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TEORETIKO-FILOSOFSKIEASPEKTY SOTSIODINAMIKI CULTURES

Culture and creativity evolution - process natural and inevitable. Sometimes it proceeds systematically and easy, is a mutation, jump, revolution more often. Certainly, these changes are determined by conditions of life of people, system of their mutual relations with each other and with the nature.

It is possible to present schematically such mutual relations in the form of a chain «the person - a society - household culture - the nature». Culture development is influenced by huge number of the factors connected with sociological, ideological, political, economic situations, with historical traditions, national mentality etc. At the same time, art, being in direct dependence on all listed factors, develops on, conservative enough and strict canons: changes in culture do not arise suddenly, from anywhere, and is systematic «those possibilities of creativity which in it already were, though and in not developed, potential are staticized and realised,

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The "curtailed" condition ».

German philosopher-idealist Osvald Spengler in work «the Decline of Europe» has told, that «cultures - an essence of organisms. A cultural history - their biography» [14 [15]. The sight at character of modern culture remains till now ambiguous.

The culture and life are among presently relatives, and at times and indissoluble concepts. Therefore the given categories, on the one hand, are most habitual, and with another - are more and more subjective in the understanding. Prompt changes in society development, lead to changes in character of creativity, to changes in conditions of contact of the author and an audience, influence character of television culture as a whole.

Is standard to believe, that the term "culture" occurs from a Latin word cultura - cultivation, education, development [16 [17] [18]. Originally it has been connected with process of cultivation of soil, it kultivirovaniem, i.e. Change by its person for the purpose of good harvest reception. Today the term "culture" defines sphere in which the human life proceeds.

O.Spengler has allegorically pull together understanding of culture with its initial concept: «the Culture arises while from

Primitive-sincere condition of is eternal-children's mankind the great soul clears up and allocated... It blossoms because of strictly limited district to which it and remains adhered, like a plant. The culture dies after this soul will carry out the full sum of the possibilities in the form of the people, languages, dogmas, arts, the states and sciences

And thus again will come back in primary sincere elements ».

The Russian researchers V.S.Zhidkov and K.B.Sokolov in one of the works asserted, that the culture «consists of the several subsystems generating own information: religions, sciences and arts, and also the channels of their distribution which have become today quite independent and even by the most influential factors of cultural development - formation and mass media». These spheres can get mutually each other, but at the same time each of them has the unique intrinsic basis. All levels exist independently equally in media space, representing to that special model of functioning and interaction with public. Here the TV not only acts as means of translation of cultural traditions, but also becomes in some

Degrees the driving factor of evolution of style of works of art, its language and expressiveness means.

To analyse interaction of TV and the modern cultural environment, and also to track changes in a present epoch, its characters and customs, it is necessary for us to address by the modern period in which, according to many researchers, the dominant of concepts of a postmodernism is distinctly traced. In this part of research we will track a condition of development of culture of the end XX - the XXI-st century beginnings.

Modern scientists differently concern a question on a periodization of development of culture and a society depending on a subject. The point of view of the Russian-American sociologist and culturologist Pitirima Sorokin which considered the historical validity as hierarchy in a different measure of the integrated cultural and social systems became the closest to us. In the works he analyzes development of cultures of the people and develops the theory of values. In work «Social and cultural dynamics» [19] Pitirim Sorokin analyzes changes and fluctuation ideatsionalnoj, idealistic and sensual cultures. The author underlines, that within last five centuries the western culture and a society

Showed «all magnificence of the creative possibilities and

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Have entered one of the brightest pages in history of world culture ». At the same time their creative forces are not infinite. Now the culture connected with material assets, is in crisis where orientation on religious can become an exit,« idealistic »culture.«... Crisis

Mentions simultaneously almost all western culture and a society, all them

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The main institutes ». Crisis of art, religion, a science, morals,

Way of life has mentioned all spheres of a life of a society. Behind transition period crisis, according to the author, new revival of culture and society as a whole should follow. «Replacement of one fundamental form of culture another - ideatsionalnoj on sensual and on the contrary». This conclusion confirms the theory of historical circulation which was developed by P.Sorokin. However, unlike Spengler and its supporters, Sorokin spoke not about full «a decline of Europe» as cultural centre, and about natural continuation - a birth «new great ideatsionalnoj the culture welcoming new

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Generation - people of the future ». At the heart of Sorokin's idealistic concept - idea about a priority of superorganic system of values, values,« pure cultural systems »which carriers are individuals and institutes. On the basis of universal values probably, and at times also it is necessary, the international cooperation. P.Sorokin has acted with idea of convergence thanks to which capitalist and communistic types of a society will merge in a certain third integrated society. It« will unite the majority of positive values and will be released

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From serious defects of each type ». Such tendency has already proved in a context of world media space where the main vector of development is directed on association of mass-media to holdings, creation konvergentnyh editions and transnational agencies (for example, holding VGTRK). Integration helps not only to expand possibilities of contact to an audience, but also to achieve the maximum efficiency in an information transfer that is a paramount problem of journalists and workers of mass-media.


