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TEHNIKO-TECHNOLOGICAL BREAK IN WORK

2.5.

TV language often reminds cinema language, but mutual relations of the tenth and eleventh muses very uneasy: from fierce enmity to the ideal union. The TV can be perceived, as defective art as «a box of entertainments» and «speaking furniture», and it is possible to consider, that TV - the cinema future.

«The tongue-tied cinema» undertakes a screen version of classics of the literature, what not always excellent it is possible to the big screen. At art TV so difficult work as time turns out even better, than at cinema. The screen version moves from the big screens on the small more and more.

The shot, the plan, foreshortening, light, colour score - all these components are nonverbal means of art expressiveness.

Investigating a content of modern programs of a cultural-educational orientation, we, analyzing the general laws which have developed in a modern teleether, do not disregard an individual creative product, as the culture phenomenon. It is important the uniqueness and originality as the inner world of each author is individual and unique. In the work we designate the basic directions and receptions of application of screen expressive means in creativity of modern writers.

With expansion of technical possibility of an embodiment of creative problems modern journalists still have essential only one problem - an operating time over a material. Many technical barriers in the course of shootings are overcome. For example, in a documentary cinema of 1940-50th years resorted to deep stage settings that helped to approach differently to construction of episodes and to extend assembly phrases. By the end 1950 - to the beginning of 1960th years the period of reequipment of a cinema, to that begins

Occurrence new shestnadtsatimillimetrovoj synchronous movie and sound recording equipment and a high-sensitivity film promoted. This has given new possibilities of shooting out of studio, in particular - there was possible a display of the hero of the program in conditions natural to it. For documentary journalism it was the present break: process

Historical development and social changes it was possible to track through destinies of concrete people - heroes of documentary films. Therefore so the genre of a documentary film-portrait and a portrait sketch has widely extended.

Expressiveness of a shot develops of many components: a foreshortening, the plan, a composition, illumination, etc. To the middle of 1960 th years shooting on tridtsatipjatimillimetrovuju a film gave the chance to a tonality of the sated semitones and the deep image. SHestnadtsatimillimetrovaja the film was exposition more sensitive to forming and other parametres, but helped to make cinematographic equipment more maneuverable and dynamical. Besides, there was a new optics with a variable focal length and shirokougolnye objectives that has allowed the operator to make change of plans at the moment of shooting, to spend panoramic shooting, in a new fashion to look at composite construction of a shot. The image was looked by more realistic, «snatched out of a life», instead of «rehearsed in advance». The appeared aesthetics "reportazhnosti" became a new art method dokumentalistiki and TV of that period as a whole. In 1960th years began a thicket to neglect quality of a picture in favour of reliability of the image. Gradual distribution of the colour image has promoted staginess development on the screen.

In 1970th years, according to many researchers of TV, in particular, telecriticism Sergey Muratova, «among films-portraits has appeared almost every third of the presented tapes and if to include in this list« group portraits »- a school class, a miner's brigade, rural chorus, almost everyone the second» [97].

The modern technics allows not only to do high-quality synchronous records, but also to use multilinear installation and high-precision work with video-and sound recordings.

As a result within the limits of programs of cultural-educational subjects we receive following possibilities:

1. Possibility of qualitative reproduction of products of culture and art in various forms. Record and translations of concerts from the Big hall of the Moscow conservatory, translation of other concerts of the academic music («Masterpieces of world musical theatre» - television channel "Culture", the Musical program "Voice" - «the First channel», «Lectures on a rain» - television channel "Rain").

2. Possibility of all-round display of object. Translation of sports competitions (television channel "Sports", etc.); record of concerts and festivals, creation of films-concerts, synthesis of a feature film and a musical concert on which works more than twenty videocameras («Metallica: Through impossible», «The Chemical Brothers: Don’t think» and

dr).

3. Possibility of ultraprecise reproduction of details. Transfers about animals («Our favourite animals» - television channel TVTS), transfers from picture galleries and museums («My Hermitage» - television channel "Culture").

4. Possibility of operative and versatile informing on events in culture and art sphere. Daily releases of news, including «Culture News» (television channel "Culture"), "Gadzheotazh" (television channel "Rain").

