During inevitable all-consuming technical progress there is a constant necessity for a training for a new profession of professional shots and preparation of experts. Changes in plans of preparation and training of experts are connected with it.

According to the federal state

To the educational standard of the higher vocational training in a direction of preparation 035100 "TV", the present journalist it is necessary to possess:

• readiness for daily open multilevel communicative interaction, free possession of various kinds of information-communicative influence, ability to not deforming transformation of the initial information and possession of skills of information struggle; [106]

• possession of base methods and receptions of modern management, the basic skills of financially-design and administrative maintenance of television process [107 [108].

Change of representations in the field of culture, change of technics and technology leads to change kompetentsy. In many respects this results from the fact that the television message, getting to a media context (network resources), gets new perusal and a new audience. At spectators and users of the Internet other perception of the information from network sources:

"Hypertext references", «original allsorts-composition», «specific tempo-rhythm» and «specific stylistics of interactivity». Noted characteristics in a special way influence transformation both network, and a radio telecontent, and it demands changes and in the approach to use of expressive means in present programs of a cultural-educational orientation. Creative working conditions of the journalist obviously vary. So, a method of the long

Journalistic supervision all is now applied less often: modern temporitm dictates new working conditions of the journalist over concrete product. To do the work similar to those that Maryanna Goldovskaja has spent, creating films «the Surgeon Vishnevsky», «Raisa Nemchinskaja - the circus performer» and others, now it is possible only in an exclusive situation. The films constructed on long supervision, leave in sphere of art and in bolshej degrees meet requirements of the wide screen, than television space (documentary films Rhone Frike of "Barrack", "Samsara", G odfri Redzhio "Kojaniskatstsi", "povakatstsi", "Nakojkatstsi").

In the conditions of modern transformation of visual perception, requirements to many means of expressiveness of the telescreen have changed also, in

That number - to dynamics of an assembly phrase and style of shooting. Abundantly clear, that the present format of some television channels does not give possibility of reflexion of the hero on the screen with sufficient depth and completeness. And, hence, the journalist is compelled by bright, capacious strokes to designate a subject of the material.

M.Goldovskaja in the book «the Person close up» shares experience of construction of a composition of a documentary film, using «a text method» where «the episodes opening different sides of the person, are as though strung one on another that together, in the sum, to recreate a panorama of this person in all volume». Each teleepisode from a life of the hero opens the person with new, not the party known earlier to the spectator and is built according to the general laws of dramatic art.

Today such approach on TV is exclusive. From documentary films the TV smoothly passes to documentary telecasts. Developed by documentation officers «a non-interference principle» during a life, the reality which has been pulled out from a stream of events of the television hero, is transformed today. First, on style: Use of nonprofessional records in programs (shooting on mobile devices, inserts of video from personal archives), secondly, always the limited period of supervision in connection with rigid terms of work of the TV reporter over the program or a program cycle.

So, chronicle shots, use of archival records in documentary programs are quite often replaced today with imitation and production shootings. Meanwhile, such shots not only diversify a film with expressive means: they help to feel spirit of an epoch - the original, not decorated life. We will recollect L.Viskonti's works «Days of glory», V.Lisakovicha "Katjusha", etc. where feelings of heroes on the screen are told in the original, not dramatized histories, that emotionally the production cinema more strongly influences the spectator, than.

Goldovsky M.E.Chelovek close up - M: Art, 1981. - With. 120.

Further, marked by many researchers important for formation of sensation of reliability the effect of presence of the journalist on modern TV even more often is replaced by effect of participation. The journalist in a shot is actual today not only for the author's program, but also for transfer practically any format. Personification of visual space - the major sign of our time. And it supplements functional qualities of the journalist with new signs. Moreover - before the author sharply there is a question: how much the director can keep objectivity in display of the hero and the surrounding his environment? The moment of display of the hero through dialogue with the journalist, transfer of its manner, intonations, pauzatsii - all it is extraordinary important for character disclosing.

Approaches to installation change also. Today we can observe prompt changes of language of the screen: from long assembly phrases authors more and more address to connection of short fragments of event is to some extent returning to television sources and reporting receptions. Supervision now does not demand detailed, long, detailed demonstration of event, frequently it represent in the "compressed" assembly kind.

