in sphere of practical psychology of formation. The social situation of development of domestic practical psychology of formation is characterised, in our opinion, by a number of serious contradictions:

- Between obvious requirement of all participants of educational process for psychological support and their mistrust to possibilities and necessity of practical psychology for formation;

- Between understanding of uniqueness and specificity of character of practical psychology of formation as new area of professional work and use of traditional ways of preparation of such expert without an originality of the given trade;

- Between quantity of the diplomaed psychologists enlarged from year to year from among graduates of pedagogical high schools and not satisfied requirement of educational institutions for these experts.

At the highest psychological forums (four All-Russia congresses of practical psychologists of formation, annual national scientifically-practical conferences of Federation of practical psychologists of formation «the formation Psychology») constantly becomes perceptible for the present insufficiently high level of readiness of young psychologists to independent professional work and the problem of improvement of quality of their vocational training is discussed. The dissatisfaction of all interested parties becomes perceptible: educational institutions as customers on preparation of psychologists for this sphere; subjects of vocational training by its total level and the maintenance; high schools as executors of the order for vocational training of psychologists of formation.

Considering specificity of a subject of work of the psychologist of formation, the problem of quality of vocational training of this expert is necessary for surveying as one of components of a problem of quality of vital activity of the developing person of the child that defines an urgency of a theme of research.

To professional work it is considered one of principal causes of insufficient readiness of practical psychologists disharmony of a traditional paradigm of high school preparation of these experts to modern demands. In high school practice while there is no system of productive is personal-professional development of the future psychologist, genesial methods of its training which provide "filling" of the student by knowledge prevail. It leads to the insufficient praktiko-focused preparation for independent professional work.
As a result formation of the psychologist of formation, its formation as subject of the selected activity occurs after the high school termination by «assays and errors». All it confirms contradiction presence between the social order of a society for the psychologists, capable to solve difficult professional problems in modern educational conditions, and insufficiently studied mechanisms effective professionalizatsii the future psychologist.

Last two decades there was a considerable quantity of the works promoting the permission of the allocated contradiction:

? Theoretical and technological bases of a psihologo-pedagogical education (A.G.Asmolov, A.A.Verbitsky, I.V.Dubrovin, N.V.Kuzmin, V.V. Rubtsov, V.A.Slastenin, D.I.Feldshtejn, V.D.Shadrikov, other) are pawned;

? Intensive search of the constructive compromise between the academic and practical paradigms of psychological formation (G.S.Abramova, I.D.Badmaev, I.V.Vachkov, I.V.Dubrovin, E.I.Isaev, E.A.Klimov, V.J.Ljaudis, V.I.Slobodchikov, B.A.Sosnovsky, L.V.Temnova, etc.) is conducted;

? Psihologo-pedagogical concepts and models of work of the psychologist (G.S.Abramova, A.K.Markova, L.M.Mitin, R.V.Ovcharova, E.I.horn, E.S.Romanov, etc.) are framed;

? Numerous aspects of professional development of the future psychologist at a high school stage of its formation (M.M.Balashov, T.M.Bujakas, T.L.Vernjaeva, So-called Klyuyev, I.V.Konovalova, M.I.Lukjanova, I.A.Savenkova, etc.) are studied;

? Are investigated akmeologicheskie bases of activity and the person of the practical psychologist (A.A.Bodalev, A.A.Derkach, N.V.Kuzmin, etc.).

Nevertheless, mechanisms of development of professional work of the psychologist remain insufficiently studied on comparison, for example, with a trade of the teacher or the engineer. As a result till now there is no integrated scientifically proved system of the modern organisation and the maintenance of vocational training of the future psychologist of the formation, readiness providing it for successful independent professional work.

Thus, formation of readiness of the psychologist of formation to professional work represents the actual and significant psihologo-pedagogical problem consisting in searches of answers to questions: how to reach conformity of the maintenance of the initial stages professionalizatsii the psychologist of formation to features and demands of forthcoming activity; what mechanisms and conditions of formation of the future psychologist of formation as subject of professional work; what educational technologies will provide formation kompetentsy the psychologist, necessary for independent professional work.



