Interrelations between knowledge of emotions and behaviour in the course of age development

It is known, that feeling pleasant or unpleasant and an estimation are the very first kognitivnye differentiations by which the person starts to do in early infancy and continues during an adult life; they define aspiration to approach or avoiding concerning subjects or people.

The estimation of subjects or people is a corner stone of intellectual activity and even a survival [50].

L.Berk writes, that already newborn identify emotions of "others" by means of obviously automatic process of emotional infection. Such response to feelings of associates means, that babies start to distinguish emotional conditions [10]. According to G.Gardner as soon as the baby starts to understand reactions of the body and to distinguish them from each other, he studies to notice a difference between associates and even distinctions in mood

«People familiar to it». By two months, and it is possible, and since a birth,

The child can already distinguish persons of people and simulate their expressions. Soon the child already distinguishes mother from the father, parents from another's people, the happy person from sad or angry. Besides, the child already correlates various feelings to certain people, events and circumstances [20].

It is obvious, that the person, since the earliest stages of the life, in different forms reflects and interprets in the consciousness behaviour of others.

At the same time, in scientific psychology it is accepted to correlate time of prompt development of abilities of the child to social knowledge to the average childhood.

One of the first psychologists who have found out such communication were R.L.Selman and D.F.Byrne [156]. They have studied levels of acceptance the roles structurally connected with age development. Research passed as follows. Two opened were shown to children of four, six, eight and ten years

The dilemmas presented in the form of a filmstrip. In the end of a filmstrip of everyone

The child asked to retell before interrogation history so that the experimenter could be assured, that any complexities otsenivanija do not concern simply difficulties in storing.

By results of the given empirical work, being based on previous theoretical views R.L.Selman, there was a present model of acceptance of a position of "another" (Table 24).

Model of acceptance of a position of "another" R.L.Selman.

Table 24.

1) At a zero stage of not differentiated acceptance of a position

"Another" (3-6 years) the child can differentiate itself and another as separate objects, but he is not capable to understand prospect of or another's behaviour (mix the world and the world of "another").

2) At 1 stage of socially-information acceptance of a position

(4-9 years) the child is capable to differentiate "another" external and private world when thoughts and feelings of other people and themselves are allocated in an independent reality.

At this stage the child sees itself and other person as actors with

Potentially various interpretations of the same social situation substantially certain by that information which is available for the child. The child understands, that people feel or think on - another because they are in various situations or have the various information.

3) On 2 stages (7-12 years) reflective acceptance of a position of "another"

The child already knows, that people think or feel in another way because each person has the own unique ordered set of values or the purposes.

The main achievement at the given stage is an ability to reflex over the behaviour and over motivation, to understand the points of view of other people. The child is capable to predict reactions of others on

Its own motives or the purposes. Children can «rise into place" another "» and consider the thoughts, feelings and behaviour from a position of other person. Besides, they understand, that "others" possess the same ability.

4) On 3 stages (10-15 years) acceptances of a position of "third party" (in

Context of three subjects) the child can comprehend concept "spectator" and support the neutral point of view. Here children find out, as they, and other person can consider the point of view of each party simultaneously and mutually. Everyone can put itself(himself) to the place of another and is direct present how that will react.

In general, children can be beyond two-subject interaction and imagine, how "I" and "another" look from positions of the third, unbiassed party.

5) On 4 stages (14 years-vzroslost) individuals realise, that

Acceptance of a position of "third party" can be subject to influence from one (or more) systems of wider social values. [10; 156].

According to G.Krajg, the age features presented above concern the first component of social knowledge - to a social conclusion (guesses and assumptions of feelings, thoughts and intentions of other person). Two other aspects of social knowledge are also social relations and social instructions. Social relations are relations between the people, meaning certain obligations. Children gradually accumulate knowledge of existence of such obligations imposed by friendship, as honesty and fidelity, respect for authority, and about such concepts, as legality and justice, simultaneously deepening and expanding their understanding. Social instructions are understood as rules and the conventions directing social interactions. Many of these conventions are first learnt mechanically or executed by simple imitation. Later they lose the rigidity, depending on ability of the child to do correct social conclusions and to understand social relations [35].

The important new growth of younger school age is the reflexion which allows reasonably and to analyze objectively the judgements and acts from the point of view of their conformity to a plan and activity conditions. Thanks to this quality the child begins capable as though from the party to consider and estimate own thoughts and actions [63].

