Social intelligence as a scientific direction of psychological researches

The concept of social intelligence (SI) has appeared for the first time in scientific psychology in 1920 in works of the American psychologist and teacher E.Torndajka which considered the given kind of intelligence as «ability to understand men and women, boys and girls, to operate them, and wisely, adequately to behave in relation to them».

He believed, that it is possible to allocate three kinds of intelligence:

1) abstract intelligence - ability to understand thought and abstract concepts and to operate them;

2) mechanical intelligence - ability to understand value of objects of world around and to operate them;

3) social intelligence - ability to understand people and to operate them [164].

E.Torndajk also has become interested in one of the first in a question of psychometric interrelation of social intelligence with factors of the general

Intelligence. In its opinion, existing at that time for measurement of social intelligence tests had high correlations with tests of verbal intelligence. Studying of communication of SI with various kognitivnymi or personal qualities of individuals has gradually become a subject of studying for many researchers.

So, T.Hunt and F.Moss have defined social intelligence as «ability

To get on with other people », denying its identity with the general intelligence. Researchers believed, that SI - inherited function [130].

V.R.Mcclatchy, studying interrelations of the general intelligence and introvertirovannosti with a level of development of social intelligence among students-women, has revealed high correlations of SI with introvertirovannostju [140].

River Е.Vernon has suggested to define SI as «ability of the person to get on

With others, social naturalness in a society, knowledge of social values, a susceptibility to stimulus from other members of group, and also understanding of time moods or the basic lines of individuality of strangers »[166].

A little bit later, G.Olport formulates some qualities necessary that it is good to understand people. Among them: experience; similarity to the person which should be understood; intelligence; deep understanding of; complexity; dispassionateness; aesthetic propensities; social intelligence [99]. G.Ollport asserts, that the SI represents ability to state fast, almost automatic judgements about people and to predict the most probable reactions of the person. The social intelligence is special «social gift», providing smoothness in relations with the people which product is the social adaptation, instead of depth of understanding.

D. Wechsler has been convinced, that the subtest «Consecutive pictures» in its own scale of intelligence WAIS can serve as criterion of measurement of SI.

The researcher considered, that this subtest can be intended for otsenivanija to ability of the person to understand social situations (it is possible to use also

Sequence of pictures along with comprehension for an estimation konvergentnoj validnosti). Nevertheless, the author specified that the SI is the general intelligence turned on social situations [165].

In the meantime, F.S.Chapin analyzed interrelations between internalnymi psychological processes and social behaviour. It has made an attempt measurements of social understanding, using a technique with the behavioural situations written on sheet, assuming a choice

Right answers.

Its assumptions were reduced to that social insajty allow people to change the behaviour according to a social context. F.S.Chapin has been assured that skills of social understanding include unconscious motivation and kognitivnye functions. The projection, sublimation and carrying over are activated in social situations and change behavioural reactions of the individual [108].

In 1965 of J. Gilford states thought that behavioural skills can be separated from the academic abilities, believing, that these skills consist, at least, of thirty social factors giving in to measurement. These kognitivnye functions are considered as system

Social skills which allows to interpret thoughts, feelings and intentions (psychological dispositions) other people [160]. Together with M. O'Salliven, J. Gilford develops series of comical plots,

The SI intended for measurement [162]. This technique has been developed to show, that mental abilities do not correlate with verbal, numerical or other academic skills. Scientists have allocated six factors of SI.

1. Understanding of a nonverbal expression (mimicry).

2. Ability to take the behavioural information and to understand similar an expression in various situations.

3. Comprehension of social relations.

4. Understanding of the social phenomena occurring in behavioural system, and understanding of sequence of each phenomenon.

5. Ability to change, redefine or transform value of the behavioural phenomena.

6. Ability to do behavioural forecasts, proceeding from the known or given information.

The scientific views on structure of intelligence of J. Gilford has expressed in creation of own model of intelligence (Drawing 1). Its cubic system represents attempt to define each of 120 specific abilities, proceeding from three dimensions of thinking: of what we think (maintenance) as we think of it (operation) and in what results it

Intellectual action (result) [28].

Drawing 1. Model of structure of intelligence of J. Gilforda.

Last variant of model of intelligence of J. Gilforda comprised already

180 abilities. In it the component of operations includes: perception, konvergentnoe thinking, divergent thinking, storage in memory, registration in memory, an estimation. The aspect of the maintenance here shares on visual, audialnoe, symbolical, semantic and behavioural. The result component remained [125] without changes.

For an estimation of behaviour of J. Gilford has allocated only one operation - knowledge. In a domestic statement of this concept of intelligence of E.S.Mihajlova has designated six factors of knowledge as follows [51].