5. Possibility of interactive interaction with the spectator. «The open studio» (the Fifth channel), can take part in show any interested person, to vote in interrogation, to share opinion.

6. Possibility of restoration of archival records. Special computer processing of archive, numbering of an old material, colour addition to a black-and-white film («the Father of the soldier», «In fight there are one old men», «Three poplars on Plyuschikha», «Cheerful children», etc.), and also adaptation of formats of archival records for their inclusion in modern documentary films which histories of object of a narration («the Archetype concern. A neurosis. Libido» - television channel "Culture").

7. Stylisation possibility «under olden time» or a certain visual image. Colour correction of the video image, use chernobelogo a mode and special effects of "attrition" of a film, application of toning of the video image and-or the photos used in the program, in a shade sepii («G a manhole Divine» - the First channel).

8. Possibility of a combination of professional shooting and amateur videorecording. Releases of news, analytical programs («Agency of special investigations» - the Fifth channel).

9. Expansion of possibilities of reconstruction of historical events. Reconstruction in the pure state as the independent element of a telenarration, is applied in a situation when real events are transferred by means of game of actors with attraction of the story of real heroes. In a case when actors play real heroes as much as possible approximately to real events with attraction of a newsreel and other documents. Such way is applied, for example, when the hero recollects events which occurred for a long time, for example, in the childhood. And one more way: the real hero is represented by the real hero (reportazhno, restoration of the fact, the latent chamber, provotsirovaniem or by means of involving to game). So occurs in programs «Hour of court», criminal news, historical programs. Somewhere reconstruction becomes an expressive element of a telenarration. Such reception [98] Leonid Parfyonov in television movies «the Eye Divine», «the Bird - Gogol» often uses, «300 years of a Russian press».

Tehniko-technological progress has led to serious changes and in sphere of formatting of channels as a whole. Some workers of electronic mass-media approach to a question on a format very sceptically: the pier, is not present any format, we fill the traffic of an announcement with that, for what pay, and the spectator itself will understand, to look to it such "masterpiece" or to be switched. Such theses at times do not blab out aloud, but become a unique explanation of an abundance of a poor-quality product on air where commercial unit becomes a key component. Really, technical simplicity of preparation of a radio product quite often reduces its quality - including in aspect of audiovisual culture. The television content not only broadcasts audiences cultural senses, but also forms aesthetic views, flavouring norms of the spectator. In this sense the general degradation or TV unification leads so-called to "lowering selection» [99] when spectator requirements to a teleproduct go down.

The concept of a format - is disputable and is non-uniform. George Kuznetsov in the book «So journalists of TV» [100] work wrote, that the format is not only timing, but also a set of constant signs, telecast components (quantity of chambers, an image of the leader, stylistics, design, studio registration etc.). Valery Tsvik defined a format as the maintenance with inherent zhanrovo-thematic characteristics of the television product focused on a certain segment of an audience [101]. Sergey Muratov in one of interview has noticed, that "ratings" and "formats" have superseded clever analytical programs from TV screens. Really, those programs and plots which left in regions, on style of leaders and character of giving

Messages at times were rather organic, natural, were closer than a local audience those expressive means which they used: considered a local dialect, traditions and vital way - household culture of the given district. Capital authors in the plot on the same theme use absolutely other means, paternal the form of giving of a material at times changes. So, for example, in dokumentalnopublitsisticheskih films «Letters from a province» (television channel "Culture") are used the diversified verbal and nonverbal means in stories about a life of small cities of Russia where original customs and traditions have remained. Each series - a new side of the national culture, new people, modern histories. Extraordinary frank, sincere character of a narration of heroes, their story about the destiny and life business, do each film especially valuable and unlike the previous. In release «the Blues of railways» (2011) It is told about the small city of Liski of the Voronezh area, a large railway junction. By means of corresponding musical and sound registration rate and character of a local life are surprisingly precisely transferred. Authors used a musical substrate of melodies of those rhythms which remind a railway sound: hooters of electric locomotives and a voice of people which live and work in this city. The visual component also is bright expressive means: a combination of close ups of the local residents telling about the business, to panoramic plans of fine landscapes of a city. We see ancient cretaceous mountains and breadth of "Silent" Don. The colour scale with prevalence of shades green in a shot also is the expressive means transferring colour of district. In programs liskinskogo television channel "FACE" and thematic programs is not present such variety visual and audialnyh means. Films about agriculture of Liskinsky area (2010) About the City recreation park (2010), about Liskinsky sanatorium - dispensaries "Radon" (2011) are sated by verbal expressive means - a dialect, active use of epithets, metaphors, the hyperboles, the transformed set phrases, officially-official style language in speech of heroes and in the offscreen text of the journalist.

