the Theoretical and empirical bases of concept sotsioemotsionalnogo intelligence

For today the concept sotsioemotsionalnogo intelligence only starts to be developed in a foreign psychological science. So, M.R.Furtner, J.F.Rauthmann and P.Sachse [118] believe, that sotsiemotsionalnyj the intelligence consists of SI and EI, including variables ekspressivnosti, senzitivnosti and the control (Table 25).

Table 25.

Structural components of emotional and social intelligence (M.R.Furtner, J.F.Rauthmann, P.Sachse).

Emotional intelligence Social intelligence
1. Emotional ekspressivnost. 1. Social ekspressivnost.
2. Emotional senzitivnost. 2. Social senzitivnost.
3. The emotional control. 3. The social control.

Research of authors has shown high correlations sotsioemotsionalnogo intelligence with self-leadership and its components [118]. According to P.Sydnmaalankka, self-leadership should be understood as ability thanks to which the person studies better to learn private world and, as consequence, understands itself is better and more successfully regulates all event in his life [161]. Self-leadership, in opinion, C.P.Neck, H.Nouri, J.L.Godwin it is impossible to understand as regulation of own emotions. However it is connected with purpose achievement that can motivate the person to the control of requirements arising in the course of activity and feelings [148].

The concept "self-leadership" is difficultly applicable to younger schoolboys and teenagers. Nevertheless, formation of this ability is closely connected with

Development of motivational sphere of children. It is possible to notice, that the motivational

The sphere of younger schoolboys is characterised by the tendency to formation of conscious and strong-willed behaviour of the child [73]. JA-concept development at this age differs that children in the beginning of the average childhood have expectation and tendency on self-actualisation of the person.

The considerable place in the JA-concept of the child occupies an image of a body and its appearance. The main objective of development of the JA-concept during this period consists in helping the younger schoolboy most to become for itself a source of support, motivations and

Encouragements. The teenage period is very important in JA-concept development, in self-estimation formation as basic regulator of behaviour and the activity, making direct impact on process of further self-knowledge,

Self-education and in the whole development of the person. At teenagers the consciousness is actively formed, own independent system of standards samootsenivanija is developed and self-relations, more and more develop abilities of penetration into private world [73].

Such age features of pupils of younger school and teenage age in many respects define development of components sotsioemotsionalnogo the intelligence, expressed in management and understanding and another's


In work M.R.Furtner, J.F.Rauthmann and P.Sachse the main communications of self-leadership have been found for social sensitivity and emotional ekspressivnosti, but any communications has not been found for the emotional control.

Self-leadership consists of three primary characteristics of strategy: povedencheski the focused strategy (the independent

Purpose statement, self-reinforcement, self-punishment,

Introspection, self-motivation);

Strategy of a natural reinforcement (for example, internal motivation);

Constructive mental patterns (successful performance of visualisation, internal speech, otsenivanie belief and

Assumptions in the internal plan) [118].

These spheres of self-leadership, according to M.R.Furtner, J.F.Rauthmann and P.Sachse, can be connected with various components sotsioemotsionalnogo intelligence. The structure sotsioemotsionalnogo intelligence according to representations M.R.Furtner, J.F.Rauthmann and P.Sachse looks as follows (Drawing 3).



ekspressivnost Senzitivnost the Control

Drawing 3. Conceptual model Sotsioemotsionalnogo of intelligence.

M. R. Furtner, J.F. Rauthmann, P. Sachse [118].

R.E.Riggio And R.J.Reichard are based that ekspressivnost concerns ability neverbalno to express emotions and feelings and, thus, positively to influence other people. Emotional sensitivity concerns ability to learn and precisely to interpret oral and nonverbal emotional presentations [151].

Social sensitivity (that is sensitivity to behavioural displays of others and an estimation of such relations) and emotional

ekspressivnost (that is, expression of some relations) are necessary for self-leaders to be effective that they do (at least, in situations of interpersonal interaction) [118].

R.E.Riggio And R.J.Reichard consider, that emotional and social

Skills correspond with each other and can play a part in development liderskih qualities of the individual directly on a workplace. Authors had been noted also structural similarity of social both emotional intelligence and possibility of perfection of corresponding skills by carrying out of educational actions [151].