Modern mass-media as a whole, and TV in particular, have absorbed in themselves many traditions posmodernizma and have reflected them both in form level, and at maintenance level. It is impossible to understand deeply sufficiently phenomena of the modern telescreen if not to consider them in a context

Postmodernism. We will address to the cores kontseptam a postmodernism and we will track their reflexion in telejournalism.

In 1930th years there was a term "postmodernism". For the first time this term was used by historian A.Tojnbi in 1947 for a designation of the new period in development of the western civilisation. Concept of a postmodernism it is possible to designate «the general cultural denominator of second half of XX-th century».

One of the first philosophers of a postmodernism is French philosopher Jean Francois Liotar. In work «the Postmodernist condition: the report on knowledge» he explains a phenomenon of a postmodern not only with philosophical, but is the cultural urological party. Liotar considers a postmodernism as some kind of reaction on universalistskoe world vision in modernist philosophy, religious studies, sociology, art, etc. Z.F.Liotar sees difference of postmodernist philosophy from Marxist that in a postmodern the choice from several alternatives is possible. In a modernism there was a process legitimatsii, «by means of which the legislator is allocated with the right to disclose the given law as norm». The person in the given situation appears in full dependence on stereotypes, the values proclaimed priority in given society. According to the given treatment, the social reality appears is artificial designed as a result of interaction various diskursivnyh an expert where metatexts serve as means legitimatsiiznanija, social institutes of an epoch as a whole [20 [21].

Today mass media are compilers actual an expert and confirm thereby «social norms» or deviations from them. In teleprograms the hero acts or as the sample of public standards, or as the infringer of those. As antagonists and protagonistami different people, depending on an ideological message of the program and television channel as a whole acted at various times. So, at all times

On television channel there were the people, embodying itself «an aesthetic ideal» or giving to the spectator possibility to feel on a place of "the successful person» and to "live" other, not every day life. As an illustration films of documentation officer Leonid Gurevich «the Track country, paternal» can serve this thesis, «Hasten to be good», «a destiny Line». The author, telling about the hero, on the foreground puts the best in it qualities - love, good, work. On television channel "Culture" there is a program cycle «Geniuses and villains». The choice of heroes - is not casual. Alfred Nobel, Redjard Kipling, Imre Kalman, Adam Mickiewicz, Matilda Kshesinsky, Vladimir Durov, Vladimir Obruchev... All of them are recognised by outstanding scientists and art workers. These heroes are shown in a situation of the conflict of the genius and "antihero" in which role ill-wishers can act, envious persons, circumstances, time. The program possesses postmodernist lines: intertekstualnostju, retransljatsionnostju, raznostilevym

Visual narration (installation of a modern video series, its stylisation «under olden time», a combination to old pictures).

«Other art» became a key direction in development of philosophical thought of the XXI-st century. The western philosophers have designated a way of various models of development of culture. But many researchers insist on original cultural and spiritual development of Russia.

Russian philosopher Ivan Ilyin said that the mentality of Russian people depends on a climate, florae and faunae: Russia has presented us with boundless open spaces, breadth of leaving plains, is free penetrated by a look yes a wind, calling in easy, a long journey. And these open spaces have opened our souls and distances it width, a liberty and ease what are not present at other people. Spiritual freedom, internal breadth, touch of novel, unknown possibilities is inherent in Russian spirit. » [22]. Such feature has found reflexion in a choice of formats of a narration. Lines of heroes of programs in documentary television movies, more often in "large" genres - a portrait sketch, a sketch, an essay Differently reveal. Having got to television space, these genres constantly vary under influence both technical, and ideological factors. From small genre forms modern writers even more often reach epic, organizuja the time periods in cycles or series of programs. The fragmentariness of a telenarration and a principle of clip installation thus also can be characterised as a postmodernism sign. Today on the screen there are different persons, but few of them can become an original aesthetic ideal. Demonstration of a consumer aesthetics and a deconstruction of the aesthetic subject - unfortunately, one more property of a present epoch.

