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In the First part of the dissertation "Subject of social psychology of the childhood"

In the introduction the modern general informative situation of studying of the childhood is stated, then in 1 head "the Methodology and principles of the analysis of relations of the child in social psychology of the childhood" is set the general context of research of a problem of social psychology of the childhood, by means of introduction of levels of methodology (E.G.Yudin).

Here main principles of research are stated: a principle of historical reconstruction in studying sotsiogeneza, a principle ecological validnosti, realised in an experimental research ontogeneza in a method of change of a social position of the child, and also a principle of construction of a children's picture of the world (miro-designing). The two-uniform mechanism of functioning of relations of the child in ontogeneze - "identification - alienation" is described. In 2 head "Formation and the basic concepts of social psychology of the childhood" is stated the basic approach to the analysis of genesis of relations of the child, the short background of social psychology of the childhood in Russia is given, the subject is formulated, the basic categories and concepts reveal, the general hypothetical picture of genesis of relations of the child in the world, phenomenology and which proofs - in the subsequent three sections of work is given.

Change of the status of the childhood in a society in XX century which signs are: children's images in the literature, art, mass-media, the phenomenon "detotsentrizma" in a family, and the main thing - acceptance of the international documents on the rights of the child, occurrence of the children's congresses, «children's diplomacy», children's creative forums and the unions and so forth demands the new approach to the childhood analysis as developing phenomenon in culture and a society, induce to carry out attempt of interdisciplinary synthesis of a problem of the childhood in three-dimensional system of co-ordinates - age, history, culture. The requirement for such judgement has ripened as in disciplines (biology, genetics, medicine, a demography, etnologii, histories, pedagoyogiki, etc. [Bochkov N.P., 1983; Simonov P. V, Ershov P. M, Vjazemskij J.P.,

1989; Gurevich A.J., 1981; the M Block, 1986; Lorentz K, 1998; Mid M, 1988] and on interdisciplinary borders [Kon I.S., 1988; Backman C.W., 1983; Вгоп-fenbrenner U., 1974; Nagge R., 1993, etc.]. Besides, recently representatives of children's, age and social psychology, the psychology of the person earlier working rather independently from each other, try to destroy "departmental" borders and to start the decision of a problem of interdisciplinary synthesis.

One of such attempts, giving the chance to see a panoramic picture of the modern childhood as result of genesis detsko - adult relations, is offered the author sotsiogenetichesky the approach - social psychology of the childhood «the Child on crossing of age, history, culture» Proceeding from representations about levels of methodology of a science, the author in work carries out progress from level philosophical obobshcheyonija childhood problems in the world - through level of system-scientific methodology of the general principles of the analysis of a phenomenon of the childhood in culture and a society - to is concrete-scientific methodology of research of the childhood in psychology and adjacent sciences with it and further - to concrete methods of studying of the child in environment and society

Genesis the relation of the child, observed in ontogeneze, has the peryovonachalnyj a source in sotsiogeneze - historical and cultural space of children's subculture, therefore ontogenez relations of the child can be presented in a historical number ontogenezov (D Elkonin) In sotsiogeneticheskoj to readout system are allocated three co-ordinates of studying of the childhood the First co-ordinate allows to open diahronichesky aspect of studying, t e to construct "a historical vertical" phenomenon of the childhood, formation of the child as persons in aspect of historical psychology - "to open laws personoge-neza the person" [Aries F, 1977, Belyavsky And G, SHkuratov In And, 1982, Petrovsky In And, 1997 and dr J the Second co-ordinate allows to give the analysis of synchronic studying of the childhood in ethnographic space, an ethnologic horizontal, those to see the person of the child through a prism of cultures existing presently, the ways of its socialisation influencing its development [the Game And With, 1988, Ethnography of the childhood, 1983] the Third co-ordinate - studying of laws of a course of life of the person in ontogeneze is actually psychological "third" measurement of the person of the child, accessible to the experimental analysis [Bozhovich L And, 1995, Obuhova L F, 1995, Smirnova E 0, 1996, MuhiYOna In With, 1980, TSukerman G And, 1996]

At the analysis sotsiogeneza relations of the child in social psychology of the childhood the author starts with a principle of the historical reconstruction, allowing to recreate phenomenology of relations of the child during the various periods of human history, a reconstruction of forms of functioning of social systems and institutes (a family and children's community) on the basis of their latest of formations and taking into account possible ways and laws of their development Search of adequate tools of studying sotsiogeneza the childhood leads to allocation of the special "through" phenomena of a mental life of the child - sotsiogeneticheskih invariantov, keeping the relative invariance throughout the long historical period and passing from father to son children as the Basic experimental approaches (principles) to research ontogeneza relations of the child in social psychology of the childhood act a principle of change of a social position of the child, shown, in particular, In reception of statement of to the place of another in situations of a personal choice, and a principle of construction of a children's picture of the world (miro-designing) As the experimental approach to studying of relations of the child to the world, other people and in the visual plan last is put in the basis of experimental models visual sotsiopsihologii.

The method visual sotsi-opsihologii in studying of children's subculture gives possibility of working out of children's public opinion - attention of adults to estimated judgements various age, regional, and so forth groups of children concerning problems, events and the validity facts. The children's public opinion is the public opinion of tomorrow calculated on prospect.

Construction of a children's picture of the world - is not so much reflexion, how many soyozidanie the child of space of relations in the ideal plan, it assumes active involving of the child in a reconstruction of communications with surrounding validity as to construction of complete and harmonious (humane) relations. Arhetipichesky, sotsiotipicheskie and stereotypical visual representations and models form a symbolical component of a picture of the world of the child. At all riches of individual expression of this or that theme in children's graphic creativity certain archaic elements, signs, the forms showing mythological structure of consciousness of the child [Lotman JU, 1978, 1992 distinctly enough appear; Losev A.F., 1991; Hems of CENTURIES, 1996]. As the basic mechanism of functioning of relations of the child the uniform mechanism "identification - alienation" in which basis process of likening to installations and personal senses of other person, social groups lays and which allows the person of the child to fall outside the limits an ontologic field of dialogue and interaction in sphere of moral cultural values acts.

In domestic history of research of the childhood from end Х1Х century - within the limits of studying of game group forms, children's folklore, and then with 20 - 30th years of XX century (within the limits of research of functioning of children's working collectives, group interaction of children and so forth) Three periods of revival of interest to a children's social life are found out, each of which highlights any, special reality and the phenomenology of the person of the child in society. Thanks to the first period connected with names of E.A.Ar-kina, A.S.Zaluzhnogo, E.A.Pokrovsk, G.A.Fortunatova, a problem of children's collective for the first time it has been put in domestic psychology. Thanks to the second period as a matter of fact open by D.B.Elkoninym, it is scarlet. Usovoj, G.P.ShChed-rovitskim, first, accepted a role and a game place as to leading activity in formation of mentality of the child; secondly, "technology" of game as some kind of sociological model of one of forms of public relations is allocated and analysed. And at last, thanks to the third period, with reference to the child method possibilities sopiometrii have been opened, the role of emotional preferences in interpersonal relations of children (JA.L.Kolominsky, T.A.Repin and dr) is defined.

These three periods have prepared transition possibility for a new stage - poyostroeniju the social psychology of the childhood considering the childhood as result sodiogeneza detsko - the adult relations as which subject relations act, oposredstvovannye joint activity of the child with the world, other people (adults and contemporaries), and also laws of generation of these relations, their functioning in a concrete historical social situation of development [Abramenkova V.V., 1985, 1987, 1996, 1999]. Such understanding of a subject of social psychology of the childhood puts in the forefront consideration and the analysis of interrelations sistemoobrazujushchih categories and concepts: « The relation "," joint activity "," children's subculture "," sotsiogenez "," a social situation of development "," a children's picture of the world and dr »., major of which is the concept"relation". The domestic psychology actively operated with this concept of various researches and rather various contexts: L.S.Vygotsky has put forward idea interiorizatsii relations as the obligatory moment of development of the person of the child [Vygotsky h.p., 1983], S.L.Rubinshtejn saw the relation of one person to another which at the child is genetically earlier form, rather than the relation to Rubinshtejn S.L., 1997. With. 65]; for V.N.Mjasshtseva the relation - system of individual selective communications of the person with the various parties of the objective validity [Mjasishchev V. N, 1995, with. 16]; for A.N.Leonteva the relation - semantic sphere of consciousness, an orientation of the person [Leontev A.N., 1975, 1983]; for A.V. Petrovsky - multilevel system of interpersonal relations [Petrovskij A.V., 1983, 1984]. However accurate definition of concept "relation" does not exist, in it specified L.I.Bozhovich, recognising, however, importance of its inclusion in studying of the person of the child [to Bozhovich L.I., 1968,1995].

