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TV AS THE PHENOMENON OF POPULARIZATION OF CULTURAL VALUES

Mass media concern differently. On the one hand, the TV and other media resources are estimated as the main popular writers, conveyors vital an expert. With another - quite often accuse of fall of the general cultural level of an audience.

Process of popularisation is ambiguous in the first value it «a statement of any question in the popular, popular form», and in the second value - «distribution something, aspiration to make something widely known, popular» [62]. Everything, that is broadcast in teleprograms and becomes apprehended, automatically gets special sense for each televiewer, and any informative message has the value. Therefore the TV gets the status of "megaphone", "propagandist", and sometimes and "manipulator" in the field of ideology and aktsentologii.

Dialogue of the TV reporter with an audience occurs by means of formation of images in which the thought of the author on the subject of a narration is concluded. The role of an image in art publicism was precisely defined by L.E.Krojchik: «) an image as emotionally clarified thought actively influences an audience, inducing it to active cooperation; an image as the generalised picture of the validity considerably expands possibilities of semantic comprehension of the validity; an image as system of signs as a certain code, creating certain model of world around, intellectually enriches an audience representations about aesthetic possibilities of reproduction of the validity» [63]. The audiovisual image promotes effective preservation and transfer base values from the person to the person in concrete sotsiokulturnyh conditions.

In aksiologii there are some approaches to concept "value". First of all, it about what Aristotle in due time spoke, meaning by concept of "blessing" «that for the sake of that all becomes», thus adding, that «for doctoring - health, for voenachalija — a victory, for building the-house etc., and for any act and a conscious choice is the purpose because for the sake of it all do all the rest». Aristotle has entered also the important representation about two classes of values, arguing about the blessings-means (for example, riches or health) and about the blessings made, final which are the purposes in itself (for example, happiness). Already in an ancient philosophy different approaches to a question on absolute and relative character of values are observed. If, for example, according to Platon, the higher values have absolute character from the point of view of the sophists, all values are individual and relative. And. The edging uses for the first time concept of value of special, narrow sense. The precondition aksiologii at it is cultivation real and due, a reality and an ideal (values is: the requirements turned to a will; the purposes facing to the person; the importance of those or other factors for the person). Gegel gives special attention to differentiation of values on economic (utilitarian) and spiritual. The first act as the goods and are characterised from them «quantitative definiteness». In essence, abstract, the goods exchange value here means. « As things have value, — he writes, — we consider them as the goods. Their importance consists in value, and only in value, not in their specific qualities. These values are always relative, i.e.

depend on demand, «from sale, from taste of public». In the second sense of value everything communicate with spirit freedom, and, «that value and the importance, — spiritually by the nature has». American aksiolog M.Rokich has designated presently these values as tool and terminal [64]. In new philosophical dictionary N. G.Sevostyanov defines «universal values» so: «the System aksiologicheskih maksim which maintenance is not connected directly with the concrete historical period of development of a society or concrete ethnic tradition, but being filled in everyone sotsiokulturnoj traditions own concrete sense, is reproduced, nevertheless, in any type of culture as value».

In modern culture also there are different points of view about the nature of values and interpretation of their maintenance. In particular, value is considered as a subject having any advantage and capable to satisfy this or that requirement of the person; as an ideal; as norm; as the importance something in general for the person or social group etc. All these interpretation reflect the certain real party of values, and they should be considered not as mutually exclusive, and as complementary the general concept of values. Speaking about values of a modern society, it is possible to use the term in the value offered by modern American philosopher T.Shibutani: «it is possible to tell about object, that it possesses value if to it show any special interest».

To argue on the values relayed by TV, it is impossible in a separation from the analysis of developments of society. And in this sense it is difficult not to notice that fact, that the life, really, has in many respects changed for last century. Values in postcommunist Russia quite often contradict each other: the unwillingness to live in an old fashion is combined with disappointment in new ideals which have appeared for many unacceptable. « The aspiration to defend again found freedom of a private life from uninvited intrusions, including from «a vigilant eye» the states, is combined with bent for to "a strong hand». It only the fluent list of those real contradictions which do not allow to estimate unequivocally a place of Russia in the modern world ». But the person has not changed, have not exchanged sense [65 [66] and his life purpose, remained former and its main internal problems. The valuable orientations of any person connecting its private world with surrounding validity, form difficult system, occupying boundary position between motivatsionno-potrebnostnoj sphere and system of individual senses.