The research objective consists in working out of the concept of formation of readiness of psychologists of formation to professional work.

Object of research – readiness for professional work.

Object of research – psihologo-pedagogical mechanisms and technologies of stage-by-stage formation of readiness of the future psychologist of formation to professional work.

The research hypothesis consists in the assumption that readiness for professional work of the psychologist of formation:

? It is characterised geterohronnostju the formations, shown in non-uniform and irregular development of structural components;

? Has stage-by-stage structure of formation of the consecutive it is new-formations in the form of readiness for a choice of a trade of the psychologist of formation, readiness for uchebno-professional work on mastering by a trade and readiness for its performance;

? The basic mechanisms of formation of readiness on dovuzovskom a stage professionalizatsii are conformity of images of a trade of the psychologist of formation, and the professional future, and as mastering and working off of set of uchebno-informative actions and representations about uchebno-professional work;

? The basic mechanisms of formation of readiness at a high school stage professionalizatsii are self-designing of is professional-personal development of the future psychologist of formation and transformation of the acquired knowledge in the competence;

? Development of consecutive neoplasms of readiness demands use of specially developed psihologo-pedagogical technologies corresponding to mechanisms of formation of readiness for professional work on dovuzovskom and high school stages professionalizatsii of psychologists of formation.

Formulated aim, the subject and a hypothesis have demanded the decision of following research problems:

1. To define structure, the maintenance and criteria of readiness of the psychologist of formation to professional work;

2. To carry out the system psychological analysis of work of the psychologist of formation as professional work kind;

3. To develop psihologo-pedagogical model of formation of readiness of the psychologist of formation to professional work;

4. To tap psychological mechanisms of formation of readiness to profes-sionalnoj activity of the psychologist of formation on dovuzovskom and high school stages;

5. To develop set of psihologo-pedagogical technologies formi-rovanija readiness of the psychologist of formation for professional work;

6. To spend empirical check of psihologo-pedagogical technologies of formation of readiness of the future psychologist of formation to professional work in the conditions of modern educational practice.

The methodological basis of research was made by fundamental general scientific principles of psychology: a determinism (S.L.Rubinshtejn), unity of consciousness and activity (A.N.Leontev, S.L.Rubinshtejn), sistemnosti (B.F.Lomov), developments (h.p. Vygotsky), activity of the person and the subject of activity (K.A.Abulhanova, A.V.Brushlinsky, A.N.Leontev).

As a theoretical basis of research following scientific concepts and positions are used:

? Positions it is subject-dejatelnostnogo and system-dejatelnostnogo the approaches, presented in K.A.Abulhanovoj, B.G.Ananeva, A.V.brush, A.N.Leonteva, B.F.Lomova, S.L.Rubinshtejna, V.D.Shadrikov's works, etc.;

? Psychological theories of various kinds of activity and readiness for it (M.I.Djachenko and L.A.Kandybovich, L.N.Zaharova, E.A.Klimov, N.V.Kuzmin, A.K.Markova, R.D.Sanzhaeva, E.D.Telegin, D.I.Feldshtejn, V.D.Shadrikov, etc.);

? Researches of various aspects of modern practical psychology of formation and activity in it (G.S.Abramova, A.G.Asmolov, M.R.Bitjanova, A.K.Bolotov, I.V.Vachkov, I.V.Dubrovin, E.A.Klimov, A.K.Markova, R.V.Ovcharova, E.S.Romanov, etc.);

? Concepts of professional formation and development of the subject (V.A.Bodrov, A.A.Derkach, E.A.Klimov, E.F.Zeer, T.V.Kudryavtsev, L.M.Mitin, etc.);

? Ideas of advancing formation (B.M.Bim-Bad, B.S.Gershunsky, A.M.Novikov), continuous formation (S.K.Bondyreva, A.A.Verbitsky, E.A.Klimov, A.K.Markova, V.A.Slastenin, A.I.Scherbak, etc.), the is personal-focused and individually-focused formation (A.G.Asmolov, h.p. Vygotsky, I.S.Jakimansky, etc.), kompetentnostnaja a paradigm (E.F.Zeer, I.A.winter, A.V.Hutorsky, V.D.Shadrikov, etc.);