Last decades the problem stanovyolenija relations of the child is put and studied by domestic psychologists in researches of experts in children's psychology: A.V.Zaporozhtsem and J.Z.neverovich (1986); JA.L.Kolo (1976, 1984), I.V.Dubrovinoj (1987), V K.Kotyrlo (1987), T.A.Repinoj (1988), E.O.Smirnovoj (1994) and others where the concept "relation" actually finds a life in two ipostasjah: first, as "communication, dependence", so - as mutual relation, dialogue (i.e. relation S.) and, secondly, as "the opinion, an estimation" and, means, as social installation, valuable orientation (i.e. relation K.) . The category "relation", from the point of view of the author, represents the most answering to problems and the most comprehensible to subject working out soyotsialnoj childhood psychology - complete in the system plan and the individualised category incorporating as social quality of communications of the person with other people, and subjective preferences and installations concerning the phenomena, events, values of the world the Major form of existence of relations is the psychological space, i.e. extent, strukturnost, a place of their realisation. By the author are allocated and experimentally analysed (with various degree of depth and carefulness) following planes of relations of the child. Horizontal in which relations are carried out «on equal» and to rather equal subjects are contemporaries (children, within own age category defined by the child; thus the passport age can not have value) [Development of dialogue with contemporaries, 1989; Island M. Kosven, 1953, 1963; M.V.Osorina, 1983, 1999; Maan O. V, 1995;]. The inclined plane of relations is presented by adults, those whom the child ranks as that or adult "in general" [M ILisina, 1986,1997;]. It can be and more senior children, or even royovesniki the child, having higher status recognised in a society, for example, children who have passed initsiatsiju in traditional cultures [X., 1981; childhood Ethnography., 1983]. The vertical plane represents (secret) layer of spiritual relations least studied and most hidden for the researcher good luck, the Creator or any the Higher sushchestyovom with which practically any child, irrespective of religious priyonadlezhnosti, tries to establish connection, Rubinshtejn S. L, 1997 addresses in various situations of the life [; Zenkovsky V.V., 1993; Especial: From P.A.Florenskogo's memoirs, 1990;] . The vertical plane defines formation of a category of conscience in consciousness of the child and sets moral space of representations about good and harm. The panoramic plane of relations is presented by the environment surrounding the child varying with the years (from the sizes of the extended hand in infancy — to space distances to a youth) and caused by historical and cultural representations (the generated picture of the world), and also regional features (a megacity, village, working settlement, a city), a geographical landscape (tundra, wood, sea coast, mountains) [Gumilev of L. N, 1990]. The limited space of relations with the world which has, for example, hard sick child or the modern child who has been cut off from all world by a virtual plane of the Screen-television, computer represents — a screen plane [Nosov N.A., 1997, Orlov A.M., 1995].

Other major form ontologii relations is time. OtnoYOshenija, worried by the child, are considered by us in three time forms: the past, the present and the future. Thus, relations in the childhood represent multidimensional hierarchical system of communications of the child with the world, developing in time and space. Relations have own modality of expression - the emotionally-valuable aspect acting in aspiration to a humanisation of communications of the person with the world (B.S.bratus, A.B.eagle, V.I.Slobodchikov) which is, on the one hand, a condition of high-grade development of the child in the world, and on the other hand, criterion of its personal development. From here the major display of relations of the child are humane relations as its harmonious relations with the world, i.e. Such relations in which the subject world - environment, and also the social world - the society of adults and contemporaries - get the status of unconditional personal values for the child and generate aspiration to protection, assistance, the help. Humane relations act in modern conditions as ideal norm of relations in general, i.e. a necessary optimum of the maximum personal efforts of the person, «a moral imperative». The empirical reviewer of the humane relation to the contemporary is collectivist (solidary) identification (KI) as such interpersonalnoe an identification with experiences of one of group at which are carried out effective compassion to its failures and active soradovanie to its successes

In the centre of attention of social psychology of the childhood there are social groups in which the child is included or with which it itself(himself) identifies It a family and a school class, children's game communities and proksimicheskie the groups wished by the child, makrosotsialyshe groups (region, settlement, the country) to which the child considers itself belonging and pr Some of them can get quality referentnosti, the personal importance for the child

Socially - psychological specificity of the person of the child consists that it initially acts as the representative simultaneously two big social obshchnostej — the world of adults and the world of children, each of which influences its person, and the combination of their influences creates uniyokalnuju a social situation of development of the childhood at each stage of its historical and individual life

Sistemoobrazujushchim the basis of research of genesis of relations of the child to world around, to other people (to adults and contemporaries) and to itself is the joint activity, which analysis with various poyozitsy represents the central moment of all research and oposredstvujushchy the factor of generation and development of system of relations of child Day-telnostnoe oposredstvovanie shows that methodological knot which connects and vzaimodopolnjaet in social psychology of the childhood the major areas of a psychological science-obshchepsihologicheskoe understanding of the person with socially-psychological and genetic approaches In joint activity as in special social space there is pourovnevoe structurization of a complete picture of interpersonal relations in children's group a Subject plan of joint activity is presented by the is functional-role relations which studying is connected with answers to questions Where relations ' are developed? (In game, study, work on self-service) also What they reflect '? (Norms, the samples, certain "technology" of activity, the right and a duty of its participants) the Tool plan of joint activity is presented by the emotionally-estimated relations which studying is connected with answers to questions What is relations '? And How they функционируют1? These relations are shown, in particular, in a choice of partners in joint activity the Motivational plan of joint activity is presented by the lichnostno-semantic relations which studying is connected with the answer to a question For the sake of what for the sake of whom, for the sake of what values joint activity ' is carried out? In social psychology of the childhood all layers of relations is functional-role relations are presented set by norm of humanity which was modelled in experimental situayotsijah by means of in a special way organised joint activity of children Emotionally-estimated relations expressed in preferences reyobenka, its liking and the antipathies revealed traditional sotsiometriche-skoj by procedure Lichnostno-semantic relations came to light in experimental situations when other person becomes motive of joint activity, the contemporary.

The second part of dissertational research «Sotsiogenez relations of the child in a family and children's community» consists of three heads and entirely poyosvjashchena sotsiogeneticheskomu to the analysis detsko - adult relations in a family and children's subculture.

Sotsiogenez studying of the child in cultural - historical space, representing, on L.S.Vygotskogo's expression "the key to the higher povedeyoniju", opens new horizons of psychological research ontogeneza. In social psychology of the childhood sotsiogeneticheskoe research of relations of the child is carried out in two directions: studying of evolution of family relations where the child appears in «an inclined plane» hierarchical communications, and relations in «a horizontal plane» equal - their evolutions in culture. By means of a method of historical reconstruction allows to recreate system of relations of the child at social institutes. Search of answers to a question on the nature and forms of existence of cultural - historical past in consciousness of the modern child necessities of revealing special with-tsiogenetichekih sotsiokulturnyh invariant-was relatively invariable both constant in time and space of forms, texts which carry out "link of times" have led, passing from father to son, from the people to the people.

In 3 head «Genesis of relations of the child in the course of family evolution»

By the author it is given socially - the psychological characteristic of a family, the historical periods of development of a family in culture in connection with position (status) of the child in it are described and evolution in Russia arhetipicheskogo a family triangle (the Father/husband — Mother/wife-child-son/daughter) is described.

The family world, from the point of view of the child, represents a picture not always coinciding with an estimation of adults. Social norms existing in a society and cultural samples set certain standards of representations about what should be the husband/wife under the relation to each other, the father/mother in relation to children, the daughter/son in relation to parents and among themselves and t. p. It means, that, from the socially-psychological point of view, the family represents corresponding to historically developed norms and values of the given society the social group united by set formed in joint activity of relations: spouses among themselves, parents to children and children to parents, and also children among themselves, shown in love, attachment, care, intimacy. These structural characteristics of a family, having relative independence, represent its socially - psychological unity. On protjayozhenii all history of mankind a family as the social group of an accessory to the child evolved in a direction: from rastvorennosti relations of the child in society during a primitiveness epoch to strict ierarhizirovannoj to system polovozrastnyh relations in the Middle Ages and to the beginning of epoch prosveshchenja. On a boundary XVII and XVIII centuries in the Western Europe there were essential changes in valuable orientations, a marital status of the child and in general — in relations between parents and children. Change of the mechanism of socialisation towards a recognition for the child of a special place in society structure (see Fr. Dolto, ZH-ZH. Russo, C.Dickens), occurrence of researches of children's creativity (K.Bjuler see, B.C. Mukhin, etc.), children's folklore and games [Pokrovsk, 1995; Wisdom national..., 1991; Vinogradov, 1930] and so forth was the beginning of those steps to a recognition of the rights of the child who has led to acceptance of the International Convention on the rights of the child in the end of the XX-th century.

According to known researcher L de Moze, these changes were obuyoslovleny displacement in the Western Europe HUL - ХVШ centuries of borders emotsioyonalnoj affinity between mother and the child, estrangement reduction between them and occurrence "busily - careful" modusa education of children. All it has served formation of a new psychokind of the person during the Newest time [MauseL.de, 1976].

At the same time in Russia on models arhetipicheskogo the family triangle as though rotating in the central point, it would be possible to allocate three basic stages of evolution nuklearnoj families: 1st is characterised by predominating economic and socially-psychological position of the father as mister, the supporter of children and members of household, "leader" of family small group, the main value of such family — roditelstvo. P the stage is characterised by prevalence of values of a matrimony as relative equality of the husband and wife at the low status of the child. And, at last, III stage — "childishness" in literal value of this word, according to treatment Vl. Dalja, «to be the child» places on top arhetipicheskogo a triangle the child, it gradually becomes the psychological centre of a family, the main customer and the consumer of all blessings. It means, socially-psychological evolution of a family in Russia occurred in a direction of transformation family valuable orientations, changes of relations and statuses of members family arhetipicheskogo a triangle: from patriarchal relations with absolute domination of the father and the husband, through an equality establishment between spouses, thus position of the child remains both economically, and legally, and psychologically dependent, - to detotsentrizmu as to valuable orientation of adults to a social eminence of the child, preference of its interests and requirements. These changes are most obvious last decades.

In 4 head «the Fairy tale as sotsiogenetichesky invariant family otnoyosheny» hypotheses of an origin of a fairy tale are stated, the historical and cultural analysis of a fairy tale from a position of intrafamily relations is given and on the basis of an experimental research by means of a technique "Lotto" is carried out sotsiogenetichesky the analysis of representations of children about family relations in a fairy tale and a real life.