Reflexion signs are appreciable already at early and preschool age but how purposeful activity the reflexion starts to be formed at younger school age, and at teenagers becomes a major factor (mechanism) of regulation of behaviour and personal self-development (on E.Eriksonu the main problem of adolescence - a reflective problem «Who I»?) [14].

Also as the basic criterion of development of ability to understand

The thought and emotion of others should allocate kognitivnoe the new growth of this age described by Z.Piazhe, carrying name detsentratsii. This term is interpreted, as the mechanism of overcoming of an egocentrism of the person, consisting in change of the point of view, a position of the subject as a result of collision, comparison and its integration with the positions which are distinct from its own. Formation of skills detsentratsii underlies ability of the subject to acceptance of a role of other person, it is connected with levels of development kognitivnoj empathy and defines efficiency of communicative interaction [39].

Along with it, ability detsentratsii directly influences and development pertseptivno-kognitivnoj activity as a whole. It is necessary to notice also, that in the average childhood development of dialogue of the child with contemporaries promotes formation at it to a new stage of emotional development,

Which is characterised by occurrence in the child of ability to emotional detsentratsii. The given new growth is defined in the scientific literature as

Ability to be discharged with own emotional experiences, ability to perception of emotions, an emotional condition of other person.

In effect, all emotional development of the younger schoolboy directly is connected with change of its way of life and expansion of a circle of contacts - it starts to go to school. In due course the child starts to express more frostily already the emotions (irritation, envy, affliction), especially when it is among contemporaries, being afraid of their condemnation. At this age considerable decrease in emotional excitability is usually observed - ability of the child to own the feelings [73] increases.

A.A.Bodalev specifies that, the understanding of the lines characterising the person, is got by the schoolboy gradually. Concepts about each of them always appear developed at the schoolboy not to the same extent.

Its named feature as subject of knowledge of other people very accurately

It is shown, when it psychologically estimates behaviour of associates and them characterises [67]. The impact on social knowledge and level kognitivnogo developments of the child Not in the last instance makes. A.A.Bodaleva, V.N.Kunitsynoj and V.N.Panferova's one known domestic research has been devoted studying of social standards and stereotypes and their role in an estimation of the person [13]. Children preschool, younger school and pupils of the senior classes, and also starosluzhashchih soldiers and officers asked to describe with what, in their opinion, the basic signs the soldier possesses. So, younger preschool children as such attributes of the soldier have noticed the form, equipment and the weapon that concerns external parametres. The senior preschool children besides these signs, have allocated also features of a constitution (growth and figure size). Pupils of the first class to external signs and features of a constitution have added also functional characteristics (ability to shoot, drive the tank to start up rockets etc.). Pupils of the senior classes have emphasised on strong-willed, motivational and harakterologicheskih properties of the soldier. And officers and starosluzhashchie soldiers have preferred abilities, skills, military - professional skills and communicative qualities accordingly. In this work dependence of development of conceptual sphere on age and an inclusiveness in a practical situation of the given social group [77] has been revealed.

Thereupon, L.A.Jasjukovoj and O.V.Belavinoj's research has shown, that formation of SI of younger schoolboys depends on their progressive general intellectual development, enrichment of their practical experience, development of independence of thinking. Until the conceptual thinking will be generated, the SI of children represents a complex of behavioural stereotypes which easily collapse as a result of cardinal emotionally-personal changes in teenage crisis [96].avtory also assert, that at younger school age of the girl objectively possess the big possibilities in SI formation, in comparison with boys, since. Are characterised by more developed conceptual thinking, personal intuition, and also the qualities, allowing to constrain excessive emotional and impellent reactance. In this work, in our opinion, raises the doubts expediency of use of forms of test Rozentsvejga directed on measurement of degree frustratsii of the examinee.

According to research L.Karlin and M.M.Schwartz, the test risunochnoj frustratsii Rozentsvejga gives the verbal and illustrated information about speaking, unlike the SI test (J. Washington), providing only a verbal material [133]. However, apparently from the given technique, heroes of plots are deprived mimic looks, and it considerably limits accuracy of their behavioural estimation and in many respects

"Promotes" the mechanism of displaying of the affektivno - motivational reactions to emotional conditions of characters of the test. It seems to us, that such

"Incompleteness" in a mimicry and verbal parcels well approaches for

Studying of social adaptation of the examinee, it frustratsionnyh reactions and the relation to own reactions (as makes mission of this technique). Nevertheless, results of work L.Karlin and M.M.Schwartz illustrate some interesting laws. The person with high indicators impunitivnosti tends impartially, objectively and nonaggressively to react to situations. It is not inclined to condemnation and tries to minimise frustratsionnye features in a situation. Also the individual with such type of behaviour is inclined to protect feelings of other people, increasing comprehension and sensitivity to their mental conditions.