1. Knowledge of elements of behaviour - ability to allocate from a context

Verbal and nonverbal expression of behaviour.

2. Knowledge of classes of behaviour - ability to distinguish the general properties in some stream of the expressional or situational information on behaviour.

3. Knowledge of relations of behaviour - ability to understand the relations existing between units of the information on behaviour.

4. Knowledge of systems of behaviour - ability to understand logic of development of complete situations of interaction of people, sense of their behaviour in these situations.

5. Knowledge of transformations of behaviour - ability to understand change of value of similar behaviour (verbal or nonverbal) in different situational contexts.

6. Knowledge of results of behaviour - ability to expect a behaviour consequence, proceeding from the available information.

As a whole, allocation of J. Gilfordom «social intelligence» as sets of the mental abilities defining success of an interpersonal estimation, forecasting and understanding of behaviour of people, it is estimated in scientific psychology from a positive side [14].

To the following large scientists who have paid attention to studying of SI, having included it in intelligence structure, there was G.Ajzenk. He understood intelligence as the universal mental ability, genetically determined feature of work of the brain, shown in speed and accuracy of processing of the information [28]. The model of intelligence of the British scientist includes three kinds of the intelligence, making its structural levels. Them concern: biological, psychometric and social intelligence [1]. G.Ajzenk has allocated the key factors influencing, in its opinion, for a level of development of each of three kinds of intelligence (Table 1).

Model of structure of intelligence of G.Ajzenka.

Table 1.

Intelligence kind Intelligence factors
1. Biological



Genetics. Biochemistry.

2. Psychometric

Intelligence (IQ).


Cultural factors. Education in a family. The Sotsioekonomichesky status.

3. Social



Experience. The Sotsioekonomichesky status.

Motivation. A food.

Cultural factors. The relation to alcohol.

Strategy of actions. Family education.

Mental infringements. Formation. The person.

G.Ajzenk considered the person as a biosocial organism, whose actions are determined equally as biological (genetic, physiological, endokrinnymi), and social (historical, economic, public) by factors [72].

It has defined following characteristics for three kinds of intelligence.

1. The biological intelligence serves physiological, nejrologicheskoj, a biochemical and hormonal basis of informative behaviour, i.e. basically is connected with structures and functions of a bark of a brain; without them no intelligent behaviour is impossible, and it is represented reasonable to assume, that they answer and for individual distinctions of intelligence.

2. The psychometric intelligence is measured by usual tests IQ. The relative success of such testing in the basic is defined by biological intelligence, but not it one. Cultural factors, education in a family, formation and sotsioekonomichesky the status bring the contribution, and not so insignificant.

By existing estimations, approximately 70 % of distinctions at testing are defined by genetic factors, and 30 % — the listed variables of environment. Thus, it is possible to tell, that the psychometric intelligence on 70 % depends from biological and on 30 % — from sredovyh factors.

3. The social intelligence is shown in use IQ for social adaptation. In drawing 2 biological intelligence is designated as intelligence And, and social - as intelligence; thus clearly, that the intelligence is much wider, than And, and includes IQ; IQ, in turn, more widely, than the intelligence And, also includes it.

Drawing 2. Vzaimovkljuchennost various concepts of intelligence.

It is the point of view on a parity of some kinds of intelligence in which direct dependence of success of SI on a level of development of psychometric intelligence is proclaimed. Here, in our opinion, it is necessary to consider, that the majority of the techniques directed on measurement of the general intelligence, demand performance of the certain tasks having on zadumke authors of these techniques, only one right answer. Techniques of measurement of SI, as a rule, are based on the self-report. On the other hand, in the subtests measuring in SI and meaning one true answer, a finding it is unique the correct decision is even more disputable. Especially, in our opinion, it is represented obvious, that performance of every possible tests for the general intelligence demands some stock of knowledge and sformirovannosti various kognitivnyh the skills, allowing to carry out certain tasks.

Thus, for successful passage of tests of SI, it is completely not obligatory to own that knowledge and skills which are required for performance of tests of the general intelligence. So, according to D.P.Keating, the paper, a pencil and division of variants of the answer, create the academic frameworks in which possession of the valid social skills poorly influences results of testing. Such conditions demand the academic styles of a reasoning [134]. Researches H.A.Marlowe, in turn, have shown independence of factors of SI of a level of development of verbal and academic intelligence [141]. The author had been offered the structure of SI (Table 2).

Model of SI H.A.Marlowe.

Table 2.

1. Prosocial installations and

Prosocial interest.