At the analysis of fairy tales three basic historical epoch of formation of family relations in the culture, giving three types of "a fantastic family" distinctly appear. The first type - the archaic family representing a sort with its primitive democracy. The second type - an ancient patriarchal family, in osyonove which lays accurate polovozrastnaja hierarchy; here the poloro-left stereotypes of "the kind good fellow" and "bashful person" are created. And the third type - the family of new time, reflects the beginning of decline of patriarchal relations and possibility of inversion of hierarchy

As has shown research, for the modern child-preschool child • ' the fantastic family "is first of all small group nuklearnogo type with accurate polorolevoj differentiation both defined sotsiokulturnymi aesthetic and behavioural samples, t e for modern boys and girls it is a patriarchal family In fairy tales to the child the"ideal"type of mutual relations opens and the samples of behaviour having cultural - historical nature On formation of family installations corresponding to a floor influence not only observed by the child in a real life type of relations of parents, but also ideal type of relations and polorolevyh the samples, fixed in fairy tales These two types of relations at children of 5-7 years enter original dialogue of the past and the present image in creation of the family relations, traditional cultural polorolevye stereotypes of the man and the woman in modern conditions appear in the direct contradiction with existing type of family relations

Not belittling a role of a fairy tale in the course of socialisation of the child as special sredyostva transfers to it adults of socially - historical experience, the author pays attention that value of a fantastic heritage is not settled by this educational function in a fairy tale (metacultural) and supertime samples of the human relations are embodied sverhyonarodnye, allowing to say about it prognosticheskoj roles in history, that meant Velemir Hlebnikov, speaking "the Fairy tale - a staff about which the blind man-mankind '" [Hlebnikov leans In, 1987, with 146] In images of fairy tales semantic formations, which sozyodavalis by centuries "' in diverse genres and forms of speech dialogue, in forms of mighty national culture, in the plots, leaving the roots in a prehistoric antiquity" [Bakhtin of MM, 1979, with 332] a fairy tale Phenomenon in isyotorii kultury are concentrated, embodying transformation of the most ancient customs and rituals, The attention of scientists as an original archaeological relict draws to itself As the known historian And Would write Fishermen, "the fairy tale has informed to us both very archaic mythology, and primary forms of the heroic epos, which beginning will defend from the beginning of creation of bylinas of the Kiev Russia for the whole two millenia [Fishermen And, 1981, with 596] Having arisen as a genre of adult oral national creativity during the most ancient epoch and having gone through process of decline as independent linguistic unit during New time, the classical fairy tale has turned today to a part of children's folklore the-canonised arch of the literature for children the Fairy tale as sotsiogenetichesky invariant - there is a steady cultural form which means is national - poetic expression gives obobshchenno - the typified samples of socially - psychological relations in a family, Is one of sources of construction by the child of a picture of the world of a family in its ideal plan In fairy tales to the child the "ideal" type of mutual relations and the samples of the behaviour having the cultural-historical nature Offered children in a technique "Lotto" of a picture with the image of subjects of a real and fantastic life corresponding to a floor opens, became at preschool children stimulus for reproduction of the generalised picture semejyonyh relations which opened to the child as standard through positions of parents, in particular, in distribution of family duties Besides, the picture sotsiokulturnyh the relations here appeared, fixed in fairy tales as in fairy tales before the child wider world appears - the world of human relations in general It has appeared obvious, that preschool children the fifth year of a life have accurate enough representations about traditionally man's or female fields of activity and behaviour standards

In 5 head «Children's subculture - its maintenance, functions, value in culture» is given concept of children's subculture of social psychology of the childhood, the maintenance of children's subculture and its basic functions is described and illustrated by examples, the children's group as the basic carrier of children's subculture is characterised, and also the new concept - a zone va-riativnogo developments of the child is offered

Development of relations of the child is carried out in onto - and sotsiogeneze in konyotekste the major social groups - a family and children's community Children's community as show historical and cultural researches, is the very first and most ancient institute of socialisation of the child as the first children's associations have arisen already during a primitiveness epoch in connection with polovozrastnym division of a society and preceded a monogamous family, they possessed the special status, the specific place in polovozrastnoj to socially - hierarchical system Occurrence of children's subculture as complete historical and cultural phenomenon is caused polovozrastnoj by stratification of the society, leaving the roots in an extreme antiquity [Antons AI, 1974, Butinov ON, 1968, Kosven MO, 1953,1963, Pershits And And, 1967, Priests In And, 1982] On the basis of the forms of activity regulated by adults (labour, educational and dr) there was a children's group - community of children, United soyovmestnoj activity and empathy of the general values Game as independent adults joint activity becomes way of overcoming of that rupture mezhpokolennoj communications of adults and children which was formed in a society at a certain stage sotsiogeneza owing to allocation and isolation of the world of the childhood from the world vzroslosti Children thus were as though pushed out from sphere of production of goods, dropped out of adult community and were given to itself Then there were playing children's collectives in which there was a mastering of the general senses and motives of human activity, reproduction of social relations, religious representations, ceremonies and rituals Through game children in oposredstvovannoj to the form join in a life of adults, satisfying and own requirement for participation in an event that is not simply modelling of a semantic field of adult activity, and the free reference with its maintenance

Process of autonomism from the world adult in children's communities has generated formation of own world «for itself» - special semantic space of values, installations, ways of activity and the forms of dialogue which are carried out in this or that particularly - historical social situation of development, t e concerning children's subculture independent of adults the Maintenance of the children's subculture filled throughout all sotsiogeneza, make traditional national games (round dances, outdoor games, military-sports meet and pr), children's folklore (schitalki, draznilki, for-nickname, fairy tales, horror stories, riddles and dr), the children's legal code (property signs, collecting of debts, meny, the right of a seniority and the tutorial right in uneven-age groups, the right of use mushroom / a berry place), children's humour (poteshki, jokes, draws, poddevki), children's magic and mifotvorchestvo (prizyvanie forces of the nature for execution of desire, Fantastic histories-fables), children's philosophising (reasonings on a life and death and pr), children's slovotvorchestvo (etymology, language double-dealing fellows, neologisms), aesthetic representations of children (drawing up venochkov and bouquets, drawings and a moulding, "secrets"), investment with nicknames of contemporaries and adults, religious representations (children's prays, ceremonies) Creative, biassed processing of cumulative experience of previous generations in game is caused by preservation and reproduction in children's communities various genres of children's folklore. Them, in particular, concern draznilki (nominal — for boys and girls, and also draznilki, deriding children's lacks and offences jabednichestvo, boasting, nonsense, tearfulness, greed) thanks to which the children's community carries out function of education Draznilki train emotional stability and self-control, ability to defend at attacks of contemporaries in the adequate form of verbal self-defence [Vinogradov G With, 1930, Osorina MB, 1983, 1990] Draznilki are the small speech form serving for sotsio-cultural regulation of relations at occurrence of the child in group and in situations of infringement by the child of group norms, deriding children's lacks and offences jabednichestvo, boasting, tearfulness, greed, and dr

The genre schitalki is unique, not having analogues "in adult folklore and represents cultural perfected prelude to game Together with traditional, first of all collective game, schitalki and other forms of a toss-up are sotsiokulturnym registration and realisation of game and paragame relations in children's community the Horror story — speech dramatisation of relations in children's group, the cultural form katarsisa, acting as means of mastering by the child own behaviour, it some kind of group psychotraining of children's fears, fear of darkness and pr the Horror story in children's subculture developed from terribly - cheerful"pugalki"(type« there is a goat horned ») — through actually horror story — awful histories of the fantastic or household maintenance (type« in one black-black city ») — to modern is cynical-witty to" sadistic rhymes »[the World of the childhood and traditional culture, 1990, 1996, Plehanova AI, 1995, Che-rednikova M P, 1995] In children's subculture investment with nicknames and nicknames — is means tabuirovanija personal names As well as nurseries «secret languages», nicknames serve isolation and autonomism of children's community, its accurate internal structurization and the special form of its individualization Some nicknames, representing krosskudturnoe the phenomenon, model the role program of relations in group and regulate behaviour of the separate child in the social organisation of children's community [Nagge R. 1993; Krajg G, 2000]. Children's slovotvorchestvo, especially double-dealing fellows — special verbal microforms in which the norm or the obvious phenomenon is inside out turned out becomes improbable, problematizirujutsja the standard representations (for example, «the village by the muzhik» went. The roots these "lepye nelepitsy" (K.Chukovsky) leave in national humorous culture as means rasshiyorenija consciousnesses, creative reconsideration of the world [Chukovskij K.I., 1985; Yakobson R, 1985; Abramenkova, 1974]. The humorous world of the childhood also is built in children's subculture along with the world terrible, dangerous, and also with the world divine, mystical — in sotsiokulturnoj regulation of a life of children's community. The special role here belongs to children-rascals as to clowns and fools in Russian fairy tale [to Amonashvili ShC.A., 1983; Lihachev D.S., Panchenko A.M. and DR, 1984].

Owing to special mifologichnosti children's consciousness with belief in sverhestestyovennoe, requirement for finding of the higher centre of the complete world, its Creator and the Almighty, each child is naturally religious. Children's spirituality is a component of children's subculture, its vertical "sixth" measurement of relations of the child; it is such activity of its consciousness which it is directed on definition of criteria of good and harm, in compliance with the Creator as to highest authority [Zenkovsky V.V., 1993; Nechiporov B.V., 1994; Florensky Item A, 1990; Church, children and the modern world, 1997].

The carrier of children's subculture is the children's group, children's soobshcheyostvo, formed on enough early steps sotsiogeneza mankind and individual history of the person in the course of the joint activity of children directed on mastering and reproduction by them of socio-historical experience and forms of human mutual relations [by Elkonin D.B., 1978; Maan O. V, 1995; Knebel H, 1981; Fortunatov G. A,

1925; Children's collective and the child, 1926; Kosven M. O, 1953,1963]. Functions of children's subculture the basic function of children's subculture-socialising, and the basic agent of socialisation acts group of contemporaries. Already at the earliest stages sotsio - and ontogeneza children's community together (and at times and instead of!) with a family incurs roles-training and bringing up. In the children's environment it is sometimes rigid enough by means of traditional cultural means - a children's legal life, children's folklore and game rules - there is a submission of the child to group norms and mastering by it own behaviour, so, its formation as persons. Besides, the major and very first personal category — a sex the-child acquires in many respects thanks to other children, boys and girls, the role of children's group in formation of sexual identity is difficult for overestimating is, first.