The person with high intropunitivnostju always tends to condemn itself in situations frustratsii. Self-criticism concerns to

To formation of an estimation of other people, and to sensitivity exaggeration on reaction of other people [133]. These data, in our opinion, underline value of influence nekognitivnyh factors (here it: a direction of aggression and type frustratsionnoj reactions) on quality of social knowledge. This research has, in our opinion, such restrictions, as: absence of female sample; small sample which is made only by students-psychologists; the low

Correlations between the general and social intelligence.

I.S.Volodinoj's research has revealed, that at mentally retarded schoolboys ability to detsentratsii has great value for interpersonal knowledge: at its achievement concerning a high level of development it can "compensate" lacks of cogitative activity, characteristic for the given type dizontogeneza. Among children with intellectual nedorazvitiem, at younger school age of the girl show significantly higher indicators of SI, than boys (that is connected, according to the researcher, with specific features of the maintenance of communications of girls and boys with adults, among themselves, features of game activity in the preschool childhood) [19].

As restriction here it is possible to note low general sample of pupils (94 schoolboys) among special (correctional) and

General educational educational institutions.

According to T.B.Piskarevoj's research, younger schoolboys with intelligence infringement are capable to define emotions on a look, but accuracy of differentiation at them more low, than at contemporaries with normal intelligence. For pupils of mass school, as well as for pupils special, it was easier to understand the emotions arising in acquaintances by it vital situations, and it is inconvenient to invest emotional experiences with words. From a point of differentiation of emotions and on frequency of a choice emotion of pleasure dominated. Negative emotions differed less precisely. The big complexities differentiation caused in children surprise and fear. Emotion of fault remained not distinguished for pupils of 2-3 classes both mass, and special school. The author has come to conclusion, that with intelligence infringement it is necessary for children to develop the emotional competence for the purpose of acquisition of ability by them to understand another's emotions in various vital situations and adequately to express the [66].

In the meantime, as work D.W.Beebe has shown, L.J.Pfiffner and K.McBurnett, at children with SDVG and at children having difficulties of social interaction, direct interrelations between estimations of their social skills and features of behaviour have been found. According to teachers and parents of the pupils acting in a role of experts, these children badly co-operate in society. To all other, it is necessary to consider, that level of SI of children with SDVG also

It is partially connected with level of their mental development. Also, according to authors of the given research, it is necessary to rely more likely on the techniques measuring behavioural features, rather than than on SI factor (on an example of a scale of intelligence of Vexler) [103].

In general, at younger school age, according to L.A.Regush, the child is guided not only by supervision taking place in personal experience, but also on

Moral rules, requirements of associates. Such norms and requirements become the standard for self-checking [75]. Z.Birknerovа, by results of the research has concluded, that pupils with insufficient self-checking not only do not hold the emotions under the control, but also they can be

Tolerant to emotions of others. [104].

Many teenagers can test problems with self-checking in view of

Excessive emotionality. As write F.Rajs and K.Doldzhin, teenagers, probably, can be more emotional, than adults because mindalina (the centre of emotions) develops faster, than frontal shares (the centre of planning and the control of promptings). Mindalina interprets the entering touch information and forces us to react to this information in the primary, emotional image. Gippokamp ripens at girls, and mindalina - at young men [74] faster.

It is curious, that the understanding of the mixed emotions helps children of younger school age to come to comprehension of that expression of emotions by people not always reflects original feelings. Besides it, it promotes comprehension of the self-carried emotions [10]. The younger schoolboy predicts reaction of other people to the acts, behaviour as a whole. These forecasts help to regulate mutual relations with associates. If younger schoolboys basically are focused on estimations of adults teenagers listen to that contemporaries think about them more and more. For this reason, as writes L.A.Regush, at teenagers ability to forecasting of estimations of the person by schoolmates [75] is formed. Besides, the general growth of the person of the teenager, expansion of a circle of its interests, the consciousness development, new experience of dialogue with contemporaries - all it conducts to intensive growth of socially valuable promptings and experiences of the teenager, such, as sympathy to another's grief, ability to disinterested self-sacrifice etc.

