the Description of empirical methods of research

Organizational method of research – «a method of cross-section cuts», directed on performance of "cuts" at various age levels.

This method allows to define the generalised characteristics of the studied

The phenomena at each age level.

Testing of respondents passed in the group form. The operating procedure for pupils was defined in such a manner that research was spent in groups till 10-15 the person. Respondents received on hands raspechatannye on standard sheets of a technique and the handle, listened to the instruction. For specification of variants of the answer with each pupil the individual conversation was spent. Testing were spent in the middle of educational week, as a rule, in a time interval with 10ч. To 14ч. Also occupied no more than 60 minutes. All respondents and their parents have given the informed consent to research carrying out.

Techniques which have been used in the present research, are directed on measurement of vozrastno-sexual features sotsioemotsionalnogo intelligence of younger schoolboys and teenagers, correspond to the problem declared by us, problems and the purpose of our research.

Psychodiagnostic methods of research

1. Test EmIn of D.V.Ljusina (a children's variant).

D.V.Ljusina's theoretical views are put in a basis of test EmIn, according to which in structure EI it is possible to allocate intrapersonal (directed on understanding and management of the emotions) and interpersonal EI (directed on understanding and management of another's emotions) [44; 45]. Technique EmIn consists of 46 statements in relation to which the examinee should express degree of the consent, using a four-ball scale (it completely not agree, do not agree more likely, more likely agree, completely agree).

Test EmIn includes four scales:

- Scale MEI (interpersonal EI). Ability to understanding of emotions of other people and management of them;

- Scale VEI (intrapersonal EI). Ability to understanding

Own emotions and to management of them;

- Scale PE (understanding of emotions). Ability to understanding of and another's emotions;

- Scale UE (management of emotions). Ability to management of the and another's emotions.

For direct interpretation of results of diagnostics the author offers five subscales:

- MT subscale (understanding of another's emotions). Ability to understand an emotional condition of the person on the basis of external displays of emotions (a mimicry, gesticulation, voice sounding) and-or intuitively; keenness to inwardnesses of other people;

- Subscale MU (management of another's emotions). Ability to cause in other people those or other emotions to reduce intensity of undesirable emotions.

Probably, propensity to a manipulation people;

- Subscale VP (understanding of the emotions). Ability to comprehension of the emotions: their recognition and identification, understanding of the reasons, ability to the verbal description.

- Subscale VU (management of the emotions). Ability and requirement to operate the emotions to cause and support desirable emotions and

To hold under the control the undesirable;

- Subscale VE (the expression control). Ability to supervise external displays of the emotions [44; 45].

In our research the children's variant of questionnaire EmIn (D.V.Ljusina) which full text is resulted in the appendix 1 has been used.

2. A technique of research of social intelligence of J. Gilforda and M. O'Sallivena (in E.S.Mihajlovoj's adaptation).

Technique of research of SI of J. Gilforda includes four subtests [52]. The first subtest is supplied by pictures on which the everyday situations occurring to character Barni are represented. In each task the drawing representing a certain situation at the left is located. It is necessary for examinee to define feelings and intentions of characters operating in it and to choose among three drawings on the right what shows the most plausible variant of continuation of the given situation. Respondents with an appreciation under the subtest «Histories with end» are able to expect behaviour consequences. They are capable to anticipate the further acts of people on the basis of the analysis of real situations of dialogue (family, business, friendly) to predict events, being based on understanding of feelings, thoughts, intentions of participants of communications. Their forecasts can appear erroneous if they deal with the people, leading most unexpected, atypical image. Such people are able to build accurately strategy of own behaviour for object in view achievement. Successful performance of the subtest assumes ability to be guided in nonverbal reactions of participants of interaction and knowledge of normo-role models and the rules regulating behaviour of people.

The second subtest contains pictures on which poses are represented, gestures and a mimicry, reflecting an emotional condition of the person. The task essence consists in that among four drawings on the right the respondent has chosen what approaches to group of three drawings at the left as reflects a similar condition of the person. People with an appreciation under the second subtest of "expression Group» are capable to estimate correctly conditions, feelings, intentions of people on their nonverbal displays, a mimicry, poses, gestures. Such people, most likely, give great value to nonverbal dialogue, pay a lot of attention to nonverbal reactions of participants of communications. Sensitivity to a nonverbal expression essentially strengthens ability to understand others.