The children's subculture, secondly, gives to the child a fan of potentialities for self-realisation, an experimental platform for oprobyvanija itself, delimitations of the possibilities, immersing it in other logicians, other worlds and languages. Thirdly, the space of children's subculture creates to the child "psychological shelter", protection against adverse influences of the adult world, it means, that the children's subculture carries out psychotherapeutic function For example, a horror story as training of uneasiness and fear of darkness, or draznilka as themselves and training of cultural communicative abilities and pr forms of children's folklore represent psychological means of possession is not artificial created, and the natural psychotherapeutic means used by children's community throughout millenia. The children's subculture, fourthly, carries out kulturoohranitelnuju function: In its bowels genres, oral texts, ceremonies, elements sakralnosti, lost by a modern civilisation remain. Many ethnographers and specialists in folklore mark moving of cultural values from use of adults in the children's environment as the moment of preservation of traditions with the updated functionality Just as children's language helps to find obyoshchie linguistic laws, the remained historical certificates of an extreme antiquity, children's folklore, a children's fairy tale find in children's games miracle, nicknames and religious representations inform to us diverse forms and shades of human relations, ethical standards, aesthetic samples of various epoch. For example, the fairy tale, which  destruction predicted outstanding scientists - skazkovedy, lives, thanks to existence of children's subculture [Fairy tales of our house, 1996]. On a fairy tale example how we could be convinced, the evolutionary sense - special mission of children's subculture e culture development in general distinctly appears, to keep (and suddenly it is useful?) that is forgotten, has dropped out, is lost in culture of mankind

In children's subculture there are the mechanisms helping the child vyyorabotat readiness for decisions of problems which will appear in the future, on the following phase of its development and to generate algorithm of adequate action. In it (prophetical) function of children's subculture is shown special prognosticheskaja. problematiziruja and pereosmysljaja the historical heritage of adults, children's subculture highlights points of growth of universal culture. In it its spiritual mission, on expression of the known English scientist At Emerson, "Children - the eternal Messiahs of mankind, an embodiment of its inevitable future". Mutual relations of culture of adults and children's subculture carry dostayotochno difficult and ambiguous character in personal formation of the child In children's subculture it is necessary to see an original way of development by the child of the new parties of the social validity and its self-affirmation in it children's subculture tastes, a fashion, language and ways of interactions are defined, and the group of contemporaries is a referential source of numerous models of behaviour, creating prototypes of adult relations which sootnosimy with the social and cultural norms, helping to understand itself, to test forces Each of social institutes (a family and group of contemporaries) represents alternative referential sources of a choice of models of behaviour, however in situations of social crises and instability the share of group of contemporaries increases. She starts to play a prevailing role in the course of socialisation /

If the family and in general the adult carries out "a zone, the nearest development of the child" (h.p. Vygotsky), preparing it to development of social norms, values and stereotypes of the given culture (for example, social and economic orientations, a religious accessory and so forth) That children's community, children's subculture, and especially referential children's group causes a zone varia-tivnogo developments (ZVR), setting simultaneous existence and "muster" of different cultures, others the logician, providing readiness of the child for the decision of problems in unforeseen circumstances. Unlike a zone of the nearest development (ZBR), defined in a context of cooperation of the child with the adult in the course of training, the zone variativnogo developments (ZVR) is set by group of contemporaries in the course of game interaction and dialogue, thus sign becomes not only a word, and action, movement, the image, gesture. It means, that sense ZVR for children's subculture in an establishment of communication with generality of culture through own slovotvorchestvo, folklore, the mythology, traditional game. Variability, "inakovost", originality of the maintenance of children's subculture provides, on the one hand, orientation to the lost, forgotten forms of human culture, and with another - forecasting of new ways of its development.

In space of children's subculture (games, children's folklore) contain layers of a various antiquity, joining to which the child enters a zone variativnogo developments in a mode of "dialogue of cultures" [Bibler B.C., 1975], "others" the logician, moral representations, languages. Especially it is characteristic for the children's folklore, which in itself is a variability zone. Variability as a matter of fact is peculiar actually to all genres of children's folklore. In historical and cultural situations which can be characterised as uncertain, traditional mechanisms of transfer of knowledge are loosened, the zone variativnogo developments at which children start to be guided not only and not so much by adults, but in bolshej degrees on the advanced contemporaries extends. ZVR in children's group it is presented by a set of various strategy of the decision of problem situations in unforeseen conditions. The maintenance of children's subculture are not only actual for a mass culture of feature of behaviour, consciousness, activity, but also sotsiokultur th, sotsiogeneticheskie invarianty-is relative steady in time and space images, models, the texts representing "splinters" of various epoch, traces of memory of last experience the mankind transferred from generation to generation of children.

In end of this part by the author the general conclusions and zakljuyochenie are formulated.

The third part of research «the Experimental analysis of genesis otyonosheny the child in groups of contemporaries» consists of five heads and is devoted the theorist to a-experimental research of display of humane relations to the contemporary in children's groups of different age. In 6 head «the Problem of the humane relation as special form projavyolenija interpersonal relations in children's group» are described tradiyotsionnye directions of studying of humane relations of the child, such, as empa-tija, altruism, kooperativnost as helping behaviour; the attention to the question on the mechanism of display of humane relations is brought (in the tideway of identification concepts), the review of researches of the given problem in domestic psychology and pedagogics is given and the phenomenon of collectivist (solidary) identification (KI) in children's groups as the operational scheme of studying of humane relations is offered. The experimental research of genesis of relations in children's groups in a context of social psychology of the childhood was carried out in a direction of studying of interpersonal foggy relations which embody stanovyolenie in consciousness and behaviour of the child of value of other person (sverstniyoka), experiences of its successes and failures as own and promoting behaviour. The richest filosofsko-ethical tradition and not passing urgency of a problem of humane relations between people have put it abreast one of the thorny questions of modern psychology. This interest is caused by its unconditional practical importance and theoretical value. Even the passing on a huge file of researches on studying of humane relations at children allows to see absence of unequivocal terminology for a designation of this circle of the phenomena. The most accepted in foreign psychology is the concept «prosotsialnoe behaviour», which in itself it would be possible to dissolve on three basic channels. These are works in area empa-tii, altruistic behaviour, and also a direction designated in liteyorature as helping behaviour - behaviour of the help, kooperativnost (Feschbach and Roe, 1969; Masters, 1972; Staub, 1970; Aronfred, 1970; Green and Schneider, 1974; Hartshome and May, 1928; Hoffinan, 1970 other, and also see Etc. Gavrilova,

1975, E.V.Subbotskij/1977).

The problem of the humane relation of the child to the contemporary has so old history and so rich methodical arsenal, that self-evident the taken roots practice of experimental isolation of the child from "extraneous" influences of environment, at first sight, can seem. It is reached by means of elimination of group and its inevitable pressure. Known limitation of this reception, in turn, has inevitably affected representation about relations of children as emotional on advantage, and «empirical vacuum», disconnexion of the individual from interaction with others provoked, besides will of authors, unilateral treatment of pro-social relations as direct connections.

3 it is necessary to notice, that primenitelno «to studying of mastering moral holes children (stability to temptations, honesty and similar) the traditional scheme of empirical isolation of the child when it appears alone either with the experimenter, or with itself(himself), can be justified reasons of" cleanliness of experiment "though we completely agree with E.V.Subbotsky marking especially abstract character of similar experiments/Subbotsky, 1976/However when speech comes about studying of prosocial behaviour in aspect of the humane relations, the similar empirical scheme depriving the child of its natural environment, hardly probable can be considered adequate as it excludes a object of research - real another and joint with it dejatelyonost.

At the same time in many works of domestic authors on a problem guyomannyh relations collective activity of children appears not simply twisted in a fabric of researches of children's mutual relations as a necessary condition of their existence, but also THAT acts as means of formation of relations [Repin, 1988, Yakobson SG, SHCHur VG, 1973 ', Voltsis KJA, 1972, to Drill PC, 1968, Matis THAT, 1977, TSukerman G A, 1996] and dr This list can be filled up numerous ekspeyorimentalnymi by researches of interpersonal relations in real detyoskih groups {Babayev T And, 1975, Kolominsky I L, 1976, 1984, Karpova With N, Lysjuk L G, 1986, Kotyrlo In To, 1987, Rudovsky And L, 1968 and dr) in which positive (humane) relations between children are established

The theoretical analysis of a problem has shown, that actually psychological object of research of humane relations is rather amorphously outlined in the scientific literature that has demanded to define their psychological nature and to plan concrete methodical approaches to their studying the Analysis also has shown, that the subject of psychological studying of humane relations cannot be reduced to one of such phenomena intensively investigated in foreign psychology as altruism, empathy and kooperativnost as helping behaviour, to their sum, and methodical schemes of their studying require essential revision by Common fault of theoretical representations about the nature of empathy, altruism and kooperativnosti, is obvious or implicit assotsiiruemyh in foreign psychology with humane or so-called "prosocial" relations, that joint activity of children which only and generates humane relations actually drops out of a field of attention of representatives of various concepts is, oposredstvuja their Such displays of humane relations as active soradovanie to successes and effective compassion to failures of the contemporary, cannot be experimentally attacked "in a forehead", are studied by means of let most laborious research of consciousness of the child or its individual behaviour Operatsionalizatsiej of the humane relation to the contemporary in children's group the phenomenon of collectivist (solidary) identification (KI), akyotivno studied in the theory dejatelnostnogo oposredstvovanija interpersonal relations And In Petrovsky and its employees [Petrovsky And In, 1983,1984, the Psychological theory of collective, 1979 has acted, the Psychology of the developing person, 1987, Petrovsky In And, 1973] KI is an indicator of reorganisation of phenomenology of interpersonal relations in group, reflects process of a humanisation of relations of the child with the world