G.Gardner asserts, that the teenage age is characterised by that children already understand motives of associates is much better, their latent desires or fears. It is that period, in which the person should connect two forms of personal knowledge of and about other people in one big and organised feeling of identity (feeling "I") [20]. A.V.Petrovsky stated thought that teenagers estimate others more full and more correctly, than [63].

V.N.Kunitsyna notices, that to 13 - to 14 years the volume and adequacy of estimated signs considerably increases. By 15 years teenagers can see in the person, its behaviour, external shape much more individual details. In descriptions the teenager of other person the circle of used concepts extends. Intensity of development social pertseptsii (included by the author in structure of social intelligence) at the given age

Speaks not only maturing of the higher mental functions, life experience accumulation, intelligence and consciousness development, but also mastering of stereotypes, social roles and values [42].

However, according to M.I.Bobnevoj and E.V.Shorohovoj, teenagers are inclined

To transform knowledge into belief. Here it is necessary to notice, that at all stages

- At children, and especially at teenagers it is possible to meet extremely steady, unshakable belief. Teenagers especially often happen are fanatically convinced of the general concepts acquired by them and sights. Generated without a support on personal experience and direct participation in a social life the system of representations appears the steadiest, impregnable for critical remarks and arguments. The similar system does not assume proofs and individual experience [12].

N.V.Jakovleva in the research studied interrelation between social intelligence and divergent thinking at children of the teenage

Age. The author writes, that the SI represents structure kognitivnyh the abilities providing understanding of social situations by settled conceptual forms. The divergent thinking, in its opinion, is kognitivnyj process which operates with all weight appertseptsy and representations of the individual experience, leading to creative decisions and

Providing individually-original ways of understanding of sense of situations [94]. Not denying a role of imagination and kreativnosti for understanding of behaviour of other people and ourselves, we consider, that the decision of such problems is connected more with konvergentnym thinking since at all variety of known interpretations, sotsioemotsionalnoe the knowledge is directed on revealing only one "right answer".

According to D.V.Kolesova and I.F.Mjagkova, at early teenage age the understanding of behaviour of parents and teachers is based on the superficial

Perception of their acts without the deep analysis. Authors notice, that it

Speaks prevalence at children of is evident-shaped thinking over is abstract-logic. According to results of research of D.V.Kolesova and I.F.Mjagkova, at the senior teenage age, unlike younger the hypersensibility to moral acts of adults, and first of all to such positive properties of the person, as kindness, understanding and justice [35] is found out.

On the other hand, at stages younger school and, in particular, - teenage age, not less important not successfully to understand behaviour of the coevals, but also to build with them corresponding mutual relations. N.M.Antonius, H.N. Cillessen, R.H.J.Scholte, E.Segers, R.Spijkerman studied social intelligence and school success as prognosticheskie parametres

(prediktory) popularity of teenagers. Scientists have found out, that those pupils who were more socially "clever" and effective, had high degree of social understanding or well processed the information in SI, became more often appreciable and popular in group of the coevals.

Thus, the social intelligence defines status level in group. However, popular and appreciable pupils not necessarily love and accept.

The reason of it can be that the SI influences features of interaction of the teenager in group of coevals as a whole, instead of on liking level. In addition, by results of this work, at girls of SI also correlated with sotsiometricheskoj popularity, but not at boys. Academic

Achievements have not shown essential correlations with social intelligence or two measures of popularity for both genders. SI, according to authors, it is necessary to consider as ability well to understand the social world and

To operate according to it [100]. The given research is represented a little limited, owing to that authors used for SI measurement only self-report methods.

Data of dissertational research of O.V.Sheshukovoj have convincingly illustrated the importance of gender identity as criterion of an estimation of level of social knowledge and a social adaptability of the younger

Schoolboys. So, androginnyj the type of gender identity allows the person at the expense of a combination high feminnosti and maskulinnosti to show the big

Adaptability and kreativnost in behaviour that is shown in higher indicators of SI of younger schoolboys androginnogo type.