? Theories and models professional (including psihologo-pedagogical) formations (A.A.Verbitsky, E.F.Zeer, E.I.Isaev, E.A.Klimov, V.J.Ljaudis, A.A.Margolis, G.V.Muhametzjanova, V.V. Rubtsov, V.A.Slastenin, L.V.Temnova, etc.),

? Psihologo-pedagogical technologies of is personal-professional development (V.P.Bespalko, I.V.Vachkov, M.V.Klarin, I.I.Mahmutov, N.N.nechaev, A.S.Prutchenkov, N.S.Prjazhnikov, G.K.Selevko, G.P.Schedrovitsky, etc.), including foreign (D.A. Kolb, J. Neopolitan, E. Wenger).

Research methods were defined according to tasks in view:

1. A method of the organisation of research - complex forming strategy in a combination longitjudnyh and cross-section sections;

2. Methods of the collecting of the information:

And. Theoretical – the theoretical analysis of special psihologo-pedagogical sources and researches, studying and experience generalisation;

. Empirical – methods of the included observation, active training and modelling, the analysis of results of activity, and as the psychodiagnostic techniques which choice was defined by the space, formed by two axes: the maintenance and structural components of readiness, and stages of formation of readiness. According to it were used: a technique of diagnostics of social intelligence of D.Gilforda and M.Salivena, a technique of diagnostics of empathy of A.Megrabjana, a technique of studying of motivation of training in high school T.I. Ilinoj, a technique of a professional self-rating «Professional readiness to pedagogical activity», E.Shejna's technique of "a career anchor», a technique of studying of motivation of professional work (K.Zamfir, A.A.Rean), a questionnaire of level of the subjective control, the developed E.F.Bazhinym, E.A.Golynkinoj, A.M.Etkindom, questionnaires and questionnaires.

The basic empirical researches have been constructed and realised as forming programs. Besides, considering stage-by-stage character of formation of readiness for a trade of the psychologist of formation, during an experimental research vocational counselling and development methods, methods of an estimation of quality of vocational training and its results were applied.

3. Data processing methods:

And. Qualitative – obshchelogicheskie methods of the analysis, synthesis, comparison;

. Quantitative – graphic data presentation, mathematical processing (depending on character of distribution of data parametrical and nonparametric methods of revealing of differences by criterion were used? 2, t-Стьюдента, U-criterion the God-send-uitni, correlation factor r). Mathematical processing of the received data was carried out with use of statistical package SPSS – 14.0 for Windows.

The basic investigation phases. The carried out research included four basic stages.

At the first stage (1994-1998 of) psihologo-pedagogical bases professionalizatsii in option were studied, mechanisms and technologies of formation orientatsionnogo and motivational components of readiness of the future teachers and psychologists in frameworks dovuzovskoj preparations of senior pupils and as the psychodiagnostic technology of professionally focused selection of entrants is introduced in practice were developed and approved.

At the second stage (1998-2002 of) the critical analysis of the theory and practice professionalizatsii the future teachers and psychologists of formation at a vocational training stage in high school was carried out, mechanisms of formation of an operational component of readiness for professional work were proved and innovative educational technologies of uchebno-professional th activity of students and as and their practical activities the included studying of foreign experience of preparation of psychologists was spent to the USA were approved.

At the third stage (2002-2006 of) the conceptual model of formation of readiness of the future psychologists of formation to professional work within the limits of forming experiment with the subsequent organizational-substantial optimisation of experimental system and conditions professionalizatsii on dovuzovskom and high school stages has been approved.

At the fourth stage (2006-2009 of) ordering of author's scientific ideas and the saved up experience, processing and the analysis experimental rezul-tatov researches, preparation of scientific publications and dissertation veneering is carried out.

Base of research. The empirical base of research was made by the materials collected by the author during scientific and teaching activity in Russia (Republic Mary El; Moscow), near and far abroad (Republic Tajikistan; the USA).