2. Social skills.
3. Skills of empathy.
4. An emotionality.
5. Social uneasiness.

The given model includes behavioural, motivational, emotional and personal features of the individual. As restriction as we believe, it is possible to note absence in the given model any kognitivnyh SI components.

In 1980th years foreign researchers attentively think of degree of importance of social knowledge for understanding of behaviour of people. N.Kentor and J. Kilstrom were based that the social intelligence is connected with application of knowledge for the decision of real vital problems. According to researchers, schemes I, other and social contexts allow people to interpret effectively events and quickly to be trained. Successful strategy of the decision of problems allow to react flexibly to requirements and changes of vital circumstances. Vital problems are conditions in which people unite knowledge and strategy for achievement of objects in view. SI structure, on representations of authors, three components make: ability to the decision of practical problems, verbal abilities and social competence [34; 107]. Model of SI of N.Kentora and J. Kilstroma it is resulted in table 3.

Model of SI of N.Kentora and J. Kilstroma.

Table 3.

1. Ability to the decision of the practical


2. Verbal abilities.
3. Social competence.

We believe, that in this model there are unmarked criteria of difference of ability to the decision of practical problems from social competence. Not clearly also, what of these abilities is primary in relation to another., In our opinion, it is possible to consider as the strong party of this concept position of authors, according to which SI helps the person to adapt the behaviour so that, aspiring to the purposes, it could use developing circumstances as much as possible effectively.

A little bit earlier, M.E.Ford, on the contrary, in the maintenance kontsepta SI has put in the forefront has not reserved social knowledge, and social competence. It has defined it as ability to reach answering social purpose in concrete social contexts, using corresponding means and to reach positive succession of events. In the research of SI and social competence of teenagers, M.E.Ford has shown, that quality of mutual relations and interactions of the person in the social environment surrounding it has more important values for social knowledge, than the maintenance and quantity of social knowledge [115; 116].

K.Kosmitski and O.John adhered to other sights at the SI nature. On a basis implitsitnyh judgements of the respondents "collected" in a course

Researches, authors have allocated seven central making SI (Table 4).

Model of SI of K.Kosmitski and O.John.

Table 4.

1. Good understanding of thoughts, feelings and intentions of others.
2. Ability to deal with others.
3. Possession an extensive knowledge of rules and norms

Human relations.

4. Ability to accept the point of view of others.
5. Good prisposobljaemost to the social

To situations.

6. Warmth and care.
6. An openness to new impressions, ideas and

To values [137].

In general, authors adhered to wide representations on structure of social intelligence. At their concept there are kognitivnye, social, personal and behavioural characteristics of the person possessing in high SI.

Meanwhile, K.Vong has suggested to distinguish behavioural and kognitivnye aspects of SI. In its concept of SI contains three kognitivnyh the factor. (The table


Model of SI of K.Wong.

Table 5.

1. Social knowledge (an etiquette rule).
2. A social insight (ability

To understand an emotional condition of others).

3. Social intuition (ability to understand

Observable behaviour within the limits of a social context) [51].

In the present model as we think, it is possible to unite a social insight and social intuition. We believe, that these variables make one general ability (sotsioemotsionalnyj intelligence) since the understanding of behaviour of other person is in many respects reduced to understanding of its emotional conditions at present.

On G.Alderu, the SI (interpersonal intelligence) consists of three aspects. Them concern: understanding of others, social skills and knowledge of secrets

Dialogue [2]. In our opinion, the author exaggerates an empathy role in a component

«Understanding of others». We believe, that this quality of the person can be connected with ability to sympathy and empathy to other people, than about ability to understand their behaviour more likely. Along with it, we do not deny the important motivational and affective role of empathy helping better to concentrate on feelings and emotions of other people. G.Aldera's scientific views on SI structure are presented in table 6.

SI model (Interpersonal intelligence) G.Aldera.

Table 6.

1. Understanding of others. Ability to distinguish and correctly to understand

Feelings of other people (kernel EI or empathy). The people possessing empathy, are more sensitive to the weak social signals expressing to requirement and desire of associates. The empathy is closely connected with interpersonal skills in the field of understanding of our own feelings.

2. Social skills. "Socially clever" people possess

«Social consciousness», «social literacy», also own bases of dialogue with surrounding people. Skills extend on intercultural communications, tolerance in relation to people, in something distinct from ourselves. All to it can learn.

4. Knowledge of secrets


One of aspects of SI (the interpersonal

Intelligence) it is ability to create mutually advantageous relations and to receive from it pleasure. Interpersonal skills, such, as

«Reading of feelings of associates», are the important factor of our daily existence and any affairs, joint with other people [2].