Besides it, femininnyj the type polorolevogo behaviour causes difficulties in social adaptation of the person that proves to be true SI indicators; probably, this results from the fact that frameworks traditional femininnogo the gender stereotype, shown in expressional personal characteristics (high sensitivity, responsiveness, dependence and. Etc.),

"Constrain" individual self-development and self-expression; maskulinnaja the model of behaviour possessing such characteristics as confidence,

Independence, independence etc., is more positive for self-realisation of the person in social interaction, than femininnaja [89].

Not begging the importance of the results received by O.V.Sheshukovoj, we consider, that some techniques used in given research (in particular those

Techniques which diagnose kognitivnyj a SI component), measure in bolshej degrees not SI, and properties of memory and attention.

One year earlier, V.A.Porjadina, studying gender distinctions in structure of social intelligence of student's youth, has obtained similar to O.V.Sheshukovoj's results data. So, the most adaptive to requirements of a modern society is the person with androginnoj the gender identity, combining both man's, and female psychological lines, and flexibly applying them in corresponding social situations [68]. It is curious, that authors used excellent from each other techniques, and

Sample was made by respondents of different age. In V.A.Porjadinoj's work as restriction, from our point of view, it is possible to allocate that in it only one technique for SI measurement (a technique of research of social intelligence of J was used. Gilforda and M. About ' Sallivena in E.S.Mihajlovoj's adaptation).

Longitjudnoe J.V.Davydovoj's research has shown, that the general

Indicator EI at girls above, than at boys. This distinction remains all teenage period. The author explains these sexual distinctions to that at girls signs EI loading the factor «understanding of emotions» (emotional awareness, the empathy, recognition of emotions of other people) are developed better. According to the author, at younger teenage age EI has a number of communications with SI. As uniting categories "dialogue", "knowledge" (understanding) and "activity" act. Studying of a role of an inclusiveness of the teenager in certain social group in display of features EI on an example of five social groups of teenagers: teenagers from an orthodox grammar school, teenagers from the Moscow comprehensive school, deviantnyh teenagers, teenagers-sportsmen from football club and teenagers from socially unsuccessful families, has confirmed, that general level of development EI of teenagers similar [26].

According to B.J.Dydyk, carrying out research among sixty pupils, regulation of interpersonal relations positively correlated with social intelligence. Besides, the analysis of results of the given work has shown weak communications between SI and verbal skills [114].

Even earlier, J.D.Coie and B.Dorval have shown, that the general intelligence can act prediktorom for indicators of communications at boys, but not at girls [109]. In addition, positive communications have been found out in boys between informative ability and social competence. It was more important to girls to receive to the greatest degree detailed information, but they should overcome the complexes connected with confrontation with adults. It is probable also, that motivators have been involved in communication problems various for boys and for girls. For girls it was not represented necessary to show the intellectual skill whereas boys aspired as it is possible to show is better the kognitivnye qualities.

Till now it is considered to be, that education of boys according to a traditional gender role involves negative consequences which interfere with formation of social competence: the limited emotional life, complexity in an establishment of close relations with other people, fear to lose the control over itself, an overstrain on work other To negative consequences of education of girls according to a traditional gender role carry: education of compliance, passivity, dependence, orientation to encouragement, formation of fear of success, an orientation on preservation of relations even in a case of "a business failure», existential crisis in psychological branch of matured children [69].

However it is represented to us, that here it is a question more likely of stereotypes of education of boys and girls or, to tell about those representations which have developed concerning this question more precisely.

On the other hand, on development sotsioemotsionalnogo intelligence can

To influence and style of parental behaviour. As writes G.Krajg, authoritative style of parental behaviour is characterised by high level of the control, but warm relations. Such parents recognise and encourage a growing autonomy of children, they are opened for dialogue and discussion with children of the established rules of behaviour and suppose change of the requirements in reasonable limits. Authoritative education raises adaptedness and a self-estimation of children, develops their self-checking and social skills [35]. From the point of view of R.Burns, formation of an image th depends on authoritative or liberal type of behaviour of parents. It results a number of factors which influence this process: character of relations between parents, absence of one of them, the status of mother (not only in a family: it works or it out of the house or not), the size of a family, a seniority of the child, etc. [3]. Proceeding from the above described data, it is possible to conclude, that the family can become serious "help" for formation and development sotsioemotsionalnogo intelligence without dependence from a sex of a child.