In each task of the third subtest the phrase which one person speaks another at the left is written, and three situations of dialogue on the right are listed. And only in one of them the phrase resulted at the left, will get other sense. To the person solving the given subtest, it is necessary to choose that situation of dialogue in which the phrase set at the left will get other value in each task, it will be connected with other intention, rather than in two other situations. Persons with an appreciation under the third subtest «Verbal expression» possess high sensitivity to character and shades of human mutual relations that helps them quickly and correctly to understand that people speak each other (a speech expression) in a context of a certain situation, concrete mutual relations. Such people are capable to find corresponding tone of dialogue with different interlocutors in different situations and show role plasticity.

The fourth subtest includes pictures on which histories about Ferdinand are represented. Ferdinand has wife and the small child. It works as the chief, therefore its colleagues will take part in histories also. Each task consists of eight pictures. Four top pictures reflect the certain history occurring to Ferdinand. One of these pictures is always passed. It is necessary for participant of research to choose among four drawings of the bottom number what at substitution to the place of an empty square will supplement above history with Ferdinand on sense. People with an appreciation under the fourth subtest «Histories with addition» are capable to distinguish structure of interpersonal situations in dynamics. They are able to analyze difficult situations of interaction of people, understand logic of their development, feel change of sense of a situation at inclusion in communications of various participants. By logic conclusions they can complete unknown persons, missing links in a chain of these interactions, to predict, as the person will lead itself further, to find the reasons of certain behaviour. For example, the subtest allows to predict success of construction by the inspector of a complete picture of a crime on the basis of incomplete data. Successful performance of the subtest assumes ability adequately to reflect the purpose, intentions, requirements of participants of communications, to predict consequences of their behaviour.

Besides, is required ability to be guided in nonverbal reactions of the person, and also norms and the rules regulating behaviour in a society. A technique of diagnostics of SI of J. Gilforda M. O'Sallivena it is entirely resulted in the appendix 2.

The test of J. Gilforda M. O'Sallivena is one of the most popular at studying of social intelligence, differing strict algorithm of carrying out and interpretation. This technique allows to estimate private abilities to understanding of behaviour of people: ability to expect a behaviour consequence, adequately to reflect a verbal and nonverbal expression, to understand logic of development of difficult situations of interpersonal interaction, to understand internal motives of behaviour of people [51; 52]. Nevertheless, carrying out of testing by means of the given test can cause difficulties. In view of small parametres and an illegibility of images of three subtests from four, recognition of emotional conditions of heroes of plots obviously becomes complicated. The given situation is aggravated with the control over time even more. Besides, data about psychometric properties of a technique are very limited. They are reduced to resulted in operating instructions of a technique to data about validnosti which as a whole are not so convincing [45]. Thus, there was a necessity of a choice of the additional techniques based both on a method of the self-report, and on the analysis of the nonverbal behavioural information.

3. Vexler's test. The subtest comprehension.

"Comprehension" contains some question from various areas of social behaviour of the person and is directed on revealing of abilities to build conclusions on the basis of life experience and with a support on common sense in which, according to D.Vexler, co-operate both intellectual and emotional factors. In the subtest "Comprehension" finds the expression actual readiness of the person for cerebration, independence and a social maturity of judgements. In the course of answers to questions it is investigated to model also ability of the child the behaviour in social situations [103]. The examinee is offered to answer fourteen tasks in which vital situations are reflected, having chosen from the offered variants one or several answers (the appendix 3 see).

The general criteria of estimations for tasks 1-5:

· 2 points if the examinee shows own activity, i.e. itself make the decision or tries to correct the offered situation itself;

· 1 point if the examinee suggests to correct position to somebody to another or addresses for the help to someone.

The general criteria of estimations for tasks 6-14:

· 2 points – if are underlined not less than two reasons,

· 1 point – if is underlined 1 reason.

4. Vexler's test. The subtest sequence of pictures

The subtest «Sequence of pictures» demands from the examinee of ability to organise separate parts of a semantic plot in a single whole [103]. An essential role play here pertseptivnoe attention and visual

"shvatyvanie" a material and an anticipation of events. Participation of a motility in the given subtest is insignificant. This subtest investigates ability to

The organisations of fragments in logic whole, to understanding of a situation and an anticipation of events. We have suggested pupils to solve eight series of pictures. In each series of a picture are united by a plot according to which they should arrange these pictures in certain sequence. An estimation (0; 1; 2) depends on correctness of performance and decision time. During testing the operating time, the code number of answers and the sequence description (interpretation of the examinee) is fixed.