Analyzing sights of the author at SI, it is possible to notice, that the first and third component of model include ability to understand and another's emotions and feelings. From here it is possible to draw a conclusion on structural communication of social and emotional intelligence. It is important to notice, that G.Alder in the representations about social intelligence takes away a place to a component of social skills which demand various knowledge of ethnocultural features of behaviour of other people. Such knowledge and skills, in our opinion, considerably expand possibilities of social competence.

So, received K.A.Crowne results have shown, that people with high cultural intelligence usually have high indicators of social intelligence. The one who is capable to co-operate successfully with others

Cultures, possibly, well co-operates within own culture. The cultural intelligence is an ability of the person to regulate and

Effectively to adapt to various cultural situations [112].

The culture, according to foreign sociologist C.Margaret Hall, provides a profound knowledge of the people and a society which includes ideals, beliefs, values, and norms. The author has allocated following five especially the prominent aspects necessary for perfection of SI: a family/sort; religion or systems of beliefs; a class/race; culture; and a society/history. For studying of SI C.Margaret Hall used methods of the interview, the included supervision and the content-analysis. During the rich clinical operational experience with the population and groups of communities it has come to conclusion, that: « The SI can be considered as reflexion of life experience of the people which regulates sociological interventions for constructive individual and social changes. The SI it - that we understand ourselves and a society is better when we are included in various groups, type of families, communities, or the organisations. The SI can be raised if to pay special attention on feature of groups, often co-operating with them »[126]. Data C.Margaret Hall, in our opinion, essentially expand subject borders of research of SI and represent high value for practice of interaction of people with each other and in a society as a whole.

Other line of studying of SI now is research of its communications with wisdom. So, T.Kinoshita considers a category SI/WISDOM,

As ability to behave according to a social environment ». Quality SI/WISDOM distinguishes« socially mature adult people »and designates ability to behave according to a social environment [51]. Five measurements of the concept SI/WISDOM are reflected in table 7.

Model T.Kinoshity's SI/WISDOM.

Table 7.

1. The general kontseptualizatsija. Ability to understanding of things not

Simply as separately existing, and in system of their existential integrity.

Ability to understand, seize importance of balance in interaction with other people and not to pass key positions in conversation or discussion.

2. Adaptation to the set

To circumstances.

Ability to involve and use

Own resources in concrete and special cases. It means capable to be fair to cope with arising obstacles and successfully to overcome them, instead of easier to pass by.

3. Ability to behave


Ability to estimate others with

Principle positions reljativizma, instead of a principle tsentrirovannosti on self-expression. This measurement includes also ability to empathy, sensitivity, tolerance to heterogeneity (heterogeneity). Conflicts to other people and biases against them often arise then when there are no these qualities.

4. Expansion of the internal

The world.

Enthusiasm from stay alone

With itself and ability during this moment to productive imagination and insajtam. The given line is not identical introvertirovannosti, and is an antipode of blind following to crowd.

5. The emotional control. Ability to regulation of emotions,

To calmness display in various situations. Ability metalevel Here means to supervise emotions even if their intensity accrues [51].

Actually the maintenance of the given concept make such nekognitivnye variables, as: skills of regulation of the behaviour, management of the emotions, empathy, tolerance, etc. Kontsept wisdom reveals here, apparently, from a maturity of personal qualities of the individual. The given qualities, in our opinion, really considerably increase accuracy of social estimations, however demand a sufficient stock of practical knowledge of the social world.

In psychology of development set of such vital knowledge and skills is formulated in concept kristallizovannogo intelligence.

One more modern researcher K.Albrecht allocates five basic kompetentnostej the SI, necessary for a life and leaderships (Table 8).

Table 8.

SI model (S.P.A.C.E.) K.Albrecht.

1. Situational


This factor specifies in, how we

Are capable to understand others and to empathize together with them in various situations. Whether we catch feelings and intentions of other people? This characteristic includes also practical knowledge of a human nature and knowledge of cultural patterns and social rules of behaviour in various situations (stress, the conflict, etc.).

2. Presence. This aspect reveals, what

We render influence on other people through our appearance, mood, a manner to behave, body language; through we occupy what place in a room. We should pay attention to feeling of presence if we wish to be taken seriously.

3. Authenticity. This sign shows, how much

We are fair and iskrenni with by itself and other people under any circumstances. Whether we are capable to manipulate others or we allow them to operate ourselves? Whether can change others ours sincere behaviour the approval?

4. Clearness of thinking. This characteristic defines

Ability of the person clearly to express the thoughts, opinions, ideas and the purposes. Whether we are capable to use skilfully speech, to have a good pronunciation and a wide lexicon?

