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Положения, taken out on защиту

1 Social psychology of the childhood represents a new subject domain — an interdisciplinary direction of researches of the childhood as developing psiho-sotsio-cultural phenomenon Its subject are relations of the child, oposredstvovannye joint activity with others (adults and contemporaries), and laws of their display in a concrete historical social situation of development

2 New technologies of research and methodical toolkit, adekyovatnyj to problems of social psychology of the childhood, allow to overcome traditional "robinzonadu" studying of relations of the child with the world

3 Genesis of relations of the child in culture and a society is defined by two basic sotsiokulturnymi institutes behind which there are two significant for the child social groups — the family and children's community Evolution nuklearnoj families in Russia is carried out in a direction izyomenenija family valuable orientations of adults and the status of the child from full submission to an ox of parents — to relations paritetnosti and "detotsentrizmu" formation of family installations of the child-preschool child is influenced not only observed by it in a real life by type of relations of parents, but also ideal type of relations and polorolevyh the samples fixed in fairy tales

The children's community is the carrier of children's subculture — smysloyovogo spaces of values, ways of activity, forms of dialogue and pr, carried out in children's groups rather irrespective of adults throughout all sotsiogeneza and shown in sotsiokulturnyh invariantah, such, as the children's folklore, traditional game, tabuirovanie personal names (nickname), etc., and also in visual arhetipicheskih the forms keeping the stability throughout the long historical period and passing from father to son children. The children's subculture carries out following functions: socialising (the basic agent of socialisation the group of contemporaries acts); psychotherapeutic, (here the great value belongs to children's folklore); kulturoohranitelnuju (in bowels of children's subculture genres, oral texts, ceremonies and the rituals of avenue lost by a modern civilisation) and prognosticheskuju remain, focused on the future

In space of children's subculture the child enters a zone of variativno th development (ZVR) in a mode of dialogue with various strategy of behaviour, logicians of thinking, moral representations, languages. Sense ZVR consists in an openness of the child to perception of other cultural traditions, in an establishment it of communication with generality of culture through own creativity, folklore, the mythology, traditional game. If the family and in general the adult carries out a zone of the nearest development (ZBR) as cultural-preferred strategy of behaviour the children's group through ZVR provides, on the one hand, orientation to the lost, forgotten forms of culture, and with another, — predicts new ways of its development. problematiziruja and pereosmysljaja the historical heritage of adults, children's subculture highlights points of growth of universal culture. 4. Relations of the child in the course of the development are capable to take the form of humane relations — valuable formation of communications of the child with the world, worried by it as compassion and soradovanie and realised in certificates of assistance, protection, the help. As the empirical reviewer of the humane relation to the contemporary collectivist (solidary) identification which in children's group arises on a boundary of 6th and 7th years of a life of the child, thanks to joint activity of interactive type and change of a social position acts.

Genesis of humane relations of the child is subordinated obshchepsihologicheskoj zayokonomernosti developments of the higher forms of behaviour (to "a development parallelogramme») — to transition from direct forms and ways of behaviour in 5—6 years, through outwardly oposredstvovannye joint activity of the relation in 7—10 years, to relations of children of 11-13 years, internally oposredstvovannymi humane semantic installations 5 In the course of joint activity occurs pourovnevoe struktuyorirovanie complete system of relations in children's group — in is functional-role, emotionally-estimated and lichnostno-semantic communications between children, and the last possess certain independence of direct emotional preferences, at times changing their sign on the opposite. If preschool children and younger schoolboys are equally inclined to show the humane relation without dependence from high/low sotsiometriche-skogo the status (for them the structure of joint activity is important) for teenagers, especially in 12-13 years, subjective preferences/otverzhenija, passing in the lichnostno-semantic plan, in itself start to define character of joint activity.

6. Dynamics of displays of the humane relation of children in groups of the floor in a context of sexual differentiation is caused by influence istoriko-kul-turnyh naplastovany. Boys/girls at each age stage differently appear are sensitive to certain aspects of joint activity: to degree of its compatibility (interactive/koaktivnoj), to the form of the authorisation (punishment/award), the fact of presence/absence of group. The reason of the found out distinctions is not sexual prinadlezhyonost, taken in itself, and those distinctions in a social position which are set by forms which have historically developed in culture of interaction at men and women and polorolevymi the stereotypes of the behaviour which has found the reflexion in behaviour of modern children.