Z.Birknerovа Writes, that the social and emotional competence create our character, they allow us to understand ours personal feelings and interpersonal relations. The intrapersonal part of emotional intelligence is responsible for our ability to feel positive or negative emotions and

To supervise their external displays. We put the purposes, we solve problems or we face the obstacles standing on our way. Development of interpersonal interactions includes our relations with other people and social abilities, such as empathy, acceptance of another's opinion, a way of life of other person. Here it is possible to include and the competence, connected with successful business cooperation. The people well proving in

Social and emotional spheres are with whom we feel emotionally comfortably. They are popular, possess charm and can calm negative emotions of others [104].

According to M.R.Furtner, J.F.Rauthmann, P.Sachse, kognitivnye schemes can

To act as installations for management of promptings and emotions that can be shown in steady, productive, effective and purposeful behavioural patterns. Achievement of the purposes can matter to become more expressive and sensitive to reaction to the surrounding social environment (external orientation, interpersonal representation) even thus, that own emotions can and not to be the centre of the established strategy (internal orientation, deeply personal representation) [118]. Authors underline value of activity for development sotsioemotsionalnogo intelligence.

At the same time in R.Bar-On's last works starts to use the term emotionally-social intelligence. The author understands the given concept as multifactorial set interconnected emotional and social kompetentsy, skills and means which influence our ability to distinguish, understand and operate

Emotions to build contacts to others, to adapt for changes and to solve problems of personal and interpersonal character and effectively to cope with daily requirements, problems and stresses. The important party of research of the concept of emotionally-social intelligence is data consideration kontsepta as abilities to predict various aspects of human behaviour and acts. At the same time, R.Bar-On asserts, that this ability (as well as separately considered by it EI) is got and it it is possible to develop [102].

According to researches of this scientist, to the most significant kompetentsijam, to skills and means of emotionally-social intelligence concern:

Ability to operate emotions and to consult with stress;

Prompting for achievement of own purposes for the purpose of realisation of the internal potential and conducting more intelligent life;

Ability to estimate feeling and thoughts.

As the factors making variables of emotionally-social intelligence of R.Bar-On has put forward the same components what are used by the author in model EI: self-esteem, comprehension of the emotions, a self-trust, independence, self-actualisation, empathy, social responsibility, interpersonal mutual relations, communication with a reality, flexibility, the decision of problems, stability to stresses, the impulsiveness control, optimism, happiness.

After M.R.Furtner, J.F.Rauthmann, P.Sachse and R.Bar-On we consider, that ability of social and emotional knowledge consists of corresponding factors of social and emotional intelligence, forming the general structure.

Still it research H.M.Larin, G.Benson, L.Martin, J.Wessel, R.Williams and J.Ploeg has revealed minor alterations on indicators emotionally -

Social intelligence, leadership and care among medical students (pediatrists and physiatrists) between the beginning of their academic training till the moment of their association in one educational group. Prospect of studying of the given problem authors see in research of characteristics emotionally -

Social intelligence, leadership and care in the conditions of change of curriculums for these students [138].

We believe, that non-uniform by quantity of medical students sample (73

The pediatrist and 21 physiatrist) and use only self-report techniques somewhat limit reprezentativnost the present work. On the other hand, this research contains interesting idea about influence of social institutes on sotsioemotsionalnoe knowledge and about possibility of its development within the limits of educational process.

V.A.Naumets writes, that the better the person distinguishes emotions, the

Faster and more precisely he can distinguish structure of interpersonal relations in dynamics, is adequate reflect intentions and consequences of behaviour of participants of communications. The above emotional intelligence, the above and social intelligence. Apparently, it can indirectly confirm that fact that is two konstrukta which mutually "block" each other [58].

Proceeding from this research, it would be possible to assume, that there is some hierarchical dependence of SI from EI. We believe, that such communication can exist between management of the emotions, management of an expression, low uneasiness. We are assured, that in the course of social knowledge recognition of emotions which the judgement of a social situation again follows. The first role is played here all the same by the intellectual operations generated at the person including social experience of dialogue, activity and a corresponding set of social knowledge. In our opinion, as restrictions of the given work it is possible to allocate small sample, use of only one technique of SI and one technique EI.

According to I.V.Bezmenova, the better the person distinguishes an emotional condition of other person through an expression, the above at it a level of development

SI. The parity of the studied style parametres revealed in research and

SI level of development, together with EI speaks the author by means of nonlinear model of interrelation. The given conclusion will be co-ordinated with representation about nonlinear, system determination of the mental phenomena (Lomov B.F). "polezavisimye" people, as well as "polenezavisimye" successfully distinguish an emotional condition of other person through an expression, "polenezavisimye" at the expense of good allocation of significant elements for recognition from a background, and "polezavisimye" at the expense of identification of and the person in a photo [7].