Many original products of a documentary cycle are devoted heroes of the present on television channel "Culture". В2012 to year on television channel "Culture" there was a cycle of documentary programs «Jury Rosta's Reflection». G eroj a film - the Russian photographer, the journalist, the writer and actor Jury Rost - tells about "reflexion" in the destiny of histories of people with which it was reduced by a life. The serial consists of four parts, each of them, supplementing previous, becomes the independent finished story. The hero acts as the carrier of the main vital values: the family, love, memory, friends, creativity, etc. All components of a film are constructed in a classical dramaturgic key: travel to childhood and youth places, people, meetings with which have affected its destiny, the countries where it would be desirable to come back again and again, and a prospection. Heroes of pictures of Jury Rosta in a new fashion revealed in a film. Growth has seen great ballerina Majju Plisetskaya Jury in own way: It has made an atypical photo of the ballerina where it was not visible her feet. Trying to catch a trace from movement, he aspired to show more largely enormous work thanks to which Majja Plisetskaya became the tonic of Russian ballet. Spiritual filling of heroes of a film here is presented in different aspects: moral, mental and transcendental. High moral-spiritual level of the hero of a narration is based on the concrete facts in which better qualities of the hero are shown. In a film Jury Rosta's story how it on a horse on a nickname Syntax visited to Bell Akhmadullina - the woman with whom they were amicable long years sounds, together appreciated «grace in surprises» and «naivety of sincere cleanliness». Besides the well-known people who "were reflected" and in our hearts, Growth acquaints spectators with surprising people, its become friends. Extraordinary touchingly in a film the meeting with CHabua Amiredzhibi - the patriarch of the Georgian literature, the philosopher is shown; Priest David - the person who, according to Growth, always was in search of own way, a simple and worthy life.

Mental level of spirituality is presented by thoughts and actions of heroes. The mentality and character of the modern hero of TV is broadcast through the concrete vital facts its public and household way. In transfer about which we talked, all these qualities are to some extent shown in characters of "reflexions" of Jury Rosta. In an episode narrating about a meeting with «the Petersburg intellectual», writer-front-line soldier Daniel Granin, J.Rost long and photographed much. But only one work has satisfied the master - a picture on which it has told Granin's mood, the person who for a long time has understood, that «the one who rescues others» will be rescued.

transtsendentalnyj spirituality level in a documentary film is shown in categories of "space", "time", "memory", "friendship", "good", to "sincerity", etc. the First and third series of a film are devoted Jury Rosta's returning in places expensive to it: to Kiev where it has spent the childhood (time category - returning), to Georgia - the country which is especially expensive to the hero (a space category), therefore its stories are some kind of a confession and a declaration of love. Jury Rost tells history about how once in «the Literary newspaper» instead of a word "memoirs" has written "vspominanie", meaning bright instants which have turned the ordinary and became unforgettable. Growth said that especially to it roads "vspominanija". In this cycle the category "Memory" is

Key throughout all cycle. In the given documentary film the author creates a uniform is concrete-sensual image of the protagonist and supplements our representations about the great people, which steels with a subject of admiration of Growth. Postmodernist trends were reflected in the given material, but entirely do not prevail. The author uses tsitatnost as a method of an art narration, a fragmentariness, intertekstualnost. Style

The telenarrations, it is possible to carry applied aesthetic principles, the harmonous, structured concept of the given film to the classical modernist form.

Other researcher of a postmodernism, French philosopher Z.Derrida, brightest representatives of modern poststructuralism, brings an attention to the question about ischerpannosti reason resources in those forms in which they were used by leading directions of philosophical thought. It is connected with a specific sight at time and its periodicity. Z.Derrida acts with criticism of understanding of life as presence, declaring, that «the live present» as that does not exist: it breaks up to the past and the future. The present is not equal to itself: it is connected with "distinction" and «movement of situations». In connection with this point of view there is a dialectic problem of "presence" and "absence", a problem of understanding of "present" through categories of "past" and possible forecasts. It is important use borders of "presence presence» here again can to help germenevtika. Derrida has entered concept of a deconstruction to which the rational western cultural-philosophical tradition for its best judgement should be subjected. The deconstruction principle actively works and in culture products where searches of new senses, irrespective of their habitual representations, open new possibilities as to the author, and the spectator and give to products other perusal and a new life. The phenomenon of a deconstruction based on provocation and game with public, became today one of the main things in technology of construction of separate programs and a media content of some channels as a whole. The programs addressing to modern reconsideration of products of culture, subjects of a life, histories and characters of the past, are created by means of work with stereotypes or inclusion in a new context. «Personal time», "Cultural revolution" (television channel "Culture"); «Who such this Kusturitsa?» (The First channel); « The countries Bajki of councils »(RenTV), etc. Competent use of receptions of a deconstruction on TV allows"to adapt"product under a modern audience, and the inattentive relation to the facts attracts to misinformation and a deceit of spectators. Deconstruction elements help to involve an additional segment of an audience in themes with which it is difficult to shine in a teleformat (for example, questions of development of art, language, history). In the program« Important things »from the story of the journalist we learn (television channel" Culture ") about historical events and the myths connected with these events. In the given project"things"which have played the"important"role lives of the hero are shown. It is Peter's punched by the Swedish bullet the cocked hat - the material certificate of personal courage of Peter the Great in the Poltava fight. It is spiritual regulations of 1720 - the document connected with church reform of Peter and other facts. Documentary film «Everything, that you wished to learn about classical music, but were afraid to ask» is devoted musicians-virtuosos to Richard Dzhu (piano) and to Alexey Igudesmanu (violin). Actors are well-known for comical numbers and the non-standard approach to execution of classical products. The film is executed in similar, comic mood, with use of concert archival records of a duet and interview to not less well-known colleagues. Authors completely managed to keep atmosphere which surrounds actors both on public, and in a secret life. Here through a parody, humour and irony directors of a film Daniel Finkernagel and Alexander Ljuk address to a stereotype «about classical music it is possible to speak only with a serious face».

