In telejournalism authors adhere to classical model of classification of genres: information, analytical and dokumentalnohudozhestvennye. They are present At different parities on TV depending on subjects of concrete transfer.

One of the main tendencies of a postmodernism - interosculation of genres into all art forms. Deleting of genre borders - process natural, but occurrence of a certain universal genre (the text or a teleroller) can create additional difficulties in the course of material preparation. The genre is some kind of technology, the decision of a creative problem of the journalist. But in a case with TV of border of its choice are defined also by the spectator. So, the general tendency of aspiration to brevity (it is difficult to modern spectator to perceive long telemessages) quite often conducts to reduced, practically tezisnomu to a narration. From here on modern TV the laconic offscreen text, short comments of heroes, dynamical installation are frequent.

The journalistic genre is the is formal-substantial unity, helping to find the creative decision of an author's problem, the form of determination of relations of the author with the validity. Just as in art sphere one genre replaces another, and in each interval of time those or other genres dominate, on TV types of telecasts also are caused by the general vector of development of culture. The culture of TV in its wide understanding is formed by all screen stream - in all genres. There were cases when the small plot in news was capable to make serious changes in behaviour of a society, to cause rough process of discussion: for example,

The message on Vlad Listeva's murder, (1995), or the message in evening news about Victor Tsoy's  destruction (1990).

The transfers devoted to concrete day, event or the validity phenomenon, frequently address to documentary-art group of genres, as to the most "free" form of expression of thought. Dokumentalistika as much as possible truthfully and in details reflects a daily reality, meaning under documentary programs the formula of the validity consisting of signs, where each sign separately and all of them as a whole - reflexion of concrete vital processes. These signs-shots on the screen are resulted in system, is direct sootnosimuju with the validity. Being among the most difficult journalistic products, documentary transfers, are on a joint art and publicistic, possess the combined properties. They are plastic, subject to prompt and cardinal changes in technology and a creation technique. Documentary genres constantly change owing to synthesis of elements of various genres of journalism and art. mnogolikost and plasticity dokumentalistiki allows modern writers of cultural-educational programs is most high-grade to realise creative problems.

Investigating modern approaches to construction of an image in documentary teleprograms, we can speak about so-called «Effect of presence» fact. The palette of forms of documentary films is extremely various:

1. Sobytijnaja the chronicle, videoletopis (the shootings created not for operative news magazines, and for history). Quality of such records very important as in due course they can become a basis of telecasts and generate representation about cultural phenomena (work of the director - of documentation officer Dzigi Vertova).

2. Video fixing of the information for the special purposes (scientific shootings, militian reports, video observation).

Such documentary records are used as inserts in news plots, analytical investigations or the criminal chronicle. Since recent time for television channels have appeared and became popular enough. For example, sessions from a court hall: "Jury" (NTV), «Court goes» (the First channel), «Judicial passions» (DTV). The format of such programs is approached to documentary video fixing, but completely them to rank as the given category it is impossible, as the given transfers are constructed under in advance generated scenario.

3. Author's journalism. For example, programs and Leonid Parfyonov's documentary films. The information of its transfers is personified, style is recognised. In different programs of author's journalism expressive means play an individual role in information giving.

And. M.Shesterina offers classification of author's journalism [86]. Author's programs of a cultural-educational direction on a target orientation share on 2 groups:

1. Thematic. Such author's programs are constructed round the main theme. The author / the presenter of the program aspires as it is possible to open a theme more in detail and more deeply. (NTV television channel) concerns such type of author's programs, «Histories in details» Sergey Majorova (television channel STS, 2003-2009), «Kozyrev Live» (television channel "Rain", since 2012) «Oksana Pushkinoj's Female sight».

2. Problem. The programs constructed round an actual social problem. For example, «the Special correspondent» Arcady Mamontova (television channel "Russia"), "Recently" Leonid Parfyonov (television channel "NTV"), "Obvious-improbable" Sergey Kapitsa (television channel "Culture", 20102012, television channel TVTS, 2002-2006).