It is curious, that by results of many researches polezavismost it is connected with lower efficiency by some intellectual kinds of activity, but it is positively connected with efficiency in interpersonal sphere [14].

S.P.Derevjanko states thought that the partial identification of concepts of social and emotional intelligence is connected with allocation in

To structure of emotional intelligence of some abilities of socially - communicative orientation: social skills, comprehension of social interactions (D.Goulmen), ability to pertseptivno-interpretive recognition of emotions in an interpersonal context (J. Mejer, P.Salovej,

D.Karuzo). At the same time, the allocated abilities correspond also to traditional understanding of social intelligence, as sets of the mental abilities connected with processing of the social information and

Promoting success of interpersonal interaction (E.Torndajk, G.Ollport). Also the author specifies in coherence konstruktov emotional and social intelligence which are estimated by modern scientists ambiguously. In separate works the emotional intelligence is considered in contextual borders of social intelligence (E.Vlasova, R.Riggio); in other researches of ability to social interaction

Are based on anticipating development of separate structural components of emotional intelligence (D.Goulmen). An uniting category for

Emotional and social intelligence, "dialogue" acts. Each of the allocated kinds of intelligence, according to the author, assumes realisation of abilities to recognition and interpretation of emotional conditions of other people.

At the same time, as the distinctive characteristic the dialogue orientation, in this case, acts. The communicative potential of emotional intelligence is directed, mainly, on produtsirovanie and judgement of own emotional experiences concerning situations of interpersonal dialogue whereas possibilities of social intelligence are focused on communicative interaction [27].

As a whole, in contrast of the representations stated in the present paragraph, we believe, that emotional and social the competence not

Are simply interconnected, - they have uniform, system structure. Such

In the image, in our opinion, the given abilities should not be divided from each other (that is observed in the researches set forth above). The analysis of existing concepts of social and emotional intelligence allows to reveal some inconsistency in definition of these components in relation to process of knowledge of private world and behaviour of other people. So, the majority of definitions of SI is reduced to understanding of behaviour of associates and to possibility of its subsequent forecasting. EI, as a rule, it is considered as ability of understanding of both another's emotions and management of own emotional conditions.

Meanwhile, it is impossible to divide, in our opinion, recognition of the emotional and behavioural information. As marked still I.M.Setchenov, all

The infinite variety of external displays of brain activity is reduced definitively to only one phenomenon - to muscular movement [80]. From these words it is possible to gather thought on indissoluble communication between emotional and behavioural reactions of individuals.

In modern psychology the behaviour is defined as from the outside observable impellent activity of live beings, including the moments of an immovability,

Executive link of a highest level of interaction of a complete organism with environment [14]. With morphological and with functional the points of view the human body represents a single whole consisting from being in constant interaction of mentality, a motility and vegetatiki [92].

A.V.Petrovsky confirmed: Shades of behaviour of the person as a whole - character of its attention, a look direction, change of tempo of speech and movements - all it can express the experience of the person tested by it emotional

Condition [64]. Besides, we think, that people, as a rule, give some sense to behaviour of associates, interpreting, first of all, their emotional condition, being guided thus the social experience. Here it will be pertinent to recollect V.A.Ivannikova's thought that emotional experiences as the estimation of necessity and readiness for behaviour serve also as original language of dialogue of subjects in situations of the conflict, game or

Other relations [29].

So, it is obviously important to us to study not separately social intelligence and separately emotional intelligence, and sotsioemotsionalnyj intelligence as system from co-operating factors. This ability, in our opinion has system character and allows to understand as kognitivnye, motivational and intentsionalnye, and emotional aspects of own behaviour and behaviour of other individuals. We believe also, that sotsioemotsionalnyj the intelligence includes subjective knowledge of these aspects and helps to solve various social problems.

Thus, we consider sotsioemotsionalnyj intelligence as ability of the individual to understand kognitivnye, emotional, motivational and intentsionalnye aspects of own behaviour and behaviour of others

Individuals in the course of actual interaction with them and to use subjective knowledge of these aspects for a choice of effective strategy

Decisions of social problems.

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