Mass media become today compilers recognised vital an expert and confirm thereby «social norms» or deviations from them. The hero of the program acts or as the sample of public standards, or as the infringer of those. Owing to transition of communication forms from oral to written, then - printing, electronic, the role of the personal beginning more and more increases. The way from a shot till the image on the screen at times develops work years - through a plot, an author's word, assembly connections, application of special effects, etc.

Let's consider some kinds of representation of the hero in modern teledokumentalistike: by means of creation of an image, a type, representation

It as persons.

The concept - - bears a documentary image in itself a certain contradiction: documentation assumes representation of the hero such what it is in an ordinary, "offscreen" life. The image means certain degree of a conjecture or fiction. Process of creation of an image on the screen becomes today more and more difficult both in creative, and in the technical plan. Unlike the convention defined by participation theatrical or film actors, in documentary television movies (unconditional cinema) the people natural in the nature, live, not playing any roles become heroes. Their images are not thought up by a script writer in advance, show the natural individual beginning. The hero modern dokumentalistiki even more often acts as the person, with individuality inherent in it, originality. Whatever standard and "similar" was our life (as it was in the late fifties - nachale1960 th years), private world of the person, fortunately, still remains unique and unique. Character of the person on the screen is shown both in acts, and in behaviour details, and before, all in words which sound on air. In case of formation of an image of the person through a word on the screen the author should hear and notice that expresses its original essence, at equivalent value and maintenances, and forms of a narration of the hero. In a manner to speak, in intonation, a timbre, temporitme speeches individuality of the hero is shown. Ispovedalnyj style of a narration of the television hero creates not so much "image", how many shows its individual character and unique destiny. As an example it is possible to result such transfers, as "Word-per-word translation" (Oleg Dormana's documentary film-interview:

Memoirs Liliany Zinovevny Lunginoj ("Russia", 2009год);

Documentary serial «Conversations with wise men» (G rigory pomerants and Zynaida Mirkina, television channel "Culture", 2010) and others. Here on the screen there is not simply a person, and the present phenomenon, the hero, for which history or whole epoch. To construct an image of the hero on individual qualities - an uneasy problem for the journalist: it is constant search of that condition in which the person stays with itself alone, a condition of full internal freedom.

Igor Beljaev in the book «Performance of documents» allocates three parametres on which keeps screen dokumentalistika: the film fact, film concept and a film image. The film fact as the chronicle basis, is used in a publicistic and figurative design of the maintenance. The film concept possesses bolshej a polysemy, belongs, basically, publicism. In case of work with film concepts a leading element of the publicist is the word, and the screen design is under construction as system of proofs. The film image consists of the same means, as the film fact and film concept, but already submits to art laws where the convention share increases, degree of "scale" of object varies. The documentation officer, creating an image of the hero, not only opens essence of the character, but also expresses author's implied sense. In a documentary image it is combined both the hero, and vision by its author. So in a modern media content in a genre of a portrait sketch the documentary serial «Jury Rosta's Reflection» (television channel "Culture") is made. The serial consists of four parts, each of them, supplementing previous, becomes the independent finished story. The hero acts as the carrier of the main vital values: a family, love, memory, friends, creativity... Jury Rosta's Heroes - prompt and inspiring. Here the role of the author is especially important: the journalist not only "conductor" on destinies of the protagonist and its "reflexions", but also itself his life and narration particle. The author puts itself in the maintenance of the program which is under construction on subjective personal perusal of a life.

The moral position of the person, its sights and acts - all is basic layers of an image. High degree of sincere frankness is necessary for disclosing of an image, but not each hero of transfer is capable of it.