In 7 head «the Program of an experimental research of the humane relation in children's groups» problems, hypotheses are formulated a problem, procedure of carrying out of research of humane relations and its methodical device is described, the general characteristic of experimental techniques and means of processing of an empirical material On the basis of a methodical principle of change of a social position in joint activity is given and the developed program of an experimental research a number of techniques which have allowed to simulate various on character and authorisation types real situations of joint activity has been created and with sufficient degree of reliability to fix displays of the humane relation to the contemporary at children the First hypothesis comprises the assumption of dependence of displays of the humane relation to the contemporary at children from character of their joint activity, The second hypothesis consists in the assumption of various character of displays KI as humane relation of the child to the contemporary depending on various ways of stimulation — punishments and awards the Third hypothesis concerns character of influence on display of humane relations individnyh characteristics of children - their age features and a sex

The author gives the detailed description of the methodical device with fotograyofijami the used experimental device — a board game the Described procedures of research and means of processing of an empirical material were applied in all experimental situations of studying humane from carrying, in more advanced ages experimental situations they have been adapted for age and other conditions In chapter 8 «the Role of joint activity of children in display and development of the humane relation to the contemporary» the empirical facts and the dependences received by the author in an experimental research of display of collectivist identification in various groups of children — the senior preschool children, ml of schoolboys and teenagers are stated, the structure of relations in children's groups in the course of joint activity is defined urovnevaja, I am established formulated obshchepsihologicheskaja law oposredstvo-vanija relations as «a development parallelogramme» (or «a genesis parallelogramme oposredstvovanija») As have shown the analysis of data of research, the humane relation to the contemporary, acting in the form of collectivist identification, there are at the senior preschool age on a boundary of the sixth and seventh years of a life of the child Children senior and preparatory to school of age groups of a kindergarten at the interactive activity constructed by a principle «one for all and all for one» is significant in bolshej degrees show the humane relation to the contemporary in a situation of its punishment, than at koaktivnoj, answering formula «nearby, but not together» the Uniform field of functioning of individuals in the group, created by an interactive situation, and change of a position of each child in joint activity oposredstvujut display of the humane relation to the contemporary in the conditions of its punishment, Causing feeling of participation of children to a group problem, feeling of a generality and a unification the compatibility Situation unites individuals in group, pulls together them and establishes certain degree of identity between them Therefore, having had an opportunity to compare and compare own position and position of another in a punishment situation, the child as though puts it on the place, having an opportunity to concern it as to itself so, and to operate according to this relation In other words, the interactive situation facilitates identification with another, providing with that the humane relation to the contemporary and action on elimination of its trouble the Special conversation after experiment carrying out has revealed a divergence of verbal and real behaviour at preschool children which can appear, except other, a consequence of insufficient regulation of own behaviour according to intention. Therefore the true desire of the child not always can cause adequate action, for example, the motive avoids punishment of the contemporary can not to be realised at operational level owing to imperfection of "performing" mechanisms of the preschool child. Besides, such mismatch, certainly, can be connected with intended demonstration by the majority of children of socially approved behaviour in the presence of contemporaries and the adult.

At ml. Schoolboys of 8-11 years of display of the humane relation in the form of collectivist identification to sotsiometricheskomu to the leader, i.e. To the child "popular" and to the child "unpopular", significantly do not differ. Differently, at this age the expressed liking to the child, shown in its high sotsiometricheskom the status, does not influence compassion in a situation of punishment and on soradovanie in an award situation. At teenage age this law cardinally varies: indicators of collectivist identification to the child with high sotsiometricheskim the status in a situation, both punishments, and awards, significantly above, than to the child with low sotsiometricheskim the status. At this age accurate dependence of displays of the humane relation to the contemporary on presence or absence of liking to it is traced: The one whom prefer in sotsiometricheskih elections, to the full receives from companions and compassion and soradovanie, and to whom do not test liking, appears in a role of "whipping boy" for errors and failures of all group.

About nesvodimosti a phenomenon of collectivist identification to various emotional preferences in preschool and ml.shkolnom age the fact of absence of influence sotsiometricheskogo the status of the child on display to it of effective compassion and soradovanija testifies. The main determinant of display of collectivist identification as humane relation to the contemporary is joint activity, its maintenance and valuable characteristics. The humane relation of preschool children and partly at ml. Schoolboys it is determined by joint activity of interactive type in which "the compatibility moment" is expressed most brightly. In 10-13 years influence of interactive activity as "stimulus-means" of humane interpersonal relations weakens. Domination of interactive joint activity as external tool of mastering by humane relations at preschool children and younger schoolboys is replaced by its subordinated position at teenagers. The verbal estimation of own efforts of the examinees, revealed in spetsiyoalnoj to conversation, conflicts to experimental data of real behaviour: children are is more often inclined to estimate the behaviour as directed on the blessing of the contemporary, thus only about half of children really so arrive. Specificity of behaviour KI at preschool children is it situativ-nost, first, as dependence on an actual situation of joint activity of children and, secondly, as variability, instability of behaviour of the child in the same situations Extreme degree of expression situativnosti (instability) is ambivalence of behaviour of children as discrepancy of their humane relation to the contemporary, a conflictness of desires, struggle between it "is necessary" and it "would be desirable"

The humane interpersonal relations mediated by joint activity in children's groups have urovnevuju the organisation which vkljuyochaet is functional-role, emotionally-estimated and lichnostno-semantic relations between contemporaries Is functional-role otnosheyonija are presented by norm of humanity which as the special conversation and individual gaugings have shown, is well enough realised by children Emotionally-estimated relations as the branched out system of emotional communications and preferences has been opened full enough at sotsiometricheskom interrogation Lichnostno-semantic relations are necessary communications developing in joint activity which are realised in the activity Thus by motive of action of each participant of such relations there is a contemporary as "significant another" Arising in real interaction of children, These communications possess certain independence of direct emotional preferences of the child senior preschool and younger school age Moreover, this layer of relations makes essential impact on emotionally-estimated relations of type of liking of/antipathies, at times changing their sign on opposite If children preschool and ml school age are equally inclined to show the humane relation in the form of collectivist identification to the child with high / low sotsiometricheskim the status (for them is important the structure of joint activity) for teenagers it is not indifferent sotsiometrichesky the status of the contemporary with which they co-operates as at this age, especially in 12-13 years, subjective preferences and otverzhenija pass in the lichnostno-semantic plan and in itself start to define this or that orientation of joint activity of children

In work it is shown, that formation of interpersonal relations in children's groups submits obshchepsihologicheskoj to law of development (the L With Vygotsky, A.N Leontev), named «a development parallelogramme», t e guyomannye relations to the contemporary submits to the law of transition from neposredyostvennyh forms and ways of behaviour at first to outwardly - and then to internally oposredstvovannym, to forms arising in the course of cultural development But if in experiments And N Leonteva in quality oposredstvujushchego a sign this or that object (for example, pictures acted as the support for storing) in our research as the carrier of norm of humanity definitely organised joint activity It acted means, that the norm of humanity embodied in is functional-role relations of joint activity, at certain stages ontogeneza interio-riziruetsja and starts to determine dynamics of interpersonal communications without a support on external means, As passes in the lichnostno-semantic plan In situations interactive and koaktivnogo interactions two lines of development of humane relations at first disperse, and then sharply approach, practically coinciding in 10-11-тилетнем age, accepting the graphic form of a parallelogramme - of a parallelogramme of genesis oposredstvovanija. The norm of humanity is staticized and reaches the maximum only at interactive joint activity which, as a matter of fact, is the special social means promoting display of humane relations in children's group. Koak-tivnaja the activity constructed by a principle "nearby, but not together", in ontogeneze represents genetically, earlier form of relations of children and is the primary direct form of the social organisation of children's groups. Such joint activity is as a matter of fact only outwardly joint, perhaps — pseudo-joint, like what it happens at animals {Leoshev A.N., 1983; Simonov of the Item of Century 1976J.

Domination of interactive joint activity as external instyorumenta mastering by humane relations at preschool children and younger schoolboys is replaced by its subordinated position at teenagers. According to the author, behind this fact there is not "dying off" of a determining role of joint activity in display of humane relations, and transition of external means of the organisation of interpersonal interaction in internal, interio-rizovannye means. The norm of humanity acquired by the child receives the nrvuju a life in the form of the humane semantic installations of the person shown in readiness of the subject to operate for the blessing of other person [Abramenkova V.V., 1987, 1996; Asmolov A.G., 1990; bratus B. S, 1994], About presence of humane semantic installations can indirectly testify and verbal behaviour of children which appeal first of all to moral categories of justice. For example, Andrey D (10 years): "And why it is excluded only Lesha? It is unfair!" Sasha M (12 years): "it seems To me, that is dishonest, when one will punish for all". Certainly, in a real life of children in the situations which are not mentioned by experiment, relations in which the humane beginning is shown also are possible, for example in direct reactions of the child to trouble of the contemporary [See: Babaeva T.I., 1975; Kulchitskaja E.I., 1965; Rudovskaja I.L., 1968; Education of humane feelings..., 1987; Karpova S.N., Ly-sjuk L.G., 1986; Yakobson Of this year, 1984, etc.] . It is necessary to notice, that after more half a century after L.S.VyYogotskim and A.N.Leontevgm's detection of laws of development of the higher mental functions similar results have been received by M.Cole and its colleagues at studying of genesis of thinking in the African and American cultures [Griffin, Cole, 1984]. Evristichnost concepts «a genesis parallelogramme oposredstvovanija», the shown A.N.Leontevym and M.Cole with reference to the higher mental functions (to memory and thinking), is found out in sphere of genesis of relations in social psychology of the childhood.