Moreover, as marks G.M.Andreeva as the image of the social world develops at the person throughout all his life, early stages of socialisation of the individual have especial value in this process. Here for the first time the world surrounding the child appears for it in «the filtered kind» as the first «significant others» (parents) select the certain information, notifying that occurs around. It is very important, that this first image of the world gets at once and defined emotional colouring: the objective reality "is translated" by parents to the child in subjective, though and by means of language but at the same time and as some emotional background, that in many respects sets in the future the general tonality of attitude [3].

In spite of the fact that social stereotypes can be realised, it at all does not mean, that they are actually realised during each concrete moment. So, they cannot be realised in the childhood as social values defining them are acquired in the course of education and training. However at more mature person within the limits of the reached sensibleness stereotypes give in to management [24].

It is impossible to forget and about riches or poverty of "emotional language» the adults, shown in their interaction with younger generation. We divide L.S.Vygotskogo's asserting point of view, that: «Any

The moral sermon does not bring up, as live feeling, and in this sense the device of emotions is as though specially adapted tool through which it is the most easier to influence behaviour. Emotional reactions render sushchestvennejshee influence on forms of our behaviour all resolutely, on all moments of educational character »[95]. From these words it is possible to draw a conclusion on importance of character of emotional reaction of adults, which in

Certain degree causes how children will understand themselves and associates.

E.P.Ilin and M.S.Ponomareva studied age dynamics of propensity to display of base emotions. Results of their research have revealed, that in all

Age groups (8-9; 10-11; 12-13; 14-15; 16-17 years) propensity to pleasure display obviously prevail over propensity to display of anger, fear and grief. Propensity to anger is expressed a little more than propensity to fear and

Grieves, and propensity to grief is expressed least. Dynamics of change with the years emotions of pleasure, anger and grief practically identical, namely, is observed their more expressed display in 12-13 years, i.e. in puberty. The opposite tendency during the same period is observed concerning fear: its expressiveness decreases. It is remarkable, that the schoolboys, the propensity to experience of emotions of anger and grief are more younger

It is more expressed at males, and the schoolboys are more senior, the these propensities at persons of a female are more expressed. Propensity to pleasure not

Has found out accurate age dynamics: in 8-9, 12-13 and 16-17 years it is expressed at boys and girls equally, and age of 10-11 and 14-15 years it is expressed more at girls [32].

As write E.D.Homskaja and N.J.Batova, adult women more often, than men, see in photos indignation and insult, alarm, grief, pleasure, and men - pride, a grief, indifference and tenderness [30].

In a family the child seizes initial forms of interaction, perceives the first norms and values, receives representation about social roles, in a family concrete forms and ways of dialogue with other people [3] are pawned. L.Berk writes, that than more often mothers designate emotions and

Explain them in conversation with preschool children, the it is more than the words concerning emotions, children [10] use.

O.V.Shilova considers, that for successful development in SI of children in transition from the senior preschool to younger school age it is necessary

Mastering by parents (especially mothers) the special socially-psychological competence which essence consists in priority change

"Subject" position in dialogue with children on "personal". According to the author, at the senior preschool and younger school age there are subjective and objective preconditions for active development in children of social intelligence. The SI of children of the senior preschool age and first-graders possesses an originality of the structure including a communicatively-personal component, psychological characteristics of consciousness and feature social pertseptsii [90]. O.V.Shilova has shown,

That the major psychological condition of successful development in SI at the senior preschool age and at first-graders is their intensive interaction in the form of vnesituativno-personal dialogue with significant adults, and also mastering by parents, tutors DOW and teachers of an elementary school socially-pedagogical competence. In work of the author the role of a social environment (adults) of the child, however proves to be true in

Dissertational research there is no analysis of sexual distinctions of social intelligence.

According to results of research of N.V.Panovoj studying a problem of development of components of psychological structure of social intelligence

Younger teenagers in the conditions of school and an additional education, the help of adults during the given age period defines a zone of the nearest development of new ability – personal independence, requirement in

Self-knowledge and self-development, that, according to the author, also makes essence of social intelligence of younger teenagers [60].

It is possible to believe, that a considerable role both for formation of an image of the world as a whole, and concerning a problem of knowledge the person and associates, besides a family played school, by groups of contemporaries and mass media. Concerning a family at the child can seldom arise

The thought on that it deals with "social institute». The school appears at the person in such quality. Therefore at school for the first time on -

To the present two main tasks of process of socialisation reveal: familiarising with social experience, its mastering and preparation for that this experience to increase, reproduce, declare an own position on it

Reproduction. On the other hand, mass media can be considered as the channel of formation of mass consciousness [3].