On subjects cultural-educational programs can be divided on 5категорий:

1. Culture: «Not dull classics» Sati Spivakovoj (television channel "Culture");

2. A policy: the "Postscript" which is conducting Alexey Pushkov (television channel TVTS);

3. A science: "Obvious-improbable" Sergey Kapitsa (ORT television channel);

4. The person: «Night flight» Andrey Maksimova (television channel "Culture");

5. Household subjects: «Remove it immediately!», conducting - Tasha Planing (television channel STS).

The documentary telejournalism can be presented different genres of screen production, but more often authors resort to the several cores:

• the Television sketch («Russia from the first person» - television channel "Russia", etc.). A teleportrait of people («the Female sight» Oksanas Pushkinoj (NTV), «Last 24 hours from a life...» ) Or a double portrait («Mother and the daughter»). In a portrait sketch three participants - the hero, the author and the spectator co-exist, between them there should be warm friendly relations. Creating a portrait sketch, we simultaneously transfer ourselves, the vision of the world and perception of the interlocutor. To what to us the hero will seem, and how the journalist will present the hero to the spectator, depends also the relation of an audience to the hero of the program. Never it is necessary to forget that the chamber and the screen always «integrate emotion» the person. Many-sided nature and depth of the person uneasy to transfer on the screen. More often authors concentrate on some most remarkable qualities of the hero or that corresponds to a theme and helps to open idea of product. In documentary programs of the hero it is possible to show in natural conditions - behind work or houses. Sometimes authors address to a performance of events and episodes from a life. All details getting on the screen, become "speaking", get new senses. But it is necessary to remember that without "casual" details the program will remind statement and it will be pulled out from «the live environment». "Unnecessary" or "superfluous" attributes (with which too do not need to be abused, distracting from the basic maintenance) create «a stream of a daily life» on the screen. An image tonality, a background - components of creation of an image of the hero of the program or a film. The musical substrate, style of giving of the information - all is problems which should be solved to the author of the cultural-educational program. To find the interesting television hero uneasy. Even possessing the unique qualities, not each hero can possess sufficient degree of charm to involve an audience and to be able to speak neshablonno.

• the Analytical teleprogram of cultural-educational subjects is presented on the screen in the form of the journalistic investigation, the special reporting, the comment: «Agency of special investigations» (the Fifth channel), «Confidential projects» ("Culture"), "However" (the First channel).

• the Documentary film or a short story - «the small story which entirely has been finished shooting on a film. Its maintenance are original events. The documentary short story differs from chronicle plots of television magazines or"Latest news"an emotionality and the uniform accurate drama plot uniting all episodes entering into it. In a documentary short story there is no place dry hronikalnosti, in it it is impossible to do without the art conjecture opening a life of the original


Heroes ».

To settle all set of documentary genres it is impossible: they change, continually there are new, experimental genres:

- On a joint of game and not game cinema;

- By combination of several genres teledokumentalistiki;

- At crossing of genres cinema, literary and musical (transfers «One-storeyed America» with Vladimir Pozner and Ivan Urgantom (the First channel), «Petersburg. A place and time» ("Culture"), "Jam-5" ("Culture"), "Voice" (the First channel).

Spectators perceive documentary programs not as

The independent television product far from a context of daily occurrence, and as set of the real facts of the validity. Excessive "prichesannost" can ruin a vital basis. The documentary film should develop not so much under laws [87]

Dramatic art, how many under laws of the most objective reality.

The Aksiologichesky aspect in dokumentalistike is predominating. It is important to author to notice in the hero and to transfer on the screen the most noble of movements of human soul. Heroes of documentary transfer - it is not simple the persons allocated from crowd, they are the present heroes of our time. The game cinema on the essence is contrast dokumentalistike. But there are cases when journalists resort to the help of actors. Usually production scenes use for an illustration of those actions which occur in a life irregularly: it can be criminal event, emergency, memoirs of the childhood. Ways of the story about the real hero in the documentary program can be divided on some



1) Real events are transferred by means of game of actors with attraction of the story of real heroes. Usually this way use in situations when the person on ethical or moral reasons to show it is impossible (the juvenile criminal or, on the contrary, a victim of a crime; seriously ill patients people);

2) Actors play roles of real heroes as much as possible approximately to real events with attraction of a newsreel and other documents. Such way is applied, for example, when the hero recollects events which occurred for a long time, for example, in the childhood. In L.Parfyonov's project the author tells «300 years of a Russian press» about historical events in which in transfer the actors transferring a manner and spirit of certain time participated;

3) the Real hero is represented by the real hero (reportazhnaja shooting, a method of restoration of the fact, a shooting method «the latent chamber», by means of provocation or involving of the hero to game). As an example of such giving [88 [89] Ivan Urganta and Vladimir Pozner's project «One-storeyed America», consisting in travel of contemporaries on a way laid once by Soviet writers Ilfom and Petrov can act. Travelling notes of present travellers have appeared in many respects excellent under the form of giving of a material. Inhabitants of the geographical point chosen by leaders became heroes of each transfer. Such "real" heroes could is better to tell about a native city, to transfer atmosphere and local colour and to authors of the program, and television public.