Deconstruction receptions in its nonaggressive form are shown as well at level of author's style where by means of product immersing in a new context, it gets new senses and «additional sounding».

It is possible to consider as an example of successful use of similar elements the program «Sati. Not dull classics...» (Television channel "culture"), in which history of world famous art workers are considered in a new fashion, brightly and interestingly.

But in this connection there is a problem of modern treatment of products of culture on TV. The unripe and superficial analysis deprives object necessary sakralnosti, figurativeness and the multidimensionality, inherent works of art. In the late eighties, during ideological reconsideration and «creative clearing», in Vladimir Molchanov's program «Till the midnight» (1988) Interview to Igor Dedkov, the literary critic have been included. Questions on a modern condition of culture and an ambiguous position of the critic on the appeared possibility to create in the conditions of "freedom" were brought up. Already tendencies to self-expression transformation here are outlined in culture and art and leaving from habitual forms of translation of products of culture. In structure of the transfer there are foreign executors and various "remakes" on classical products, for example, a musical composition of Hungarian group "Edda" which executed products Ferentsa of Sheet in rock processing. Here deconstruction receptions considerably change the relation of spectators to habitual forms in the field of art language and perception of products of culture. In L.Parfyonov's project "Bird-gogol" the author tells about the facts of the biography of the writer so, that in the modern language vital histories sound in a new fashion and state an unexpected estimation both to the author, and its products. For example, relevance of accent on madness of the writer, expressed visually on "travel" of the author in places of treatment of the writer and a graphic representation of a silhouette of Gogol, ostensibly the following after a narration of the author is not clear enough.

American philosopher Richard Rorti, the professor of university of the State of Virginia, at the analysis of modern philosophy has applied concept "destruktsii". In its opinion, the existing philosophy deformed personal life of the person as deprived of its creativity. Rorti in the doctrine connects a pragmatism to analytical philosophy, asserting, that a subject of the philosophical analysis should be society and forms of human experience, interpreting philosophy as «a voice in mankind conversation», a picture of general communication, the intermediary in mutual understanding of people. The society for it is, first of all, communications. Formation of any society, on Rorti, is caused by casual coincidence of circumstances and individuals. In work «Accident, irony and solidarity» Rorti shows the ideal of society where interests of the separate person become the main thing, «fair and

Fair society which will allow the citizens to be private,

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Irrational and aesthetic, how much it is pleasant to them ». At media level such principle is shown in different aspects, including in a question of the relation of the author and an audience. Following rules according to which public and its interests are put above principles of elite journalism, there is an extensive segment of a mass culture. In media environment, according to a principle"destruktsii", the rating system can act as universal model of programming of the channel where most popular transmissions"deserve"a prime-time, irrespective of quality of a product. Following classical tradition of a pragmatism, Rorti declares, that the truth can exist only within the limits of the concrete dictionary accepted in certain circumstances by certain people. To create the metadictionary which would incorporate all other dictionaries, it is impossible, that is the truth is created, instead of is, it - circumstance of language. As the justification of this or that institute the practicality, working capacity, blagopoluchnost, success and utility, - without means, historical and social consequences can serve. Rorti in pragmatical traditions formulates functions and problems of this system and its individuals to whom it is rigidly adhered liberally - [23]

Market ideology. In the conditions of postmodernist differentiation homogenization of public structures, including - mass media continues to play a main role intentsionalnaja.