Whether we are capable to listen attentively to another's points of view to understand them?

5. Empathy. This parametre estimates how it is true

We realise feelings of others and as we show to them respect. The empathy is a positive feeling of "connection" of two people [98].

lbrecht understands SI as a combination consisting of understanding of behaviour of others (a kind of strategic social consciousness) and a set of skills for successful interaction with them [98]. In the sights at SI the author gives a lot of attention to that, how much we are capable to co-operate successfully with others, to operate the thinking and behaviour, to influence others, and we possess what volume of social knowledge. The given model widely enough covers all basic parties of social knowledge and social interaction between people.

Other foreign researchers of our days, K.Conzelmann, S.Weis and H.-M.SÜb, on the basis of the literary analysis of works in SI (O'Salliven, Gilford, DeMille, Wedeck, Moss, Sternberg, Orlik, Hendricks, Vernon, Weber, etc.)

Have offered the following model of SI (Table 9).

Model of SI K.Conzelmann, S.Weis, H.-M.SÜb.

Table 9.

1. Social understanding

(A social conclusion, social interpretation, social judgement).

Ability to understand the social

Stimulus in the given social situation; ability by words to understand

Mental conditions of the person;

Understanding of observable behaviour in an occurring social context; decoding of social signals.

2. Social memory. Ability to store and reproduce

The objective social information which can difficult vary (for example, memory on names and persons).

3. Social pertseptsija. Ability to fast perception

Socially significant information in more or less difficult situations. Social pertseptsija differs from social understanding that is necessary on objectivity of the current information, trying to exclude a condition of its explanation.

4. Social


Ability to make the diverse

Decisions and interpretations of social problems or social situations.

5. Social knowledge. Knowledge of social values;

Individual stock of knowledge of the social world or knowledge of rules of etiquette [110].

Taking for a theoretical basis of the work the given model, Conzelmann, S.Weis and H.-M.SÜb during the research following results have received. Unlike other characteristics of SI, social knowledge very much depends on features of social values of environment and is not considered as purely kognitivnyj parametre. The social understanding does not depend on the academic intelligence while social memory and social pertseptsija have shown regular correlations with the academic intelligence. Also during statistical processing it has not been found the general factor for SI and social pertseptsii. The socially-competent behaviour depends from kognitivnyh (that is SI) and nekognitivnyh preconditions (for example, motivation, lines of the person, value, etc.) . Authors believe, that the SI represents kognitivnye abilities which are the precondition for socially - competent behaviour. A strength of the given concept of SI, in our opinion, is the width of the chosen components of SI and their accurate structural organisation.

Interest to studying of social intelligence in domestic psychology has been expressed for the first time I.M.Bobnevoj. The researcher believed, that the SI is an ability to see and catch difficult relations and dependences in social sphere. She considered, that high level of the general intelligence is a necessary condition for social development of the person. We believe, that

Here there is no direct relationship of cause and effect, since the majority of tests IQ is comprised by concrete tasks (arithmetic, spatial, verbal etc.), allowing to do conclusions about performance level of directly these tasks. Equally as the techniques measuring in SI, mean for their successful performance presence at the respondent of social knowledge and skills of recognition of emotional conditions of the person.

I.M.Bobneva also simultaneously assumed, that the SI can and not to be connected with the general intelligence and represents the independent important ability developing during socialisation. The SI is formed in the course of activity of the person in social sphere, sphere of dialogue and social

Interactions [11].

L.A.Juzhaninova has offered the structure of SI into which structure have entered: socially-pertseptivnyj a component; social imagination; the social technics of dialogue (Table 10).

Model of SI AL.JUzhaninovoj.

Table 10.

1. Socially-pertseptivnyj


This such is complete-personal

Formation which provides possibility of adequate reflexion of individual and personal properties of the recipient, features of course of its mental processes and display of emotional sphere, and also accuracy in understanding of character of the relation of the recipient with associates.

Ability of self-knowledge - comprehension of the individually-personal properties, motives of behaviour and character of perception of others.

2. Social imagination. Ability of the adequate

Modelling of individual and personal features of people on the basis of external signs, and also ability of forecasting of character of behaviour of the recipient in concrete situations of an exact prediction of features of the further interaction.

3. The social technics


Ability to accept a role of another,

To own a situation and to direct interaction in the necessary channel for the person, in riches of technics and means of dialogue [93].