Sergey Muratov noticed, that «journalists are tired out in frameworks of a format of television channels. People have ceased to think in a shot. Now the impudence and aggression are claimed on TV. All are excited with a dollar exchange rate, secular gossips, last scandals of show business, kriminal and glamur...». Given

The statement characterises also modern position of provincial TV. At maintenance level such tendency is shown that more and more on local television channels, in particular on television channel «Liskinsky TV», appears programs of entertaining subjects: a music program «Accept congratulations», the criminal chronicle «informs the Ministry of Emergency Measures», entertaining show «the Autoradio Formula». Has passed very few time - and the border between "provincial" and "capital" journalism all became less appreciable both by the form, and under the maintenance, a format of programs and plots. The term «a regional format» has today dim borders. In aspect of culture this process cannot be estimated unequivocally. On the one hand, level of the form of a presentation of the regional information to the spectator raises, with another - individual style of regional telecasts gives way to media content unification.

The provincial TV, however, as well as a life, possesses special specificity. Works of regional journalists are original. But at any stage of creativity some of TV reporters start to imitate, and sometimes and completely to copy capital masters. Such style of work is unacceptable for local TV. Materials lose the special spirit, and despite affinity to an audience, the journalist loses the special relation with the spectator that reduces trust to the local channel. Besides, imitation capital telejournalism at times is looked ridiculously and ridiculously in the conditions of the limited technical possibility of realisation of idea. And this [102] tendency is shown not only in the plot organisation, but also at selection of the facts and events for release of news. The provincial TV, unlike the central channels, has weight of advantages of creation of qualitative documentary programs, and the main thing - time which usually sharply lacks capital journalists.

Rupture between the form and the maintenance becomes other tendency connected with development technicians and technologies of telemanufacture. The screen world - the isolated reality designed under laws of human requirements. Illusion of stay in the text is provided with the chamber: the spectator identifies its "sight" with own. Identification is expressed by the Hungarian writer and the theorist of cinema of Bell Balashem in an aphorism turned to the spectator: «Your eyes in the chamber». Influence possibility practically on all sense organs of the person has generated sensation of full immersing in "real" unreality of product, and modern technologies and have at all made possible total capture of attention of the televiewer.

Simplification of work with formal parametres of an audiovisual product should liberate time for formation of the maintenance of programs, however in practice we notice return process, and it is not casual - the form and the maintenance of an audiovisual product razdelimy only in theoretical aspect. In practice simplification of work with the form sometimes results and in maintenance simplification. So, in unequal struggle of the form and the maintenance of the programs directed on disclosing of the person of the hero, we can observe an ambiguous situation. Frequently in projects where function is predominating rekreativnaja, the form of giving of the information, its "packing" differs brightness and originality. Programs in which education and a reflexion are the basic directions of an information stream, quite often or lose in registration, and the transfer concept breaks up to some semantic parts, or are an example harmonious unity of the form and the maintenance when intellectualization does not become an obstacle for perception (Oleg Dormana's "Word-per-word translation" where the story of main heroine Liliany Lunginoj consists of different episodes of her life). Story Liliany Lunginoj is an original serial, and semantic parts of the story have been lawfully collected in a uniform film. A visual narration in the given program, certainly, was a little, its monotonous monologue was occasionally accompanied by not less monotonous video series (photos, video fragments from archive). The spectators, gone through similar, listened Lilianu Lunginu attentively and with the big interest. The rich video series was not necessary to such audience, there were enough memoirs and thoughts of the heroine.