The pragmatical direction in postmodernist researches meets and in works of the French sociologist and publicist Jean Bodrijjara. In the works he notices, that "truth" of modern object is intended not for use, but for oznachivanija, for manipulation not as the tool, and as a sign »[24]. Bodrijjar supports neomarksistov that capitalism, being on the verge of crash, has developed the concept of the individual as the consumer and has created a society where consumption became the power mechanism. Unlike the majority of the postmodernists who have positively estimated a variety of new mass media, Bodrijjar in work« In a shade of the silent majority »[25] expresses pessimistically apropos

Communication progress. In a question on a role of TV Bodrijjar develops ideas Makljuena and asserts, that game of images and performances on the telescreen has, at least, not smaller value, than a reality. The TV as means restructures human relations. Plunging into teleproduct space, the spectator loses different models of communications which are fixed subsequently in its behaviour. This process on an example of influence of TV advertising on a society and active distribution of verbal designs from advertising slogans in informal conversation is swept brightly up. In 2012 in a network there was Ivan Okhlobystin's television pre-election advertising where under Vadim Demchoga's similar concept "Game" organic laws have been applied: by means of show of opposition of different integrity, through clearing of imagination of an audience come to construction new teatrarealnosti in which comfortably to be to the spectator. This "life" is created on his eyes and not limited by an objective reality. At verbal level sometimes television units, including advertising slogans, become steady turns of informal conversation. Besides, on TV quite often there are neologisms and nonce words which actively join in process of distribution of verbal designs: "Gadzheotazh" - television channel "Rain" program about the modern technics, by means of merge of two concepts: "gadzhet" and "agiotage"; «Scores do not burn» (television channel "Culture") - from a set phrase «manuscripts do not burn";" Artificial selection »(television channel" Rain ") - from a word-combination« natural selection ». Manufacture of values, according to Bodrijjara, has given way to demand for value. Therefore politicians do not argue any more on significant things, they say to people that the last wish to hear. The condition of weights Bodrijjar estimates as"hyperconformism", however makes responsible for this condition not on manipulators, and public. Thus, every year at spectators the requirement for a qualitative teleproduct decreases.

Many postmodernists put forward new type of philosophising - philosophising without the subject. On an example of TV we can address to the phenomenon obektivatsii information on the screen, where in the narration centre not the concrete hero, and a situation or the phenomenon. Besides, occurs certain "obezlichivanie" the author - washing out of its position and soft representation of own style, kalkirovannoe a narration and the sample approach to material preparation. Such type of giving of the information often use in provocative programs of the criminal and scandalous maintenance. To obektivizatsii information aspire also many documentary projects. The documentary genre assumes high [26 [27] degree of objectivity, therefore authors sometimes at all should refuse the subject: « Perfetto! Secrets of the Italian coffee with Leonid Parfyonov »(television channel" Rain ") where the author acts in a role of"guide"in difficult art of preparation of the Italian drink, and in the narration centre - various grades, history of preparation and unusual recipes of cooking of coffee;« the Eye Divine »(the First television channel),« Historical chronicles with Nikolay Svanidze »(Russia 1), etc.

It is possible to tell, that the postmodernism represents reaction to change of a place of culture in a society: on the shifts occurring in art, religion, morals in connection with the newest technics of a postindustrial society. The postmodernism insists on antropologizatsii knowledge. The new type of philosophy helps to understand and estimate the modern creative processes occurring in media environment. They are focused on the materialistic understanding of history turned to the person, on the decision of problems material and spiritual, natural and public, individual and social, objective and subjective, personal and collective. The information focused on spread of knowledge about products of culture and art, cannot exist in a teleether out of the program and out of its material carriers though has in a substantial key all possibilities of independent existence, including out of a radio context. Once Joseph Margolis, the American philosopher spoke about this property of a matter. He asserted, that «cultural attributes (essence) are not reduced to their material carriers though do not exist out of their carriers» [28]. Separate teleprojects find the reflexion in a daily life, as though proceeding out of television space. Carriers of ideas become either spectators, or authors, having picked up the new form of their existence (festivals, competitions, flesh-moby, etc.). In the field of teleactions on the First channel the-program «Wait for me», helping to find necessary and expensive people,

«Under the Victory banner» (the military-patriotic action on the eve of celebratory Parade of armies), "Calling" (the annual award to the best doctors of Russia) and others. Thereby, the TV falls outside the limits radio space where teleprograms and television movies get new communicative forms.

One more researcher, the German-American philosopher and sociologist Herbert Markuze, develops ideas about guilt of culture for sufferings of people, suppression of their aspirations fortunately as to pleasure by a life. It interprets historical process as «constantly renewing struggle between a repressive civilisation and aspiration of the person to

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To pleasure ». G.Markuze has put forward idea of" the third way »society developments (noncapitalistic and not socialist), called to lead to creation of" not repressive civilisation »at which activity and behaviour of people will cope« vital energy of love ». Requirements and inclinations of people as deep sources of their social activity will undergo in due course essential changes, become more noble. In this plan Markuze speaks about revolution of requirements and inclinations in which result there will be the new culture based completely on principles of humanism, serving to the blessing and pleasures of the person. It he names a counterculture, i.e. Openly resisting modern, in its opinion, antihumane culture and excluding any adaptation to last. We can observe these phenomena and in a media aether where even more often spectators address to programs of a cultural and educational direction. The sharp discontent from an audience as quality of a modern media content and high requirement for serious qualitative journalism and publicism is felt.