Family - one of base human values. Today we can observe in questions of a daily life displacement of accents towards individualism, autonomy and free-thinking. The understanding of essence of a family varies. From classical model «True love with sacrifice inherent in it» and accurate distribution of family roles for the husband, the wife and children, from model about which Arthur Schopenhauer in due time has told: «to Marry is means half to reduce the rights and twice to increase the duties», - there is a shift to more free existence concerning responsibility and duties of spouses which more and more depend on personal qualities of spouses, outlooks on life and family way. It is necessary to pay attention to a TV role in this process.

The television programs showing the hero in household conditions (its household and daily culture) transfer transformation of cultural values and traditions of the certain people. For example, the cookery is a sphere as which by right it is possible to consider as one of the most ancient and conservative. At times the kitchen becomes the defining element forming national character. Projects «taste Geography» (TV Kitchen), «Taste of a life. World kitchens» (the First channel) and to it similar carry out not only information and entertaining, but also kulturoformirujushchie problems. We take marriage questions: occurrence on the First channel of the project «became indicative Give we will get married!». Three applicants for heart of the girl or the young man surprise all participants of the program with the talents and surprises. "Program" Give we will get married! » Forces the spectator to think of questions: than they are guided in search of the partner in life? How much precisely they understand, who exactly is necessary to them? Why the adherents of a healthy way of life declaring, what at all do not wish to get acquainted with smoking girls, easily refuse the requirements? How to understand, what to us it is really important in the future elect, and what only it seems important? » . Today «the happy family» appears on the telescreen as the commonwealth of close people generated on the general basis of consumption of pleasures. Thus it is meant, that consumption, instead of creativity connect them together. Such families can reach individual convenience, with inherent in members of such family independence, freedom and equality. However the spontaneous emotional discomfort of one of members of such commonwealth can become the reason of disintegration of a family. Thus, forming similar model of family behaviour, TV all withdraws an audience from the centuries-old traditional relation to marriage further.

Love - one more base value of any society. In XI century great doctor Avitsenna wrote: «the Love - disease, like delusion, is similar to a melancholy» (it is necessary to understand, that he meant "love"). In modern culture representation about "love" has got the special cult status - a medicine for loneliness, boredom and "inferiority" of existence. If this "love" comes to an end, you are obliged to break off relations and to find other "love". In some programs of television channels a certain fashion on love, on constant stay in a condition of enamoured euphoria is advertised. In the early nineties in Russian culture there is the new phenomenon comprising special values and other style of a life: carefree, optimistical, affected, often hypocritical,

Public, immodest, elaborate, magnificent... Along with understanding habitual to us "glamura" (as conformity to modern standards of a fashion), appear such terms as "glamurizatsija", «glamour fascism», «glamour journalism» which comprise modern transformation of the majority of concepts of cultural and spiritual sphere of all society. Attempt to correspond to such myth dooms modern [67] persons to sufferings, depression and other diseases as cardinally disperses from the validity. But there are also positive examples: the program «More than love» television channel "Culture" - a documentary cycle of histories about fatal meetings of great people of the past. Transfer is under construction under classical laws of dramatic art. Not thought up histories of a life of figures of the literature, theatre, cinema and other spheres of art tell about deep and strong human experiences.