Research of a phenomenon of collectivist identification (KI) as indiyokatora humane relations at children's age allowed to allocate sledujuyoshchie its characteristics: it expresses dejatelnostno - oposredstvovannyj type of humane vzaimo-relations in group — the relation to the child in group as to itself(himself); the given type of relations arises in interactive joint activity; another ", for the sake of what or thanks to which it carries out the actions, lich-nostno-semantic communications act as rather independent of emotionally-estimated communications of children in group becomes motive of the child participating in joint activity real or imagined" personalised

Differently, collectivist identification as certain type of humane relations is the semantic form reprezentatsii group of such communications of the subject with others which will transform its personal position At the same time a characteristic egocentrism for the children's age, shown both in informative sphere, and in dialogue sphere, interferes with development of humane relations However special means (joint activity) lead detsentratsii the child in sphere of interpersonal relations, develop at it ability to concern another as to itself Change of a social position of the child in system of mutual relations is provided with change integrated / partsialnoju authorisation when the child becomes responsible for well-being of the contemporary Besides, interactive joint dejayotelnost through a generality of experiences of children in group allows to establish relations retsiproknosti (ravnopravnosti) which staticize mehayonizm identifications

The children's group (is wider-children's community), being included in sotsi - alnye circumstances of development of a society (political, economic, legal and dr), receives own social status defined historical and cultural and chronological

Characteristics of children's age in the given society

In the course of joint activity as in special social space occurs pourovnevoe structurization of a complete picture mezhlichnostyonyh relations in children's group In groups of children of the senior preschool, younger school and teenage age various layers of relations is functional-role, emotionally-estimated relations and lichnostno-semantic communications are fixed

The subject plan of joint activity is presented by the is functional-role relations which studying is connected with answers to questions "Where relations ' are developed?" (In game, study, work on self-service, round this or that activity) and "That they reflect '?" (Norms, the samples, certain "technology" of activity, the right and a duty of its participants) the Tool plan of joint activity is presented by the emotionally-estimated relations which studying is connected with answers to questions "What is relations?"And"how they function"? 11 These relations are shown, in particular, in a choice of partners in joint activity of Motive-tsionnyp the plan of joint activity is presented by the lichnostno-semantic relations which studying is connected with the answer to a question ' For the sake of what for the sake of whom, for the sake of what values joint activity ' is carried out? " At this last plan the contemporary as "significant another" Arising in real vzaimodejsgvii children becomes motive of action of each participant such otyonosheny, these communications possess certain independence of direct emotional preferences of the child senior preschool and younger school age Moreover, this layer of relations makes essential impact on emotionally-estimated relations of type of liking - antipathies, at times changing their sign on opposite If children preschool and younger school age are equally inclined to show the humane relation in the form of collectivist identification to the child with high and to the child with low sotsiometricheskim the status (for them is important the structure of joint activity) for teenagers it is not indifferent sotsiometrichesky the status of the contemporary with which they co-operates as at this age, especially in 12-13 years, Subjective preferences and otverzhenija pass in the lichnostno-semantic plan and in itself start to define this or that orientation of joint activity of children

In chapter 9 «the Role of punishment and the award in genesis of the humane relation of the child» are described traditions of studying of empathy as soradovanija in an award situation, results of comparative research of displays of compassion and soradovanija at preschool children and ml of schoolboys are stated, the psychological and spiritual nature of genesis soradovanija is opened, comparison soradovanija is given and intellectual development of the child, are found out about sources soradovanija

If "stradatelnost human existence" (From L Rubinshtejn) it has appeared a subject of consideration of the overwhelming majority of philosophical and ethical researches and as psychological works in the field of humane (prosocial) behaviour the analysis of forms of assistance of another's pleasure did not occupy attention of researchers At the same time soradovanie as the form of inclusion of other child in own pleasure, it is observed at children early enough, already on the second year of a life when the child feeling pleasure from dialogue with the adult, tries to attach to it other children the Child more advanced age sometimes gets the contemporary to take part in any pleasure which uses itself (sweets, toys), and this situation does not assume a consolation owing to distressa [Lysenko N And, 1952, Avdeev N N, Meshcherjakova With JU, 1996] as the small child is inclined, more likely, To avoid a situation of trouble of the contemporary and it is thus capable to be connected actively to a situation of its fun, pleasure (Izard To, 1980]

Quantity indicators - "indexes soradovanija", received in groups of preschool children, said that children in the course of joint activity promoted reception of the award by the contemporary in the same degree (or more toju), as well as to reception of own award Data of supervision poyozvoljali to ascertain increase in the general activity of children in this situation, major tone of game, joint expectation of a prize, active displays of pleasure of each participant staticize pleasure for another, promote that children work for reception by "foreman" of the award the same as for reception of own award the Joyful emotional spirit in the group, arisen thanks to joint game, as though lasted, irradiiroval, extending on a situation "works for another" However in P a game display soradosti, as a rule, collapsed, turning to the contrast children often united against "foreman", In verbal displays in exchange "we" appeared "it and we" in what group division was expressed, alienation of children from one It testified that ability to effective soradovaniju at children's age possesses enough narrow sphere of display by a small stock durability

As a whole, research has shown, that joint activity interaktivyonogo type is a fertile field, a condition for folding of the humane relation to the contemporary not only as effective compassion, but also active soradovanija to it the Analysis of the literature, experimental data to supervision allow to come out with the assumption of spiritually-psychological distinctions in formation at the child of ability to empathy as to compassion and empathy as soradovaniju Most likely, it is connected by that these two displays of empathy have the various psychological nature, genetically earlier form of empathy is soradova-nie as anti-envy in a consequence nerastorzhenija itself and another, empathy as the compassion arises much later and Education of humane feelings, 1987] is connected with certain level of a reflexion [Bauer T, 1979, Babayev T And, 1975,

As a result of comparative research of level intellectual razyovitija (on Piazhe) and abilities of the child - of the preschool child soradovatsja to successes of the contemporary inverse relationship «mind and kindness» more often soradujutsja kind has been fixed, but "foolish" children, and kindness decreases on a measure of "mind addition»

In sotsiogeneze analogues of display soradovanija are traced on an example of development of custom of the hospitality which were taking place already during an epoch pervobytyonosti [Aetipov 1 And, 1987, I ardanov In To, 1959, Kosven M 0, 1963, Pershits And And, 1985] However this norm of humane relations has been penetrated by spirit ekyovivalentnosti (by a principle you - me, I - you) and only with occurrence and distribution of ideas of Christianity when appeared a recognition of value of the concrete person as divine embodiment (especially in sootvetstyovii with last from Ten precepts — «do not wish the wife of near yours, neither its house, nor its slave, neither its ox, nor its all property»), have appeared possibility of development of norm of justice on bases of mercy, love, instead of equivalence [Axes BJi, 1995, Mercy, 1998,

The psychology and ethics, 1999] Display of such norm also is soradovanie as anti-envy

Chapter 10 «Influence of age and a floor of children on display and development of the humane relation to the contemporary» is devoted a role individnyh characteristics in genesis of humane relations in children's groups Objective difficulties of studying of sexual differentiation were obuyoslovleny that at attempts of interpretation of the received distinctions researchers invariably appear in a captivity of the scheme of double determination of development of the child either biological, or social it is obvious, that the sexual differentiation cannot be unequivocally defined any of these factors or their addition the Essence of sexual differentiation in psychology of development of the person consists in formation of a psychological sex of a child which is based on sexual consciousness and valuable orientations, polorolevoj positions of the person realised by it in dialogue and activity As a result of this process biologically given floor during socialisation appears set, that leads to comprehension of own sex by the subject, Formation of sexual identity and corresponding to the given culture polorolevyh orientation and samples of behaviour

The sexual differentiation finds psychological sense for the person, only being included in its activity, especially in joint dejatelyonost with others the Essence dejatelnostnogo the approach to a problem of sexual differentiation in that and consists to define a place and a role of joint activity in formation of a psychological floor of the person both in a context ontogeneticheskogo developments of the individual, and in historical and cultural aspect of formation and functioning of corresponding norms and samples polorolevogo behaviour

As has shown research, the humane relation to the contemporary in groups of the floor as collectivist (solidary) identification arises at the senior preschool age on a boundary of 6th and 7th years of a life of the child By the end of preschool age this form of mutual relations in the course of the formation does transition from variativnoj and the unstable characteristic - to rather steady and independent

Genesis of the humane relation to the contemporary at preschool children is connected with their sex as follows First, at girls in all situations of joint activity indicators of interpersonal humane relations more low, than at boys, t, e they appear "are more selfish" Secondly, girls show higher level of a reflexion and social responsibility, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, big, than boys, psychological flexibility - ability to show socially approved forms of behaviour (first of all in verbal sphere) Thirdly, at girls and at boys are found out distinctions in orientations to social objects if for boys the group of contemporaries ceoero a floor appears referential, lichnostno significant for girls not group of contemporaries, and the adult is allocated with property referentnosti Approximately to eight-year age boys appear in display of interpersonal relations in group of contemporaries more humane, Than girls in group of contemporaries On a boundary of 9-10 years this parity "turns over" in favour of girls, and by 12—13 years is equalised

According to the author, the original reason of the found out distinctions is not the sex, taken in itself, and those distinctions in the social status and a polo-role position which are set by forms which have historically developed in culture of mutual relations at men and at the women, found in behaviour of modern children In this connection it would be more correct to speak the reflexion not about direct influence of a floor on display of interpersonal humane relations in children's group, and about influence of historically developed way of dialogue and mutual relations of individuals depending on their sex of L With Vygotsky the Individual in the behaviour wrote "Genetic diversity tchnosti, a various antiquity comprising layers (my - italics In, informs it extraordinary difficult construction" [Vygotsky, 1984, t 3 finds out in zayostyvshem a kind the various phases of development finished already, With 63] Formation of a psychological floor of the person in ontogeneze also bears on itself a print of different epoch of development of a human society In each of these age periods the ensemble of a combination of various situations of joint activity of children in group and their sexual differentiation Boys is unique and girls differently appear are sensitive to certain aspects of joint activity as to compatibility degree — interactive or koaktivnoj, and to the form of its authorisation — punishments and awards Thus girls of all age in these displays find out big in comparison with boys variability as dependence on a situation, flexibility, adaptability

Dynamics of displays of the humane relation of children in groups of the floor in a context of sexual differentiation is caused by influence historical and cultural naplastovany, fixed in such forms as, for example, customs, social expectations, behaviour stereotypes, folklore and dr, t e each age stage can staticize this or that layer sotsiogeneza interpersonal relations