At the same time critical enough relation of Russians to TV takes place. Recognising it attraktivnye qualities, respondents marked as well the negative moments connected with presence of TV in them [29]


Lives. In particular, said that the TV tightens, generates dependence on it and desire to watch TV unlimited quantity of time. But the main object of criticism is the maintenance of a modern teleether. In public opinion the wide spectrum of negative estimations of a modern teleether — from indignation and irritation to neglect and irony, and one of most widespread "charges" is presented —

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«There is nothing to look».

In this connection the sector of hedonistic TV develops today very actively. On different television channels the program grid is under construction by own criteria. So, on the First television channel and on channel "Russia-1" to serious telepublicism and documentary cinema, basically, allocate evening and night time of an aether. At the prime time (from 19.00 till) usually place serials, a talk show and other entertaining programs. Documentary transfers often do by request of television channel - both individual complete films, and broken on some series interconnected among themselves by style, subjects and a genre (heading transfers «My silver sphere» on television channel "Culture", «Historical chronicles with Nikolay Svanidze» on television channel "Russia"). Many documentary films make program cycles: «a life Code» Lion of Nikolaev (First channel), «One-storeyed America» with Vladimir Pozner and Ivan Urgantom (the First channel), «Letters from a province» ("Culture"), etc.

T.V.Lebedev, the professor of the Voronezh state university, the researcher of electronic mass-media, in article «Telejournalism: themes, genres, persons» [30 [31] allocates eight basic directions of documentary telecasts on air of 2008. The broadcasting time share was distributed as follows:

1. The transfers devoted to cultural subjects, - 17,6 %;

2. A policy-14,4 %;

3. Morally-ethical problems-12,4 %;

4. XX-th century history - 10,8 %;

5. Legality in struggle against «social illnesses» - 10 %;

6. A science and technics - 8 %;

7. A social problematics (adaptation of simple people to new vital realities) - 8 %;

8. A national economy - 6.8 %;

9. A miscellaneous (ecology, a fashion, sports) - 4.7 %.

Thus, by results of T.Lebedevoj's research, in 2008 of a problem of culture become the most shined in a teleether. According to TNS, on television channel "Culture" in 2013 the most demanded programs: «Romanticism of a romance» - 4,4 %, «the Big opera» - 2,2 %, "Selectors" - 2,1 %, «Geniuses and villains» - 2 %. Certainly, the documentary genre allows is most volume to show culture or art phenomena. Besides, the documentary journalism, being on an art and publicism joint, stays in constant search of a creative embodiment of teleprograms.

Traditionally in relation to media the approach dividing mass-media on mass and elite is used. The group of mass audiovisual works is represented by the teleprograms focused on a wide range of an audience, and accordingly, bright on style, sometimes scandalous and provoking on character and easier on perception. Elite editions called for dialogue more "prepared" public in the thematic, genre and style plan. These are the so-called mass-media focused on "cultural" levels of population. But TV - such news media which is capable to unite absolutely diverse public. Today in many respects thanks to mass-media culture product becomes the influential factor of a public life. Universality of television language [32] allows to unite in front of the screen of the most different spectator and under the social status, and on a sort of its employment and spiritual preferences. From the moment of formation of concepts of style and a fashion in a social life the side between cultures mass and elite becomes all less appreciable. Many researchers speak not only about genre razmytosti journalistic products, but also about merge of forms of giving of the "mass" and "elite" information. Here before researchers there are some important conceptual questions. Whether it is possible to name a mass culture art? How today to concern a mass culture - to struggle or accept? What character of a mass culture: a constant set of properties (the lowered style, the simplified giving, brightness and broskost etc.) Or variability according to requirements of an audience? Today different researchers answer these questions differently. We will not forget and about the "economic" factor which introduces the corrective amendments in work of mass-media. Culture product including the journalistic text, becoming the goods, gets special, not lines peculiar to art: from system «the person - object of culture - the person», it (product) gets to system where supply and demand economic laws operate exclusively, and accordingly it changes also character of creativity of modern writers. Products «on potrebu» were from time immemorial ranked as the "mass", "lowered" genres. The policy of some modern media channels is that, that, speaking about the main thing, journalists should do it simply and interestingly, as though "igrajuchi" with an audience. Transition to market economy and commercial system of mutual relations mean also special culture of communications. Culture products, even being business products, recognised to satisfy concrete requirements of concrete people, should be still deep and multidimensional so, not to reduce a lath as giving.