Now in studying of SI and EI the sufficient attention is given to sexual and gender features of the maintenance of these kinds of intelligence at adult people. E.V.Pashchenko in the work devoted to a parity of social intelligence, kognitivnyh and psychosocial characteristics in early vzroslosti, has drawn following conclusions. Women have more

High indicators of SI in a combination to more mature structure of interfunctional communications of SI and the general intelligence. At the decision of behavioural problems of the man in bolshej degrees lean against logic, practical thinking and memory, and women on all complex

Mental abilities, the leading part in which the block of verbal abilities, and as plays spatial imagination, practical

Thinking and memory: at men prevail verbal making SI, therefore the basic role in the decision of problems of socially-behavioural character at men plays the rational (verbal) channel of perception and information processing; at women the important role play, both nonverbal, and the nonverbal making SI leaning against two various channels of perception and processing of the information, as provides higher indicators of SI of women in comparison with men [62].

In this research, in our opinion, it is possible to note some restrictions: female sample (282 persons) by quantity considerably prevails over man's (76 persons); between indicators of social and general intelligence there are low correlations; dli diagnostics of the general intelligence one technique has been applied only.

According to L.N.Vahrushevoj, EI women above, than at men. In

Particulars, women understand the emotions is better, and also are able to operate own and another's emotional condition more effectively. At a stage of a youth and early vzroslosti the type of profile EI, according to the author, is interconnected with sotsiometricheskim the status, and also with style of interpersonal communications. In the given work also the number of the women who have taken part in research (175 respondentok) over man's sample (79 respondents) [18] considerably prevailed.

N.C.Karafyllis And G.Ulshofer, being based on D.Goulmena's work, notice, that women have advantages in EI before men in view of features of their socialisation [132]. So, parents in conversation with the daughters usually use more words for a designation of those or other emotions, rather than than with sons. Besides, mothers in the behaviour show wider spectrum of emotional conditions when they co-operate with the daughters, instead of with sons.

Thus, girls, apparently, get more knowledge concerning emotions that contributes to their competent use further.

In too time, R.Bar-On has shown, that agree to data of self-reports, women consider themselves more sensitive and socially responsible and have good mutual relations with associates. Men, in turn, attribute to themselves high indicators under following characteristics: self-esteem, stressoustojchivost, optimism [132].

In other work method MSCEIT (the test of emotional intelligence Mejera-Saloveja-Karuzo) was used where a result was that women a little

Surpass men in development EI. However till now remains not clear, whether such distinctions are congenital or they are connected with socialisation. It is possible to assume, that both these of the factor cause sexual and gender distinctions of emotional intelligence also as well as the researches devoted

To features of development of the general intelligence. It is curious also, that D.Dzhonson and G.Schulman have come to thought that adult women show more

Interest to emotions of associates, than men [132].

As a whole, it is possible to conclude, that at younger schoolboys and teenagers development of possibilities of knowledge of thoughts, actions (social intelligence) and emotional conditions (emotional intelligence) itself and other people occurs simultaneously. By the teenage period social and emotional intelligence are mutually crossed through categories "dialogue",

"Knowledge" (understanding) and "activity". Thus, it is possible to speak about

Occurrence of preconditions for term introduction sotsioemotsionalnyj intelligence.

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More on topic Interrelations between knowledge of emotions and behaviour in the course of age development:

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  3. 1.2.2. A role of emotions in the course of adaptation to cerebration
  4. development of genitals depending on age and live weight (on G.A.Tutarevu)
  5. 3.1. Working out of criteria of an estimation of a level of development of children of preschool age
  6. Integrated development of children of preschool age as concept
  7. the teacher and the psychologist as experts. Features of pedagogical and psychological knowledge as versions of special knowledge
  8. Izhvanova. E.M.development polorolevoj identity at youthful and mature age, 2004
  10. § 3. N.J.Marra's linguistic activity in a context of development of scientific knowledge in 20-e-30th of the XX-th century
  11. 2.1.2. Parametres of definition of a share of affective components in the modal score of the text: a role of emotions in ordering of the conceptual bases otsenochnosti
  12. Dizontogenez speeches, the reasons of its occurrence and communication with mental development of the child of preschool age