The results presented in work and conclusions are received with attraction at various investigation phases more than 3000 participants, among which entrants and students of Mari state pedagogical institute of N.K.Krupsky (MarGPI) and Mari state university (MarGU), pupils of profile classes and as teachers of high schools, principals and psychologists of educational institutions of Ioshkar Ola, Kozmodemjansk, Volzhsk, etc. To the analysis as experimental data have been accepted 1427 reports from which 468 concern a forming investigation phase.

Reliability and validity of the received results are provided by initial theoretical both methodological positions and logic of construction of research, attraction of the empirical data received in representative samples, and presence of control groups, a combination of the qualitative and quantitative analysis to attraction of methods of mathematical statistics, consistency of intermediate and basic results, duration and reproducibility of research, productivity of introduction of the received results in vocational training of experts.

Scientific novelty of research is defined by set of the formulated positions and the received results containing the decision actual and significant for modern pedagogical psychology of a problem of formation of readiness of psychologists of formation to professional work:

? The concept of formation of readiness of the psychologist of formation to the professional work, based on geterohronnosti developments of structural components of readiness and consisting in stage-by-stage formation of its consecutive neoplasms during professional self-determination on dovuzovskom a stage and vocational training at the high school stage is developed, giving professionalizatsii the future psychologist of formation the system is subject-dejatelnostnyj character.

? The psihologo-pedagogical model of system-continuous formation of readiness of the psychologist to the professional work, providing organizational-substantial continuity and a continuity of the initial stages professionalizatsii, and as their relevance of the selected activity is developed. The model is presented by set of the interconnected purposes, stages, maintenances, ways and conditions of formation of readiness.

? The structure of readiness for professional work as the integrated mental phenomenon formed by levels (subject and objective), by kinds corresponding to them (psychological and special readiness), subspecies (personal, motivational, kognitivnaja and theoretical, practical), components (orientatsionnyj, motivational, personal, operational) is defined.

? The stage-by-stage structure and the maintenance of formation of readiness for professional work of the psychologist of formation in the form of its consecutive neoplasms are taped: readiness for a professional choice and readiness for uchebno-professional work are formed on dovuzovskom a stage, readiness for activity performance - at a high school stage professionalizatsii.

? It is described as a result of the system psychological analysis of professional work of the psychologist of formation professiogramma the given work in the form of the activity and person models, making a basis of the modern professional standard of activity of the psychologist of formation.

? Psychological mechanisms of formation of readiness on dovuzovskom and high school stages professionalizatsii the psychologist of formation are taped. Are experimentally confirmed base and partial mechanisms of stage-by-stage formation of readiness for professional work: geterohronnost structural components of readiness, kongruentnost and a reflexion of professional representations, self-designing of professional development, transformation of the acquired knowledge and abilities in the competence.

? Ten kinds key kompetentsy the psychologist of formation and feature of their development in the graduate and the psychologist with experience which are presented in the form of two profiles are allocated and characterised: the expert profile of readiness reflects threshold to start independent activity a level of development kompetentsy the psychologist of formation; the expert profile of competence reflects a base level of development kompetentsy the expert adapted in a trade.

? Two groups of psihologo-pedagogical technologies of formation of readiness on dovuzovskom and high school stages - educational and monitoringovye, including developing, training, diagnostic and attestative forms are developed and approved.

? Qualitative differences of readiness of the future psychologists of formation are established: at trained in the conditions of the proved concept readiness for professional work is developed authentically above level of readiness of graduates of a traditional paradigm of preparation, and corresponds to an expert profile of readiness while the competence of the future psychologists of formation of control group are developed below the level necessary for the expert beginning independent activity.

The theoretical importance of research is characterised at three levels defining a place of received new knowledge among the known. Concrete definition level is presented: results of the ordering of scientific knowledge undertaken in work about readiness for professional work, its structure and kinds; specification of a role and a place of readiness for professional work among other phenomena professionalizatsii and corresponding concepts (competence, professionalism); the models of activity described in the dissertation and the person of the psychologist of formation. The named results promote streamlining of the conceptual apparatus of a psychological science and as bring the contribution to the decision of an actual problem of working out of the modern professional standard of activity of the psychologist of formation.