Stimulnyj the subtest material «Sequence of pictures» is presented in the appendix 4.

5. A scale of SI Tromso (D.H.Silvera, M.Martinussen and T.I.Dahl).

In the present empirical research the questionnaire of social intelligence Tromso (TSIS has been used: Tromso Social Intelligence Scale) [157]. D.H.Silvera, M.Martinussen and T.I.Dahl, have come to conclusion that is a few tests of SI which can be used at studying of ability of social knowledge.

Authors have revealed two main restrictions of modern techniques of research of SI:

1) many of tests are labour-consuming and difficult in application;

2) various forms of measurements of SI it is often low correlate with each other, mainly because of disagreements in definition of this scientific term.

D.H.Silvera, M.Martinussen and T.I.Dahl assert, that the technique of diagnostics of social intelligence TSIS developed by them just and considers all many-sided nature of modern concepts of SI and problematical character in a finding for it some general definition. In the course of creation of a questionnaire of SI Tromso its authors, following the lead of K.Kosmitski and O.John, studied implitsitnye theories of social intelligence of students of psychological faculty of university Tromso by means of the open and semistandardized questions.

On the basis of the received answers the first variant of a questionnaire of SI Tromso, containing 103 statements has been made. Further D.H.Silvera, M.Martinussen and T.I.Dahl have carried out one more research, using already the scale of SI Tromso on sample of students of all faculties of university Tromso. Then, in the course of statistical processing has been spent eksploratornyj, and then and konfirmatornyj the factorial analysis that has allowed to reveal and confirm presence in a scale of three factors of SI, having reduced quantity of statements to 21. Scientific distances following names to three subscales: 1) Processing of the social information (SP); 2) Social skills (SS); 3) Social comprehension (SA). As a result, the analysis of internal reliability has shown good estimations on an internal coordination of these subscales: SP (an alpha = 0,79), SS (an alpha = 0,85) and SA (an alpha = 0,72) [157].

G.Gini Believes, that multicomponental structure TSIS allows researchers to overcome, at least partially, a problem of various definitions of the SI used in the literature by various psychologists. Research of the Italian author was spent on sample of teenagers and also has shown good internal reliability of a questionnaire of SI Tromso: SP (an alpha = 0,80), SS (an alpha = 0,79), and SA (an alpha = 0,70). It is necessary to notice, that this scale has been adapted in two countries in the same three-factorial structure of subscales [121].

According to Z.Birknerova, TSIS it can be used for an estimation of how the person predicts and interprets behaviour of associates, how much it is capable to operate social relations [104].

Thus, scale Tromso contains three subscales:

1) «Processing of the social information» which is ability to understand and predict behaviour and feelings of other people;

2) «Social skills», including ability to enter new social situations and social adaptation;

3) «Social comprehension» which defines the tendency of the person to be

Sensitive or unreceptive to the events occurring in social situations to be surprised with it [157].

The technique of diagnostics of SI Tromso represents a serial scale

Measurements where it is necessary for respondent to estimate each statement by means of the consent or disagreement. SHkalnye points consist of seven points: from 1 = «it is perfect on me not similar» to 7 = «describes me very well». The Russian-speaking variant of the questionnaire of SI Tromso translated by us is placed in the appendix 5.

Let's notice, that the scale of SI Tromso is already widely used now in

Such countries of Europe, as Norway, Italy, Slovakia [157; 121; 104]. However, there are no data on adaptation of a scale of SI Tromso in Russia. In our country this technique remains to the unknown person. In the research we have made attempt of its approbation on Russian-speaking sample of younger schoolboys and teenagers and verification of its factorial structure.

The written approval of authors of an original technique to its application and updating in Russia has preliminary been received. Results of approbation of a scale of social intelligence Tromso on Russian sample of younger schoolboys and teenagers are reflected more low in the paragraph «2.5 Approbation and updating of a scale of social intelligence Tromso in Russian sample of younger schoolboys and teenagers».


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