A.L.Juzhaninovoj's model contains some prominent aspects of SI such, as: individually-psychological, prognosticheskie, communicative, liderskie. However, in our opinion, ability of self-knowledge does not concern socially-pertseptivnomu component and it is possible to allocate it separately. The same it is possible to tell and about that ability of acceptance of a role of another should be carried more likely to intellectual (imagination), instead of communicative ability. A.L.Juzhaninova considered, that practical and logic kinds of intelligence reflect sphere the subject-objective of relations, and social intelligence - the subject-subject.

The idea close to this assumption has appeared later in N.A.Kudrjavtsevoj's works which supposed, that the SI is an ability to the rational, cogitative operations which object are processes of interpersonal interaction [41]. The SI is one of components of a mental potential of the person (Table 11).

Model of structure of intelligence of N.A.Kudrjavtsevoj.

Table 11.

1. The general intelligence. Ability to solve a problem on

The subject-objective level.

2. Social intelligence. Ability to solve a problem on

The subject-subject level.

3. A reflexion. Balance of development of the different parties


N.A.Kudrjavtseva, after I.M.Bobnevoj, noticed, that the SI can not depend on the general intelligence. As it was marked above, the given statement of a question is enough debatable. We will result examples of the several more works devoted to this problem.

L.Karlin And M.M.Schwartz in the researches of social and general intelligence have drawn the following conclusion: «the Person with higher intelligence is inclined to underline more likely, as a rule, the problem aspect of a situation, rather than to pay attention to the people involved in these situations. More

The intellectual person makes the big success in the decision of problems, showing the tendency focused on a problem, instead of on itself »[133].

I.V.Bezmenov, in turn, notices, that polezavisimye people, as well as

polenezavisimye successfully distinguish an emotional condition of other person through an expression. polenezavisimye do it at the expense of good allocation of significant elements for recognition of a background, and polezavisimye at the expense of identification of and the person in a photo [7].

These results show features kognitivnogo style and social pertseptsii.

According to V.A.Naumets, SI indicators are not connected with a level of development of logic intelligence. During too time there is a weak negative correlation between mathematical characteristics and SI: the above indicators of mathematical tests, the more low indicators of SI [58]. At the same time

E.V.Pashchenko's research has shown, that persons with high SI have a high level of development of schyotno-mathematical abilities. The author assumes, that there is a uniform mechanism of functioning of the social and general intelligence, using is formal-logic laws of the conceptual

Thinking [62]. At the same time, both authors have specified in positive communications between high levels of development of verbal and social intelligence. It is important to specify that in these two works the same techniques of measurement of the general and social intelligence with identical age sample of students were used. Despite it, authors have received both identical, and opposite results.

According to V.N.Kunitsynoj, the social intelligence represents the accurate and co-ordinated group of the mental abilities connected with

Processing of the social information also is independent psychologists -

cheskim a phenomenon, instead of display of the general intelligence in social situations. The distinctive characteristic and a sign of its high level of development is the developed social competence. Social intelligence are individual inclinations, abilities, the properties facilitating formation of skills of social actions and contacts [42].

The author allocates seven functions of SI.

1. Maintenance of adequacy, adaptability in varying conditions.

2. Formation of the program and plans of successful interaction in tactical and strategic directions, the decision of current problems.

3. Planning of interpersonal events and forecasting of their development.

4. Motivational function.

5. Expansion of social competence.

6. Self-development, self-knowledge, self-training.

7. Mobilisation function.

The concept of SI of V.N.Kunitsynoj is reflected in table 12.

Model of SI of V.N.Kunitsynoj.

Table 12.

1. Communicatively-personal potential - a complex of properties,

Facilitating or complicating dialogue on which basis such integrated communicative properties as psychological kontaktnost and communicative compatibility are formed. It is the basic core of social intelligence.

2. Consciousness characteristics - feeling of self-esteem, freedom from

Complexes, the prejudices, the suppressed impulses, an openness to new ideas.

3. Social pertseptsija, social thinking, social imagination,

Social representation, ability to understanding and modelling of the social phenomena, understanding of people and driving them of motives.

4. Power characteristics: mental and physical endurance,

Activity, weak istoshchaemost [42; 51].

V.N.Kunitsyna considers social competence as system of knowledge of the social validity and about itself, system of difficult social skills of interaction, behaviour scenarios in the typical social situations allowing quickly and instantly to adapt, make the decision with skill, considering developed conjuncture; operating by a principle «here, now and in the best way» to take a maximum from the developed circumstances [42].

This concept shows importance of SI for situations of interpersonal interaction. In SI structure it is possible to consider as essentially new link the components of communicatively-personal potential allocated with V.N.Kunitsynoj, power characteristics and consciousness characteristics.