Addition level characterise: the allocated criteria of readiness for professional work of the psychologist of formation and its characteristic kompetentsy; the description of stage-by-stage structure of formation of components and consecutive neoplasms of readiness for professional work; the taped set of mechanisms of formation of readiness on dovuzovskom and high school stages. The named results supplement developing theory kompetentnostnogo the approach within the limits of profile training and vocational training, can be used by working out of the federal state educational standard of III th generation in a psihologo-pedagogical direction.

Transformation level is presented qualitatively distinct from traditional paradigm of vocational training by the concept of formation of readiness of the future psychologist of formation to professional work and psihologo-pedagogical model of its realisation, bringing the contribution to modernisation of modern formation and promoting the contradiction permission between high demands of the social order and insufficient level of readiness of graduates of high schools. The developed concept and model of formation of readiness for a trade of the psychologist of formation gets special value in the conditions of transition to two-level system of the vocational training, assuming preparation of the bachelors ready to independent practical activities, for four years of training. Innovative character of the offered approach is provided, first, with adaptation of domestic experience of vocational training to modern educational conditions and to demands, secondly, a complementary combination of classical and modern achievements of the theory and vocational training practice, including foreign.

The mechanisms opened and realised in psihologo-pedagogical technologies it is subject-dejatelnostnogo mastering by a trade of the psychologist of formation promote the further formation of such actual directions of modern pedagogical psychology, as psychology profile and vocational training.

The practical importance of dissertational research has obshcheotraslevoj and chastnopraktichesky character. Obshcheotraslevoj level of the practical importance of the received results consists that they promote achievement of new modern quality of a professional psihologo-pedagogical education. The developed and empirically checked up model of formation of readiness of the psychologist of formation to professional work solves an actual problem of optimisation of system, the maintenance and techniques of modern formation at level of profile training of senior pupils and vocational training of experts of a psihologo-pedagogical direction.

The practical importance for modern practice of the vocational training, feeling acute requirement for modern technologies of the decision of educational problems, is represented by the psihologo-pedagogical technologies developed during research: obrazovatelno-developing technology of biennial profile training of the future psychologists of formation at the senior step of formation; psychodiagnostic technology komplementarnogo professionally focused selection of the entrants ready to mastering by a trade of the psychologist of formation; technologies of advancing additional educational preparation of the future psychologists and the subject organisation of uchebno-professional work at a high school stage professionalizatsii, and as advanced technology of total state certification of graduates. The listed technologies make a basis for the further development of innovative educational programs profile, vocational training and improvement of professional skill of psihologo-pedagogical shots, and as monitoring and an estimation of results of their preparation, including procedures of the is professional-focused selection and certification.

The Chastnopraktichesky significance value of results of research consists in developed under a management and with participation of the author and realised in MarGPI and MarGU professionally-educational programs preparations of students of a speciality «pedagogics and psychology» with specialisations «practical psychology», «management psychology» and students of a speciality «preschool pedagogics and psychology» with specialisation «children's practical psychology».

Uchebno-methodical complexes are developed and following disciplines are introduced in educational process:

? Profile training of senior pupils – "Psychology", «the Psychological practical work of self-knowledge», «Training of professional (psihologo-pedagogical) self-determination», «Introduction in a psihologo-pedagogical trade», «Training of readiness for uchebno-professional work in high school»;

? Vocational training of psychologists of formation - «the Case-practical work for psychologists», «Bases of the organisation of student's scientific work», «Children's psychology», «Introduction in a trade of the children's practical psychologist», «the Technique of psychological work with children», «Psychology of prognostic activity», other

Are framed and are for many years used:

? A complex of effective training programs of the praktiko-focused preparation of students (a case-method, practice, research activity);

? Set variativnyh programs of introductory interview with entrants of faculty of pedagogics and psychology (technology of creative entrance examination, proforientatsionnogo interview and selection);

? Programs and references on preparation and carrying out of total state certification of graduates.
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A source: Lezhnina L.V.. Readiness of the psychologist of formation For professional work: stages, Mechanisms, technologies of formation. 2009

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