The third part of dissertational research comes to the end with materials for practice of education which allow to formulate the psihologo-pedagogical recommendations aimed at the organisation of education guyomannyh of relations of the child in group of contemporaries the Author believes, that the activity of interactive type assuming real cooperation of children and change of a social position Thus should be put in a basis of construction of various games and employment of children it is necessary to set such motivation of activity which would promote displays soradovanija in relation to successes of participants of joint activity, paying special attention on observance of norm of justice at an estimation of its participants and in distribution of encouragements Phenomena of compassion and soradovanija act, on the one hand, as a condition of a high-grade growing of the child, and on the other hand, criteria of its personal development

The fourth part of dissertational research «the Picture of the world of the child as space of relations in children's subculture» consists of three heads and is devoted a statement of various aspects of a children's picture of the world of space of environment, social space of adults and contemporaries and virtual (screen) space of the information environment

In chapter 11 «the Relation of the child to the basic components of a picture of the world» making pictures of the world of the child in connection with vozmozhnoyostju studying of "children's public opinion» are allocated, the danger symbolics in space of environment surrounding the child is described, the graphic and verbal analysis of the relation of children of various regions of the country to such that-nogennym is given to objects as atomic power stations in ontogeneze and as sotsio-genetic interpretation of the received data In the head also is proved necessity of creation of a new method — visual sotsiopsihologii, its methodical embodiment — a technique "Runy" is described and research of the relation of children and adults to the atomic power station by means of this technique is stated Further researches of space of relations of the child to environment In end of the head are summed up research of relations of the child to other components of a picture of the world to social space of a family and school is described, To moral space of good and harm and "internal" personal space of relations to the future

In children's subculture there is a special system of values, representations, relations of the child is the children's picture of the world having the is figurative-visual nature and representing system of graphic and colour values which semantics is cultural caused and based on sotsiogene-ticheskih invariantah which can be fixed in children's drawing in the form of visual arhetipicheskih, sotsiotipicheskih and stereotypical images

In the tideway of social psychology of the childhood the approach and methodology of mainly nonverbal character is offered, allowing to carry out diyoagnostiku relations of the child to the world, to other people and with pomoyoshchju a method visual sotsiiopsihologii which essence in use of the allocated cultural symbols, signs, schemes as indicators of semantic relations of the person to those or other parties of life by the Author is used here concept a graphic archetype which acts in a context of the invariant cultural form of the visual plan and naturally there is among with concepts a graphic social type and a stereotype Graphic (visual) archetypes are the most generalised polymodal unconscious structures and numerous cultural symbols under construction on their basis which in with-tsiogeneze are embodied in the signs, the standardised images of social objects - social types, And then and in graphic stereotypes - as much as possible recognised sign cliches Realization of a method visual sotsiopsihologii has been carried out in the techniques created by the author "Runy", «the Alphabet of aliens», and also in the developed graphic criteria of an estimation of children's drawings Children's visual model of the world represents set various vzaimoperesekajupshchhsja spheres, socially - psychological semantic spaces opening the relations of the child in system "I - the WORLD" this space of environment, social space of adults and contemporaries, moral space (a good and harm category) and space having appeared-leny about itself and the world in the future

In a context of space of environment as one of components of a children's picture of the world had been allocated symbolics of danger which is connected with the various phenomena as natural (acts of nature), social (wars, confrontations), and technogenic (explosions, fires and other ecological accidents) In a social situation of development 80 - the beginnings of 90th years have got the greatest ecological sharpness such man-made technical objects as atomic power stations the Given research of representations of children about the atomic power stations, begun to Chernobyl, has shown emotionally negative to the atomic power station the attitude of children of the different age, expressed in the visual form of drawing and in verbal statements, the last, however, have appeared much more poorly the first «the Children's public opinion» concerning the atomic power station is presented arhetipicheskoj by symbolics of danger and the death similar with developed in different cultures, myths and legends pictures of earthquakes, fires, Eruptions of volcanoes and others natural kayotastrof attract attention essential distinctions in graphic representations about essence and appointment of the atomic power station at children in comparison with adults, especially, with men: if for last atomic power stations is the mainly technical object necessary for a life and is minimum dangerous (a symbol a-bulb) day of children - of teenagers is first of all the object of danger designated by symbolics of death (a symbol a-skull). In the given research it is carried out istoriko - cultural, sotsiogenetichesky the analysis of representations of various children's / adult groups about atomic power stations in a context of space of environment the Image of nuclear power as the part of a picture of the world sovremennoju the person has the deep historical and cultural prototypes In a modern social situation of "cultural explosion" (on well-aimed hayorakteristike JU Lotman [Lotman JU. 1992], worried the inefficiency of various forecasts about installations and interests of the population of Russia becomes our country, clear, constructed on traditional interrogations obshchestyovennogo opinions At the same time the children's public opinion is in opredeyolennoj to a measure public opinion of tomorrow which, thanks to intuition, can possess bolshej prognosticheskoj ability. As sociologists mark, children are socially-age group for which the aspiration to changes, ability to go "not general ways" is characteristic, a sharpness of perception of lacks of a social system and high degree of ecological consciousness [Golovaha E.I.i other, 1991; Adamovich And, 1988]

The moral space in a children's picture of the world - the relation of children to-shkolnogr - ml of school age to the basic moral categories of good and harm ("kind - good and malicious - bad") has the expressed graphic components, thus for half of boys of 7-8 years harm is represented more attractive, than kindly, they choose negative signs and symbols is more often As these children are characterised by high indicators of alarm, it is possible to assume, that they allocate hostile world around in their representation by negative lines of trouble, discomfort, destruction. At more senior children appeal of graphic indicators "bad, malicious", significantly decreases On the basis of a technique «the Alphabet of aliens» and test Kettela some typological features of children have been revealed, with orientation to the positive, negative or mixed moral standard (choice) Children with positive orientation are characterised high re-zistentnostju and stability, low values of uneasiness and nevrotizma, and also ekstravertirovannostju Children with negative orientation are characterised by low mental resistance and stability, high poyokazateljami uneasiness and introvertirovannosti Children with the mixed orientation are characterised by low mental resistance and stability, and also a little overestimated estimations of uneasiness and nevrotizma Representations about the future in a picture of the world of the child is most a positive image for all groups of children. If boys represent the future basically in professional sphere and partially in sphere of individual qualities (the big growth, muscles and other attributes of force, and also car presence) girls are excited as much as possible with them, first of all their appearance, clothes, house well-being and the future family relations occurs With the years differentiation of representations about the future both at boys, and at girls. Repeated research, later 6 years, I have shown changes of graphic presentations of children, especially younger age in the parties of an individualization own, first of all boys, (at the seniors in kultivirovanii physical strength with, at times, expressed enough criminal shade). At the same time at girls growth professionalizatsii, since seven-year age, (representation about itself in professional sphere, sometimes in traditionally "man's" trades, type «the director of firm») - is observed active at simultaneously sharp decrease in family orientation

At the child in a world picture representations about themselves and about the future differ If in drawings "My family" the feeling oboyosoblennosti and loneliness of the child in a family, its isolation, otdelennost from the world of adults that correlates with the general uneasiness, aggression and the low self-estimation, revealed on drawing "Nonexistent animal" predstavlennost in a picture of the world of the child of an image of its future it is opposite positive that testifies about optimistichnosti the general spirit of children of this period of the end 80 - the beginnings of 90th is reflected often

The children's subculture, possessing inexhaustible potential of variants stayonovlenija persons, in modern conditions gets value of the search mechanism of new directions of development of a society Children's public opinion-public opinion of tomorrow shows necessity of the reference to the analysis of a picture of the changing world for children's consciousness for understanding of the present and future forecasting.

Chapter 12 «Dynamics of a locus of orientation of the child on groups adult / contemporaries in a children's picture of the world» is devoted the major making picture of the world of the child - to social space of adults and contemporaries in a context of a locus of orientation as properties of group to act as the subject of influence on development of the person of the child by the Author the concept of a locus of orientation of the child is given, methods of its research are described, the comparative analysis of the personal importance of social groups of an accessory is given: families, detsadovskoj groups, a school class at children with the help risunochnyh tests, interview and projective situations. In work the importance of children's group for adults (tutors and teachers) also comes to light and its influences on the relation of children to accessory troupes Besides, the author gives the analysis of the personal importance makrosotsialnyh groups of adult / children by means of the developed projective situations. In end of the head researches of a locus of orientation in a children's picture of the world are summed up. Dynamics of a locus of orientation — is the change characteristic in ontogeneze the personal importance (referentnosti) for the child of social space of contemporaries and adults in a children's picture of the world Introduction of graphic criteria of an estimation referentnosti and the qualitative analysis of children's drawings have shown the general growth of the personal importance of social group in a picture of the world of the child from five to eight, and then by ten years, accompanied by growth of the importance of other people and an individualization I Projective drawing and projective game situations are the symbolical form of judgement the child of the personal importance of social group Social space of relations in a family and school is perceived by children, as divided into two parts - relations with adults and relations with contemporaries, Thus relations with contemporaries are perceived emoyotsionalno more positively Graphic presentations of space sotsialyonoj groups change with the years children from closed and closed at five-six-summer children to free from the unnecessary lines, opened at vosmiletok With the years a parity "physical / socially-psychological" in drawings "My family" — "My group" — "My class" essentially varies from the image of subjects — to the image of people, their relations in the symbolical form the Image of social group as "the World behind a fence" gives way to an image of group, "opened to the world" However in family drawing in comparison with drawings detsadovskoj group and a school class by eight years "the human space" restricts "space of things", is frequent to the detriment of people last years this tendency the relation to age classes "adults" and "children" increases For the child as soyotsialnym to macro-groups is caused in many respects by relations with a nearest environment, Therefore dynamics of a locus of orientation is the complex characteristic significant for the child micro-and macro-groups Age dynamics of a locus of orientation to different social groups at the child-preschool child appears mainly in an inclined plane of relations, he really prefers group of adults as the most adequate at the decision it of the vital problems However exists the certain circle of problems which the preschool child prefers to solve only in common with contemporaries, being guided by their opinion and an estimation, it occurs then, to-gda the social position of the child changes, from dependent it becomes actively helping In proksimicheskoj situations aktivnoju modelling by the child of the social space, symbolical designing of "ideal" social group the child forms for itself heterogeneous group on age, and in it contemporaries prevail, Which settle down it in immediate proximity from it At adults (tutors and teachers) graphic presentations bear inyoformatsiju about degree of the importance of children's group for the teacher, from in what degree social group as a live organism is presented in its consciousness, and in what degree he "sees" each child in it From it depends finally and a psychological climate of goodwill and creativity in children's group, on the one hand, and the subjective importance of the given social group for the child — about other Negative graphic point as the image of a class in consciousness of the teacher is directly connected with an uncooperative altitude of schoolboys to social space of the class as whole especially distinctly it is shown at first-graders an orientation Locus, those svojsgvo groups to act as the subject of influence on development of the person of the child, moves in the course of its course of life in a direction from social groups of adults on groups of contemporaries, But only the harmonious combination of these positive influences, peaceful co-existence of the world of the childhood in the adult world is capable to give to the child high-grade personal development