Other domestic researcher, D.V.Ushakov, in SI structure carries use to one of basic elements of "internal experience». On it

To opinion, this parametre distinguishes SI from all other kinds of intelligence. Presence of internal experience, experience of our desires, requirements, imaginations which, maybe, were never showed in behaviour, is the huge resource increasing an outlook of SI. However, we not simply use last experience of an internal life. We can mentally present this experience of experience, present, that he will wish, from what to suffer and to what to aspire [45].

We do not doubt, that use of "internal experience» for an estimation of other people can, both to enrich, and to limit possibilities of social knowledge. The reasons on it can be a little. First, processes of perception, an estimation and understanding of are distinct from the same processes directed on others. Secondly, use of "internal experience» can act as displaying of our desires, requirements, imaginations on others

People, with subsequent "imposing" of this own experience on their emotionally-behavioural reactions.

On D.V.Ushakovu, there are three factors defining a level of development of SI.

1. Potential of formation of SI which is shown also in level of the general intelligence.

2. Personal, first of all, emotional features, in

bolshej or smaller degree involving forces of the person to dialogue with other people and their knowledge.

3. A course of life of the person (whether it was necessary to it to direct the energies to interaction with other people or for subject work).

The SI is an informative ability which, however, unlike other informative abilities, appears linked with lichnost -

nymi lines [45].

The researcher has formulated five characteristics of SI (Table 13).

SI characteristics on D.V.Ushakovu.

Table 13.

1. Kontinualnyj character.
2. Use of the nonverbal information.
3. Loss of accuracy social otsenivanija

At verbalisation.

5. The SI is formed in process implitsitnogo


5. Use of "internal" experience.

This concept possesses strict structure and covers important kognitivno-pertseptivnye and emotionally-personal variables which, together with the maintenance of "internal experience» define success of social knowledge. The author also successfully solves a question on a parity of the general and social intelligence on an example «losses of accuracy social otsenivanija at verbalisation». We will compare it with S.S.Belovoj's data, whose research has shown, that in verbalizovannom knowledge not always find reflexion the criteria applied at subjective otsenivanii of psychological property. So, a part of verbalisations appear as a matter of fact declarative and not connected with process subjective otsenivanija despite conscious efforts of the subject in their formulation. The maintenance of verbalisations in bolshej to a measure defines subjective otsenivanie intelligence in the presence of the verbal report, than at its absence [8].

One more domestic researcher A.I.Savenkov, after К.Jones and

Day, allocates two factors of SI. The first is «kristallizovannye social knowledge». Declarative and skilled knowledge of well familiar social events mean. Under declarative in this case it is necessary to understand the knowledge received as a result of social nauchenija, and under skilled that are received during own research practice. The second - socially-kognitivnaja flexibility. Here it is a question of ability to apply social knowledge at the decision of unknown problems. All know, that "nobility" about something it is very important, but it is not necessary to confuse knowledge to readiness and abilities them to apply [78]. In effect, the author specifies in three basic structural making SI which are shown in wide enough range of the characteristics defining accuracy social knowledge (Table 14).

Model of SI of A.I.Savenkova.

Table 14.

1. Kognitivnye criteria. Social knowledge - knowledge of people, knowledge

Special rules, understanding of other people;

Social memory - memory on names, persons;

The social intuition - an estimation of feelings, mood definition, understanding of motives of acts of other people, ability adequately to perceive observable behaviour within the limits of a social context;

Social forecasting -

Formulation of plans of own actions, tracing of the development, reflexion of own development and estimation of not used alternative possibilities.

2. Emotional criteria. Expressiveness - emotional

Expressiveness, emotional sensitivity, the emotional control; empathy - ability to understand position of other people to put itself to the place of another (to overcome a communicative and moral egocentrism);

Ability to self-control - ability to regulate own emotions and own mood.

3. Behavioural criteria. Social perception - ability to listen

The interlocutor, understanding of humour; social interaction - ability and readiness to work in common, ability to collective interaction and as to the higher type of this interaction - to collective creativity; social adaptation - ability to explain and convince others, ability to get on with other people, an openness in relations

With associates [78].

Thus, in our opinion, the component «abilities to self-control» concerns simultaneously and emotional parametres, and to behavioural skills (as emotional conditions are always reflected in behaviour, the control here occurs not simply over emotions, and over behavioural reactions). We believe also, that an "empathy" component as it was specified by us above on an empathy example, it is possible to connect with ability to sympathy and empathy to other people, than about ability to understand their behaviour more likely. It is necessary to mention, that ability «to rise to the place of other person» communicates in domestic psychology, as a rule, with a level of development of imagination [23].

Bringing a short result of the first paragraph, we wish to designate some the general conclusions.