With culture change means and methods of formation and accentuation of attention on original vital values vary. Because in a media content there are new forms and formats which at times difficult cope with a problem of internal development and enrichment of an inner world of the spectator, and also with gnoseological and didactic function. The accent in information giving is transferred on rekreativnost and brightness. But the substantial component of journalistic products can suffer from «superfluous staginess». In this connection there is more difficult system of gradation of journalistic products. Some forms and technologies of those leave the general tendencies of a postmodernism.

Concept of culture so widely, and the postmodernism was shown so many-sided, that outside of a "cultural" segment there was a whole layer of the phenomena neosufficed by attention and events, it was necessary to notice which as they have very densely entered into a daily life. Therefore at level of philosophical and cultural urological representations rather the theoretical judgement so-called «cultures of daily occurrence» though, of course, empirical representation about this phenomenon has developed much earlier recently has begun. Besides, significant elements of material and social "body" the societies usually carried to "civilisation", have taken a visible place in structure «art culture», not entering thus in the contradiction with the representation which has affirmed as a domestic science about self-development and self-improvement of the person as culture functions. It has opened a way to a new stage of studying of ordinary culture, culture of daily occurrence.

As humanitarian knowledge has affirmed new tezaurusnyj the approach in which were engaged both culturologists, and sociologists (T.F.Kuznetsova, A.I.Kovaleva), and literary critics (V.A.Lukov, N. V.Solomatina [33] [34], S.N.Yesin, N. V.Zaharov [35]), and experts in the field of screen arts and design (Bogdanov M. A [36] [37]). At studying of the newest culture by more exact the differentiation of concepts «ordinary culture» and «culture of daily occurrence» is represented.

In concept of "ordinary culture» put representation about that sphere of a cultural life which is connected with a life and ordinary consciousness, and under «culture of daily occurrence» had in view of all volume of the culture staticized in human ability to live of today, here

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And now.

The elements of ability to live connected with «ordinary culture», have demanded from the person of numerous special actions, words, the gestures mastered quite often to automatism and consequently not noticed, but not ceasing from it to be a part of "the cultural capital» (using Pierre Burde's term). Elements not ordinary, and another (scientific, art) culture usually demand certain preliminary preparation. But also that and another can co-exist within the limits of one day, to be staticized, and not in full, but only in actual aspects.

Differentiation of concepts of "ordinary culture» and «culture of daily occurrence» is caused by a diverse television content. Radio telespace occupy not only the programs solving concrete pragmatical problems ("Inhabitancy", «Control purchase» - the First channel) and advertising («ordinary culture»), but also films, theatrical performances («art culture»), documentary films («national culture»). We will notice, getting to space of a teleether, culture product (theatrical performances, a literary work screen version) get the special form considering process of perception of ordinary consciousness. To listen and look reports of scientists on their researches or political reports "in the pure state" on TV today it is difficult but if to do pass with elements of "ordinary culture» it will cause bolshy interest in public. ("Constitution" on television channel "Rain").

«The ordinary culture» is shown and at level formoobrazovanija programs and on its substantial component. This phenomenon at times prevents to rank to theorists some television programs as independent cultural products at the expense of "simplified nature". Even at level of concepts the form of existence of a product of culture - always product where the main things still have the creative author's beginning. A product on TV and now name a verbal noun "transfer". It is considered as means of the report of the message or thoughts of the author - of the journalist, instead of as an art artefact.

Gradually in the world scale transition from domination of "ordinary culture» to domination of the culture including «culture of daily occurrence» is planned, and the TV plays this process defining role. It is well appreciable on "flexible" documentary-art genres. In sphere of documentary TV we can note the direct appeal to the spectator as the important feature underlining the dialogical nature teledokumentalistiki in which the communicative effect of an inclusiveness in the teleprogram is provided. The dramatic art and poetics of a concrete documentary film are caused by its existence within the limits of the program, in a stream of transfers. «A documentary film - open system where the spectator - as one of authors is included also. It, the spectator, eventually will finish thinking, domontiruet a film». [38]

Certainly, culture processes proceed in indissoluble communication with all public phenomena, however they have also the specificity: incorporate universal values.

Culture creativity does not coincide with history creativity. That these processes to understand, it is necessary to differentiate, for example, production of goods from material culture. The first represents process of manufacture of material benefits and reproduction of public relations, and the second represents system of material assets, including - included in manufacture. Certainly, the culture and manufacture are connected with each other: in the field of manufacture the culture characterises the reached

The person technical and technological level, degree of introduction of achievements of technics and a science in manufacture. While actually manufacture of material benefits is a process of creation of new consumer costs.