Career, the high social status are significant values in bolshej degrees for youth. Economic possibilities and market relations have allowed modern young men to be realised and in respect of cultural identification. In a telecontent changes in understanding and the approach to a choice of a trade and business of all life today are observed. Modern kommunikativisty and researchers say that the standard of work and a cult of a working trade is superseded by culture of consumption and culture of prestige. The wide variety of the goods complicates process of search of the products necessary for human life. How correctly to pick up the necessary goods from a certain category, «Control purchase» («the First channel») tells. By 2008th year have considerably changed in style registration of the program of these subjects, there were new headings. To already available «All under the control», «the Soviet five-minute», «the Hot line» was added «Star purchase». Transfer has pragmatical character, spectators receive the concrete recommendation after testing of the goods in "Purchase". Similar projects are rather popular on different channels, they prove "victory" of a cult of prestigiousness, a cult of a fashion and «impulsive consumption» over spiritually-creative motivation in behaviour of a certain category of a spectator audience. The narration about trades and professionals in a modern teleether is present at a kind of separate documentary films or the broadcast series devoted to any expert («Roads of old masters», «Cold streams of art» - television channel "Culture", a series "Portraits" - "Russia", «the Female sight» Oksanas

Pushkinoj - NTV, and also in the program where people come to studio, enamoured in the trade and many years which have devoted to the business: «White studio» - "Culture", "Yuen" - television channel "Rain".

At all times original value health is conclusive. Sports, propagation of a correct way of life, active social advertising help to pay attention some public to a difficult situation with nation health. In the course of transition to new models of "daily culture» there is an adaptation of the person which demands from the person of considerable psychological and physical efforts. As result - creation stilisticheski the sustained television projects with application of new models and elements. For example, along with traditional methods of disposal of illnesses throughout centuries there was a medicine national when usual people from the people were engaged in treatment, from improvised means invented the medicines which action was checked not by one generation. Broths, ointments, - all it at all an arsenal of modern magicians and sorcerers, it, according to leaders of the program «Malakhov +» («the First channel»), it is possible to apply tinctures in a daily life as preventive maintenance or direct treatment of illness.

"Talk show" Malakhov + »- a kaleidoscope of popular wisdom, enormous everyday experience and optimism». Leading programs tell about national methods of healing from every possible misfortunes and hvorej. The national medicine is not always welcomed by doctors-professionals. Practising medical workers warn against use of doubtful recipes of health of spectators. Spectators receive the main recommendations during all program and in headings «Recipe of day» or «Procedure of day from Gennady Malakhov». A type of "national" healer Gennady Malakhov, with a specific dialect inherent in it and style of dialogue, we will notice, it is beaten out from a general series of television leaders. Its image is perceived by places comically (in promorolike programs on a site of the First channel when Gennady Malakhov gives the advice, it is necessary to do what exercises to achieve clearness of speech as from leaders of TV). Values "health" are devoted modern teleprograms «Malakhov +» (the First channel), «to Live fine!» (The first channel), and also separate highly specialised channels (Health TV) are organised.

The modern way of popularisation of cultural values has both positive, and negative experience on TV. Today the tendency to translate verbal language of products of culture and art in a nonverbal embodiment of television movies and teleprograms is observed. Within the limits of television language the structure of a work of art, certainly, is exposed to transformation. Works of art "are more and more dissolved" in a daily life and form household culture of an audience. Today there is a situation when not work of art - cinema becomes value, music, painting, theatre, - and process of creation of this value. It becomes interesting to spectators to look not so much theatrical performance or a feature film, how many to observe of "masterpiece" creation. Art gradually gets into a daily life, the amateur performance world actively develops. Television communications address to process of coauthorship, the co-authorship of the spectator in the teleprogram more and more.

The information society has absorbed and has developed the basic tendencies of a postmodernism, but thus has reached in some directions final absurdity of the display: a cult of ambiguities, errors,

Combination theory has settled itself. The information society has in many respects turned to traditional aesthetic values and high culture. This tendency is shown in programs of cultural-educational subjects not only in a substantial component, but also at level of application of verbal and nonverbal expressive means of TV in construction of an artistic image and in formation of cultural sphere as a whole.

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A source: Oganesova Julia Arturovna. EXPRESSIVE MEANS of TELEVISION PROGRAMS of CULTURAL-EDUCATIONAL SUBJECTS. 2014

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