1) On the basis of all theoretical theoretical and empirical representations about social intelligence it is possible to tell, that foreign and domestic scientists, psychologists, sociologists constantly did and do attempts to define a SI place in our mental maintenance. There is it by a finding of possible communications between ability to social knowledge and a level of development kognitivnyh, communicative, and, at last, personal lines of the person.

D.Wechsler, G.Ajzenk, G.Olport, L.Karlin, M.M.Schwartz, by I.V.Bezmenov, E.V.Pashchenko, D.V.Ushakov are convinced that the social intelligence in considerable degrees depends on a level of development of the general intelligence.

Sufficient number of authors write only about correlations between social and verbal intelligence: E.Torndajk, N.Kentor, J. Kilstrom, K.Albrecht, D.V.Ushakov, S.S.Belova.

T.Hunt, F.Moss, V.R.Mcclatchy, M. O'Salliven, J. Gilford, D.P.Keating, H.A.Marlowe, K.Conzelmann, S.Weis, H.-M.SÜb, V.A.Naumets, on the contrary, specify in independence of SI of the general, academic intelligence.

We start with about what it was already said by us above, that there is no straight line

Relationship of cause and effect between social and general intelligence, since the majority of tests IQ is comprised by concrete tasks (arithmetic, spatial, verbal etc.), allowing to do conclusions about performance level of directly these tasks. As well the techniques measuring in SI, mean for their successful performance presence at the respondent of social knowledge and skills of recognition of emotional conditions of the person.

It was specified also, that the majority of the techniques directed on measurement of the general intelligence, demand performance of the certain tasks having on zadumke authors of these techniques, only one right answer. Techniques

SI measurements, as a rule, are based on the self-report. On the other hand, in the subtests measuring in SI and meaning one true answer, a finding

It is unique the correct decision is even more disputable.

2) In many works some lines of social intelligence are crossed with characteristics of emotional intelligence.

Abilities to understand emotion, feelings, mood of associates are listed in a context of SI at such authors, as River Е.Vernon, K.Kosmitski, O.John, K.Vong, K.Albrecht, A.L.Juzhaninova.

Possibilities of knowledge of the emotional conditions and self-control are considered in researches of T.Kinoshita, A.I.Savenkova,

A.L.Juzhaninovoj, V.N.Kunitsynoj.

Here it is possible to speak about some indissoluble communication between SI and EI. It is possible to explain it, how we believe, that data konstrukty form one general ability - sotsioemotsionalnyj intelligence.

3) Many of authors take into consideration presence at people

The "special" social knowledge causing in many respects success in social knowledge. Them concern: River Е.Vernon, H.A.Marlowe, K.Kosmitski, O.John, K.Vong, G.Alder, C.Margaret Hall, T.Kinoshita, K.A.Crowne, K.Conzelmann, S.Weis, H.-M.SÜb, A.I.Savenkov. The Most part of scientists underlines here the important role of cultural intelligence.

In our opinion, it is necessary to pay steadfast attention to the such

«sotsiokulturnuju awareness» since it should be a basis of social knowledge. Despite the fact that, for measurement of level of such knowledge practically there are no special techniques, without them successful performance of any other tests for SI or EI is impossible.

4) It is possible to name a number of the researchers considering SI as practical ability, the social skills necessary for social adaptation: H.A.Marlowe, N.Kentor, J. Kilstrom, M.E.Ford, K.Kosmitski, O.John, K.A.Crowne, T.Kinoshita, G.Alder, A.I.Savenkov. Here it is possible to carry

And abilities «to get on, deal with others» (River Е.Vernon, G.Olport, K.Kosmitski, O.John). Proceeding from works of these authors, we believe, that the object of SI is first of all vital, instead of an abstract problem.

5) it is necessary to specify and in the authors connecting SI with empathy, acceptance

The points of view of another:

H.A.Marlowe, K.Kosmitski, O.John, G.Alder, K.Albrecht, A.I.Savenkov); with internal experience (G.Olport, D.V.Ushakov);

Interest to another and low social uneasiness - H.A.Marlowe; in communicative potential: A.L.Juzhaninova, V.N.Kunitsyna);

With an openness to all new, warmth, care: K.Kosmitski, O.John);

With unconscious motivation - F.S.Chapin and personal lines: D.V.Ushakov, V.N.Kunitsyna;

introvertirovannostju - V.R.Mcclatchy or ekstravertirovannostju - G.Olport.

Considering the above described data, it is possible to believe, that the SI has the difficult structure crossed with components of emotional intelligence, sotsiokulturnymi knowledge, experience, social skills, in communicative potential, lines of the person and motivation.

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