Precisely also it is wrongful to identify spiritual manufacture with spiritual culture. Spiritual manufacture is manufacture of every possible ideas, norms, cultural wealth, and the spiritual culture is and manufacture of cultural wealth, both their functioning, and consumption, including - in formation, education, various forms of human ability to live and dialogue. Here again between spiritual manufacture and spiritual culture exists tesnejshaja communication and interaction, but one to another thus is not reduced. The spiritual culture includes spiritual manufacture and determines it, and spiritual manufacture promotes development of spiritual culture.

As we see, the aspiration to find out a problem of a parity of culture and a society with necessity conducts to understanding of culture as systems material and the cultural wealth involved in socially-progressive creative activity of mankind in all spheres of life and knowledge, its public relations, public consciousness, social institutes etc. The system of cultural wealth is a system of moral and other social norms, principles, ideals, installations, their functioning in concrete historical conditions. It is necessary to notice, that the culture is not reduced to values as to ready results. It incorporates also degree of development of the person. Without the person there is no culture as there is no culture in a static condition. The culture is inseparable from all ability to live of the person which is its carrier and the creator. Human qualities - result of mastering by it of language, valuable orientations of a society and that social or national generality to which it concerns, and also experience and skills work, traditions, customs, spiritual and the material assets got from previous generations and created by him.

According to German philosophers Wilhelm Vindelbanda and Henry Rikkerta, values carry nadystorichesky character and form in the set ideal, independent of people, eternal transcendental (potustoronny) the world [39 [40] [41]. Corresponding ideas proceed From this world and first of all - idea of transcendental obligation. It specifies in unconditional, unlimited time, absolute value of the above-named values. In process of their comprehension people develop corresponding valuable installations and requirements by which they are guided in a life,

45

Behaviour, daily and historical activity. As underlined Rikkert, people trust in objective sense of the specified values for, as he said, «without an ideal over itself the person in spiritual sense of a word cannot correctly live». The values making this ideal, more and more

46

Open to the person in process of culture progress.

As kontsept a postmodernism the TV acts ambiguously: it can be a paradigm reflecting postmodernist realities, but also the TV can act as postmodern means. The TV is the synthesising mass medium keeping a uniform information field. Synthesis, mozaichnost, intertekstualnost are lines of ideology of a postmodern. The basic tendencies of a postmodernism differently find the refraction on the television screen. Some of them became defining in formation of a welfare segment, others have affected development of art as a whole. The phenomenon of the mass culture which has extended so masshtabno thanks to mass media, has broken up to narrower concepts - cultures of "daily" and "ordinary" culture. The cultural palette became richer, generating new differentiation of telegenres and stylistics of works of art.

Thus, main principles of a postmodernism have found the reflexion on the modern screen. To L.N.Gorbunova's their number carries the following:

1. A pluralistic aesthetic paradigm;

2. The antiform, game, accident, anarchy;

3. Dominating art style - hyperrealism;

4. Intertekstualnost;

5. Language game, tsitatnost as a method of art creativity;

6. Uncertainty, a cult of ambiguities;

7. A fragmentariness, an installation principle;

8. Irony, parodijnost;

9. Dekanonizatsija traditional aesthetic values, aksiologichesky pluralism;

10. A corporality, the is superficial-sensual relation to the world;

11. The hedonism superseding a category tragical from aesthetic sphere;

12. Mixture of genres, high and low, high and a mass culture, staging of modern culture;

13. Seriality and retransljatsionnost, focused on a mass culture, a consumer aesthetics, the newest technological means

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Mass communications. [42]

Some researchers consider, that a present epoch newer principles characterise not only properties of a postmodernism, but also: the result of activity of representatives of culture - transition by a century information where knowledge becomes the main value became natural continuation of an epoch of a postmodern. Modern mass media differently apply new technical possibilities to education of public. Distance reduction between the modern writer and its spectator does a television narration more dialogichnym, allows the journalist to accent the direct statement from the first person. Taki in the image the spectator had a possibility critically to look at a television content. Many modern programs are created literally together with an audience, and sometimes and practically the public. Present possibilities allow public to participate directly in creation of programs, to choose independently from the various plans offered by the operator (to represent itself as the director of transfer) and even to influence a program course (to set questions in studio and to supervise over a conversation course to write comments to vote, etc.).

Postmodern tendencies find the reflexion in various technological aspects of application of means of expressiveness, both on verbal, and at nonverbal level. The TV gets practically into all branches social an expert. Somewhere the TV is used as a communication medium, in other cases audiovisual mass-media become the separate branch forming certain culture of mass or elite character.

1.2.

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A source: Oganesova Julia Arturovna. EXPRESSIVE MEANS of TELEVISION PROGRAMS of CULTURAL-EDUCATIONAL SUBJECTS. 2014

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