The nature of an image define its structure: the image always complete, only sufficient volume of the actual information and a video data is capable to build harmoniously complete picture. Sometimes surplus of the information

Can destroy an image. The documentation officer should feel this thin side. The image does not depend on volume, the essence of an image consists that each phrase works on idea, on uniform thought - disclosing of essence of the person. The hero possessing individuality only peculiar to it, can expressive gesture or a phrase to create representation about itself. Thus the image not always happens concrete: it unites in itself(himself) and the conflict, and sometimes opposite, contrast qualities of the individual. The figurative structure possesses special firmness. Even that has not entered into a film, is read by the spectator «between lines». In each episode of demonstration of the hero its character should be concluded. The image mnogomeren also is opened on structure, in the hero some images are combined: own estimation of the person, a sight

The documentation officer on the interlocutor and, at last, it is necessary to mean individual spectator perception which "is finished" by everyone in own way. Any author's "submission" of an image to concrete idea can destroy it, and after it to break both integrity, and reliability of all product. The image is independent, it is not under construction on idea of the author, it is born and develops under laws of own nature. Dynamics of an image - an obligatory component of any product.

The technical embodiment of an image on the screen is caused by many factors. The question of "compatibility" of synchronous interviews to the announcer's text closed by a video picture, set researchers since that moment as soon as record sinhronov became possible. Long plans of stories of heroes were difficult combined with dynamical cutting of plans for the offscreen comment. In due course TV reporters have come to two variants of the creative decision: to reduction of demonstration of answers of heroes till 30-40 seconds or to creation completely «a colloquial film» where the author's position in a shot and behind it is minimum. Today the form of "a colloquial film» became one of tendencies teledokumentalistiki. In media environment even more often there are documentary films without text use behind a shot. High degree of documentation in such films is created by means of use of the film facts developing after in film concepts, and then - at images. Sometimes journalists use reception of demonstration of consecutive interviews.

The image at the documentation officer can be born at a stage of a plan of a film but that this image to keep and transfer, the "level-by-level" scheme of demonstration of the person is required. Work with the hero over image demands consecutive disclosing of the various elements creating an image. Degree of "improvisations" and "preparation" of heroes in this case tends bolshej to spontaneity - for preservation of a sharpness of emotions, process of reflexion, display of individuality of character, sometimes to please informativnosti told. But here it is necessary to remember, that life fixing is yet creation of images. Reportazhnyj the method is most pertinent in the course of information gathering.

The image of the hero in teledokumentalistike is created in some stages: opening of the person as persons, creation of a type of the hero (revealing of the lines most peculiar to given natures), metaforizatsija (end of an image by allocation of certain qualities of character of the hero and their generalisation in the uniform finished universal phrase).

Historically process of creation of an image on the screen was in direct dependence on means of the documentation officer. Occurrence of the synchronous chamber, objectives with variable focus, transition to 16-mm a film and other factors have affected and a kind of work over a film. In the early sixties reportazhnyj the shooting method became a general direction of work of film documentation officers while the documentary television movie should find other principles of construction of an image. From a documentary picture TV men should pass to a documentary film in which the image of the hero should represent not carefully "cut" and was able "zakadrovannuju" in advantageous foreshortenings the person, and originally live person. Complexity of work of the teledocumentation officer consisted that before occurrence of chambers with possibility of synchronous record (both images, and a sound) it was necessary to use the announcer's comment behind a shot and rare then film registration intershumami. All it prevented to create the natural sound environment, unique for a place where there passed shooting. Besides, at times it was necessary to choose between «a beautiful picture» for the operator and «a good sound» for the sound producer: sometimes records of heroes passed in secluded places to avoid, for example, noise of a wind or prompt splashes in water.

About the hero it is possible to carry programs in which the author the person not so much interests to other form of a narration, how many attempt to present a certain social type. In dokumentalistike the type is degree of typicalness when the destiny of the hero and its sights find the external form, are embodied in behaviour, a speech manner. Hence, the journalist does not need «to build character», skilfully enough to fix on a film that is visible to associates and it is appreciable from the first взгляда114. When the author builds a film on a thought plot, instead of on the figurative logic of character, he should lean against collective concepts, instead of on individual displays of character. This method can be justified the special subjects which are not supposing «character semitones». In the given method of construction of an image there is a certain sketchiness and the functional approach to demonstration of the hero. The author avoids "ambiguity" and ambiguity of the maintenance and spectator estimations, but cannot construct a deep and unique image of that person which will appear on the screen as in the person it is concluded multidimensional and many-sided, at times inconsistent nature, and a type - «an average arithmetic» the character. The type is a stage of construction of an image, it is access to an image of the hero. Working with types, the journalist-documentation officer addresses not to result (an image of the hero), and directs attention to demonstrations of the facts creating character. Probably, to it popularity of the reference to a format «lives secret», to «backstage» speaks. So during long-term demonstration on television channel "Culture" (December, 2013) Programs «Big opera» of performance of participants alternated with [109] secret interviews. Today on TV "preparation" demonstration, «working everyday life» becomes the special form which allows to open the person of the hero in a new fashion.