The direct appeal to the spectator - the important feature underlining the dialogical nature teledokumentalistiki in which the communicative effect of an inclusiveness in the teleprogram is provided. The dramatic art and poetics of a concrete documentary film are caused it

Existence within the limits of the concrete television program.

Certainly, the documentary film acts in film under the scenario, in it there is a plan, the concept, direction. mnogoslojnost, multifigurativeness

teledokumentalistiki "opens" a film for an audience and gives the chance to the spectator to ask, check up, domyslit the information.

Distinctive feature of documentary cinema (so, and dokumentalistiki) is the coexistence in an organic unification documentary and art, informativnosti and figurativeness, a science and art. The author of television programs creates a new reality, other, deformed world embellished by subjective imagination. The documentation officer - a fact conductor, the author of as much as possible truthful reflexion of the validity. The journalist transfers to the spectator the information which acts as life "mirror", reflects the facts of an objective reality. The judgement of these facts falls outside the limits, for film frameworks. Therefore some teledocumentation officers refuse the author's beginning in films, do not use in work widespread reception «81апё up» (the journalist in a shot) and practically do not resort to the help of the offscreen text (the program «Letters from a province» on television channel "Culture"). This method of work in many respects helps to create the most volume image of a geographical place about which there is a speech in the program.

The documentary journalism, being on an art and publicism joint, stays in constant search of an embodiment on the screen. The fact in documentary teleprograms finds figurativeness: the artistic image is created by means of documents and a performance of historical events.

Today within the limits of television journalism it is possible to speak about domination of so-called teleprojects - cycles of programs which can unite various genres in the structure. In an information abundance such projects brightly allocated on the general background are claimed by an audience. Recently the dialogue component of the programs narrating about the phenomena of cultural sphere aloud becomes more active. And it is not casual. According to many researchers of media sphere, the archetype of "user" is replaced recently with an archetype of "creator". The spectator wishes to feel participating in process of a birth of the program. That is why on air there are many dialogical transfers of cultural-educational subjects. The basic genres here the following:

1. Conversation. «White studio» (television channel "Culture"), "Pozner" (the First channel), "Anthropology" (the First channel);

2. A round table. «Dzjadko 3» (television channel "Rain");

3. The Talk show. "Apocryphal story" (television channel "Culture"), "Cultural revolution" ("Culture"), «Hundred questions to the adult» (TVTS).

In a number of dialogue programs the interactive component is used. «Psychological a component of interactive forms of journalism has got tipoobrazujushchee value. Traditional for a mass communication« the effect of presence »reaches limiting values and develops into« effect of participation ». It already other mental condition. The person does not absorb data, and operates with the information. Also that is essentially important, it is individual activity» [90]. Spectators have possibility directly to influence a situation of development of a theme in the program (calls to studio, voting, at program placing in a network - possibility to enter polemic with the author or the participant of the program and also to discuss a theme and to share emotions. « Reportazhnost and documentation - necessary conditions in which there is any product on the telescreen. Theorists of TV wrote that kamernost teleshows leads to falling of "the fourth wall» much, assumes the direct reference of the actor to the spectator, that is the moment of game out of an image, publitsistichnost. But that any teleproduct should be an organic part of the program is even more important, that is dare counting on that one convention did not reject another, to possess style «fabric compatibility» with documents, the chronicle, the reporting »[91]. Reflected on interactivity already in the early sixties. At that time concerts under demands were the most interactive. But there were« Blue sparks »- rudiments present interaktitvnosti (stories about participants, their messages about certain successes in work, in creativity, in home life and the new verses of poets addressed to it, execution of new songs, etc.) All components mixed up in one program, it was especially curious to contemporaries to look such television releases.

Today the TV more and more actively includes an interactive component in cultural-educational programs: something has remained from the television past, other began to develop most intensively and was transformed to new forms of verbal and nonverbal expressiveness of a telenarration.


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  6. 2.1.3. About programs for MD modelling: programs LAMMPS and “CSEG”
  7. Financially-legal features of government programs and the federal target programs directed on economic and social development of the radical small people of the North, Siberia and the Far East
  8. § 1.2. A parity of institutes «underwater cultural heritage», "cultural heritage" and «a natural heritage»
  9. studying of a speech genre in linguistics
  10. § 1.2 Speech genre sociopolitical debate and its modelling
  11. Criteria of an estimation of programs Ur