7. The system of diverse relations of the child generates a children's picture of the world as set of knowledge, representations, the senses realised in obyorazno-visual models, i.e. the socially-psychological spaces revealing through a horizontal plane of-relations with the contemporary; an inclined plane — with the adult: a panoramic plane of-relations with environment; a vertical plane — relations with the Creator, setting moral representations about good and harm; « Screen »a plane — relations with the information environment. The central making children's picture of the world the social space of adult / contemporaries is, the question on relations of the child with each of them is connected with concept of a locus of orientation — dynamic property of group (or persons) to act as the subject of influence on development of the person of the child during the different periods of the childhood. Moving to a course ontogeneza, the orientation locus, since the senior preschool age, is capable to be fixed in a horizontal plane ognosheny with contemporaries (under condition of change of a social position of the child with dependent on actively helping, at symbolical designing of"ideal"social group by it). In a modern is-toriko-cultural situation of uncertainty at which traditional mechanisms of transfer of knowledge and moral values are loosened, children all in bolshej degrees start to be guided by the advanced contemporaries. In a context of space of environment the central place is occupied with symbolics of danger/safety which is connected with the relation of the child to such modern technogenic phenomena as atomic power stations. «The children's public opinion» concerning the atomic power station is expressed in ontogeneze preyoimushchestvenno arhetipicheskoj by symbolics of the danger similar to pictures designated in different cultures of natural accidents. The vertical plane in a children's picture of the world — the relation of children razyolichnyh age to primary moral categories of good and harm — has the expressed graphic components and individual distinctions in a choice children positive / negative / mixed moral standards. Last decade it is planned inversely proportional I will increase children the tendency to washing out of borders of representations about «good and harm» and to shift, especially at boys, graphic predilections in a negative side.

The information environment in a children's picture of the world, presented ograniyochennoj a plane a body - video-and the computer screen, actively influences all system of spaces of relations of the child, gradually substituting them «telescreen socialisation». Taking root into children's consciousness by means of optical effects, klipovosti and tele-images, the screen designs "new morals", transforming valuable orientations and base requirements of the child, such, as requirement for game and dialogue with the adult and contemporary Predstavlennost of the Screen for a children's picture of the world and its influence inversely proportional to age of children.

8 For last thirty years there was a decrease in many indicators kayochestva lives of the modern childhood in sphere mental and is moral - duyohovnogo the health which criteria are: humane relations reyobenka to the subject and social world, subjective psihoyoemotsionalnoe well-being, an optimistical picture of the world. As the major factors of negative dynamics act, destruction of natural institutes of socialisation — a family and children's community, change of the general orientation of education with collectivist on individualist model, easing of game interactive forms of joint activity of the child, influence of the aggressive information environment and dr

Liberalisation of sexual morals growing in a society, pornography distribution, and also active sexual education bihevioristskogo the sense, directed not to the aid in formation of a psychological floor and adequate polorolevoj positions of the child, and on a disorientation in its sexual identity and on formation inversionnoj models of sexual socialisation, out of - matrimonial and anti - parental installations leads seksualizatsii children's consciousness and the general demoralisation

To 8 children's subculture are lost or many cultural forms and texts of children's folklore, and occurrence of new forms degrade, for example, severe draws or, so-called «sadistic rhymes», testifies to changes of children's consciousness towards it tanatizatsii (poetizatsii death, destructions, destruktsii)

Crisis of game culture, primitivizatsija was outlined, especially role game which leaves it pravilosoobraznost and sootnosimost with image of the ideal adult, and also a westernisation of the maintenance and merkantilizatsija motives On a game example as attributive characteristic of the child levelling, concept washing out vzroslosti, so, and the childhood are obvious.

9 Genesis of relations in social psychology of the childhood represents multidimensional hierarchical system of communications of the child with the world. Relations develop in time and space and have own modality of expression — emotionally-valuable aspect as aspiration to a humanisation of communications of the child with the world, acting, on the one hand, a condition of its high-grade growing, and on the other hand, criterion of its personal development.

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A source: ABRAMENKOVA Vera Vasilyevna. Genesis of relations of the child in social psychology of the childhood. ` the dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of psychological sciences. Moscow -. 2000

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