Chapter 13 «the Screen as the information environment in a children's picture of the world»

It is devoted influence a body - video - the computer screen on formirovatgae world pictures as systems of relations of the modern child Are discussed a problem of influence of the Screen as information environment on the child, its role in formation of a children's picture of the world by the Author by means of socially - psychological questionnaire is investigated influence of the Screen on children of various age and on their parents, and also the Screen place in a picture of the world of the modern child by means of a projective technique "Robinzon" comes to light

The screen as an embodiment of the teleinformation environment is the major agent of socialisation in a modern social situation of development of the child Now almost worldwide there is a problem of influence television, videos and the computer screen on mental development and personal formation of the child In the given research were used the various methodical means allowing from the different parties to analyse the relation of the modern child to the Screen the traditional questionnaire of the sociological plan, added with a visual technique "Runy" which has allowed to compare verbal answers with graphic symbols and to see distinctions/similarities of representations about the Screen place in a life of the modern child at the child and at his parents

predstavlennost the Screen in a children's picture of the world and its influence have appeared inversely proportional to age of children, t e the the child is more younger, the above it "zahvachennost" the Screen Parents have proved considerable lack of information on visual predilections of children, on time spent for the Screen, and also have shown a projection of the tastes concerning the maintenance of transfers and preference of programs Besides, not all parents consider as the child, that such displays as the pornography and violence from the screen, should be excluded, and some mums even have agreed with display of fights and cruelty as means of education For the majority of parents the computer-means of derivation of the child or «the bad companies», and computer games, in representation of a considerable part of parents, «develop thinking and memory of the child, train observation» These representations appear in obvious discrepancy with a popular belief in alarm of adults concerning negative influence of the Screen

Data of a projective technique "Robinzon", giving to the child vyyobor values, testify that as a whole the requirement for human dialogue appears prevailing value for teenagers - of seventh-graders (with accent on requirement for dialogue with contemporaries), at the same time for second-graders a little bit more low and - with accent on dialogue with parents. The lowest indicators are indicators of ninth-form boys (for them there is higher a value of knowledge), and less all pjatnadtsatiletnie feels requirement for dialogue with the fathers. Hedonistic value of a delicacy and carefree games has low indicators for all age and in regular intervals decreases from semiletok to pjatnadtsatiletnim while value of a printing word and radio raises with the years. Texnocratic value of the Screen gets the maximum value at second-graders and prevails over all other values at this age, t. e teenagers considerably differ from younger schoolboys in adherence to the Screen, hence, for short term (5-6 years) there were essential shifts in valuable orientations of children: from traditional - to texnocratic

If to speak obobshchenno about sexual differentiation in data issledoyovanii there is, that a female (girls/girls) as a whole more akyotivno, than man's, expresses the requirements (hedonistic, poznavayotelnye, communicative) and more accurately designates value of dialogue and interaction, in particular with mum, at that time the male (boys/young men) finds out the big adherence to tehnokraticheyoskim to values of the Screen, at the same time, half of the smallest girls-semiletok state requirement first of all in the computer, and only then in dialogue with mum. These paradoxical data testify, in our opinion, to essential transformations in a children's picture of the world last years.

Thus. The screen as the teleinformation environment is whole system of global influence on a mullions-strong children's audience, it, first, bears with itself(himself) changes in system of values: live human, direct gives way texnocratic, oposredstvovannomu (through the Screen) to dialogue and training, base requirements of the child, such, as requirement for game and dialogue with the adult and the contemporary and dr are transformed. Secondly, the Screen by means of optical effects, klipovosti and other receptions takes root into children's consciousness, transforming a children's picture of the world in other (virtual) reality. In the third, the information environment as a matter of fact replaces traditional socialisation of a family with "telescreen socialisation», designing «new morals» the new ethical standards rather far from universal moral samples and Christian precepts.

Valuable orientations of children basically lay in the field of traditional values (informative, communicative), however texnocratic value of the Screen at seven-year second-graders resists to all other values at this age that speaks about essential shifts in valuable orientations of children for the last years. Dissertational research terminates in 14 head «the Basic tenyodentsii developments of the modern Childhood in the end of the XX-th century: 70 - 80 - 90 years», the devoted characteristic of a social situation of development of the modern Childhood in Russia In the head are formulated the basic criteria of mental spiritually - moral well-being of the child and the factors conducting to its infringement, problems of sexual socialisation of boys and girls last years are discussed, questions of influence of game space and the teleinformation environment in transformations of a children's picture of the world Are compared also some empirical data of personal development of children of Russia and the USA

On the basis of the researches spent by the author in 70-80-90 years, nabljuyodeny and the literature analysis the conclusion about decrease in many indicators of quality of a life of the modern Childhood in sphere becomes is moral - the spiritual health which criteria are display of humane relations of the child to the subject world, to other people (to adults and contemporaries) and to itself, presence of a light optimistic picture of the world, subjective psiho - emotional well-being, joyful attitude and belief in the future It means, that humane relations of the child in the world and a society are ideal norm of communications of the person with the world which is, on the one hand, a condition of a high-grade growing of the child, and on the other hand, criterion of its personal development Owing to change of the general orientation of education with collectivist on individualist model, easings of game interactive forms of joint activity and other factors social, Political and psychological plans the author ascertains essential changes in the late nineties g g — systems of relations of the child to the world, First of all it concerns other people of display of interpersonal humane relations in children's group, relations at which experiences of the contemporary get the personal sense inducing to displays of compassion to its failures for the child and soradovanija Without such relations adequate personal development of the child and its formation in a society Growing degumanizatsija relations in the children's environment is impossible for its successes is expressed in extreme forms in growth of children's cruelty and teenage criminality, and also the general kriminali-zatsii children's subculture - its language, game forms of dialogue, the general installations

The major factors of psychological spiritual trouble of the child are also destruction existing on an extent tysjacheyolety natural institutes of socialisation of a family and children's community, and also influence of the tele-information environment Essential deformations vnut-risemejnyh the relations, shown in vzaimootchuzhdenii children and parents, rupture of warm emotional communications between the senior and growing up generation, are the central reason psihoyoemotsionalnogo trouble of the child in a family

Other major factor, a spiritual illness of the child Disharmony of its relations in system «the child - the child» acts, in children's subculture It is necessary to ascertain, that many cultural forms, such as texts of children's folklore, either are lost, or are in degradation stages, and occurrence and a wide circulation of new forms last decades, for example, «black humour», severe draws ("tricks") and especially, so-called «sadistic rhymes», testifies to changes of children's consciousness towards it tanatizatsii (poetizatsii death, destructions, destruktsii). The theme of the death which have been found out by the author in the late eighties in a context of children's representations about an atomic power station, takes recently more and more a place in a picture of the world of the modern child. The known children's fear of death to which volumes of the art and scientific literature are devoted, now more and more turns to fear of a life of fear of the child to live, unwillingness to live (to what all testifies vozrastajuyoshchee quantity of children's suicides).

Game as the attributive characteristic of the childhood becomes now leading employment of many adults as though creating modern «a game civilisation» [Abramenkova, 1999-in] changes of children's game sphere At the same time are obvious: crisis of game culture, primitivizatsija maintenances, especially role game (game leaves it pravilosoobraznost and sootnosimost with image of the ideal adult). On a game example considerably as occurs, on the one hand, levelling, concept washing out vzroslosti (as responsibility, a maturity, trezvenija), and with another - is lost a sotsio-cultural originality of characteristics of the childhood, border of representations about the children's.

Liberalisation of sexual morals growing in a society, actual legaliyozatsija sexual distortions and active distribution of a pornography through various editions, including, focused on a children's audience, and also distributions erotic a tele-and video films, computer games lead seksualizatsii children's consciousness At the same time, the majority of programs of sexual education carried out in last years is represented by variants of one bihevioristski the focused model of sexual formation and are actually directed not to the aid in formation of a psychological floor and adequate polorolevoj to a position of the child, and on education as comprehension of own floor by it through genitals and formations out of - matrimonial and anti - parental installations.

The screen as the generated "cumulative" adult more and more actively carries out touch aggression, transforming a children's picture of the world in directions - merkantilizatsii, westernisations, demonizatsii children's consciousness

Elimination of negative factors of a modern social situation razyovitija the childhood is represented to the author in directions of a humanisation of relations of the child with the world by means of creation of game and educational spaces on the basis of such forms of joint activity which promote displays of compassion and soradovanija the child, and also in the organisation of activity of the children's public and creative organisations - on sush in a reconstruction of various forms of children's subculture which gives to the child protection against negative influence of an excited environment, raises its level psiho - emotional and is moral - spiritual well-being

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A source: ABRAMENKOVA Vera Vasilyevna. Genesis of relations of the child in social psychology of the childhood. ` the dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of psychological sciences. Moscow -. 2000

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