The tendency of "complication" of the programs calculated on a mass audience, "massovizatsija" difficult programs, brings up the general question on an admissibility of complication of the maintenance of a mass show to which, undoubtedly, teleproduction most part concerns. There is no time Vsevolod Mejerhold which considered circus as a bright mass show, has decorated with elements "tsirkachestva" and circus game the statements and by that has found the new scenic form for plays [103]. The tendency of intellectualization of art - the special phenomenon in history of development of culture. Intellektualizm in art — concept ambiguous. The researcher of modern TV of L.B.Klyuyev defines it as «the system based not on intellectual dialogue or a reasoning, but on special type of structural correlation of art components. Here it is possible to carry such designs, as« a consciousness stream », the literature of" absurdity »(antiintellektualizm as the form intellektualizma), a mythological stream etc.» [104]. On modern TV, even in the conditions of the most severe struggle for the spectator, today even more often there are the projects calculated on elite levels of population. The basic idea of the program or a documentary film, hidden in the structure of product, finds figurative filling and becomes idea art. Authors of programs of cultural-educational sector aspire to expand an audience by transformation of the form of the program, without decrease in quality of a substantial component.

The works constructed by a principle of contrast and a variety of visual expressive means, cause bolshy interest of the mass spectator. The programs doing the rate on internal dramatic art, address to the prepared audience. A mass culture often abuse for bad taste and "obolvanivanie" the spectator, disregarding thus contextual environment of "dwelling" of the program, an abundance in it of bright advertising shots.

Advertising, certainly, has affected character of daily culture and expressiveness of teleprograms adjoining to advertising. American theorist Ernest van den Haag confirms: «the General influence of advertising consists in creation wide obshcherazdeljaemogo taste... Producers are not interested in decrease in taste or in satisfaction is faster low, than high taste. They aspire to answer average exemplary taste which they by means of advertising try to make as more as possible corresponding to mediocre average taste» [105]. In documentary programs journalists make out a shot bright graphic elements and at installation alternate expressive elements of all narration. On NTV television channel, for example, in a film «Romanovs. Last hundred years» the author combines archival documentary records with game of actors, shots of a present epoch, audialnoj a substrate, an actor's postscoring of texts of messages.

Bright registration of the transfers carrying rekreativnyj character, at times mismatches poor and colourless substantial filling of the program (as in advertising), and sometimes has also opposite semantic sense. In 1990 in Russian culture there is the new phenomenon comprising "new" values and other style of a life: carefree and optimistical, public and immodest, elaborate and magnificent - a phenomenon glamura. Despite lacking rationality of elements, glamour style seduces with originality, magnificence and beauty. Shine, a lustre and shocking of leading programs and heroes of films involves a young audience. Under the maintenance of transfer such represent reportings from a life of celebrated personalities and have entertaining character. Some programs use elements of glamour style in registration of a caption, prompts, substrates.

Development of a civilisation and the increase of literacy connected with it and spiritual culture of people are accompanied by depreciation in consciousness of a part of a society of some humanistic traditions and norms of behaviour. The tradition gradually disappears to visit. Requirement for dialogue even more often satisfy or in time collectives, or in virtual space (e-mail, social networks, chats). With the advent of network space many authors of the television projects calculated not only for a radio life, but also on the subsequent stay in specialised video hostings, have reconsidered the approach to creation and giving of many programs. Telechart possibility, clip installation, use of the shots which have been removed on the camera or a mobile phone, the expressional text - all it creates effective show. But frequently having got to it, to the televiewer because of simultaneous perception of numerous signals, it becomes difficult to analyze and correctly to state an estimation to the message. This mission is assigned to the leader of the program.

Interferences of the form and the maintenance on modern TV are ambiguous. Projects with the optimal and harmonious combination of these basic elements manage to keep positive reputation and a stable audience, that in the conditions of transition to a digital announcement it is the most valuable.

2.5.

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A source: Oganesova Julia Arturovna. EXPRESSIVE MEANS of TELEVISION PROGRAMS of CULTURAL-EDUCATIONAL SUBJECTS. 2014

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