That the hero has as much as possible revealed in the conditions of shooting, today even more often address to returning in «places expensive to the hero» (the house where has spent the childhood, school, the small native land etc.) or to such reception, as «shooting as though stealthily», also in conditions habitual for the hero. Certainly, today journalists do not have possibility of full immersing on Wednesday of the interlocutor as it was, for example, at Maryanna Goldovskoj in films "Denis-Deniska", "Arcady Raikin" and others. With change temporitma narrations journalists leave from difficult forms. At verbal level it is shown in construction of simple phrases and offers, at installation level - in dynamism, klipovosti, at composition level are the mosaic blocks constructed by an associative principle. As an example it is possible to result the program «Histories in details» (STS). The author finds special forms In it for creation of an image of heroes.

It becomes frequent the author of transfer not simply "conductor", the guide of a documentary telenarration, but also directly hero of the program. In other cases the hero tells about itself, without additional comments of the journalist. Historically there are some approaches to demonstration of the hero on the modern telescreen. The documentary TV, having separated from a cinema, has passed some stages of display of the hero. From the chronicle approach of representation to the publicistic. In the chronicle approach not separate person, and a generality of the people, the certain social environment becomes the hero. The maximum character of generalisation here broadcasts the television hero as the representative of the certain social environment. Today even more often we can observe the publicistic approach in display of the person on the screen. Here the hero quite often bright representative of a certain social problem or a situation. In this case the TV becomes a platform for demonstration of own point of view of the individual and in special cases gives the chance to show the certain party of the conflict. On the modern screen the hero in dokumentalistike, with uniqueness inherent in it and experience, becomes the telenarration centre.

It is interesting, that necessary conditions of creation of entertainment and socially significant teleprogram practically the same, that in the end of XIX century has formulated K.S.Stanislavsky [110] at creation Moscow

Art theatre. The main thing - presence of a command, an incorporated most important task to address to the people in clear language, taking out on its court socially significant problems, a command professing uniform high ethical and aesthetic principles. The TV presenter should create such command. The participants of a telecast chosen by it should be unconditional professionals in the discussed theme, having accurately expressed point of view. Thus their sights at a discussed question can be opposite, that in case of a talk show creates necessary dynamics and staginess. The director of transfer and television cameramen should hold the spectator in necessary intellectual pressure. In our opinion, such quite often it is possible in the teleprogram "In the meantime" with Alexander Arhangelskim on television channel "Culture". As an example we will result a telecast «Generation MeMeMe» ("Culture", 12.02.2014). It has been devoted new generation of youth - present twenty years'. Opponents have been divided by space of studio and age limits. On the one hand three venerable scientists at the age of 50-60 years, with another - three representatives of generation thirty-year, reached to this age of a powerful social standing: the writer, the journalist, the manager. Moscow State University chair. Dialogue has turned out interesting as in the accessible and clear form the various points of view on a problem expressed. Participation of the spectator was reached not only chamber fixing on acting at present, but also reaction of listeners of "opposite side". Such receptions allow the spectator most to state an estimation to an event. The program subjects are calculated on an audience wide range - to people of the senior generation important to understand, that such today's twenty years': after all many have children, representatives of young generation could become interested in this transfer to hear, as them estimate from the party. Transfers of cultural-educational subjects should aspire to such format of dialogue with the televiewer.

Combining modern lines in a television narration, authors quite often manage to find the form of the story attractive to the spectator about the hero of transfer. The word-play in speech of the leader and offscreen commenting of the journalist, dynamical installation, an expressive video series, selection of heroes - all it does the program interesting, expressive. At all times on television channels there were not casual people, embodying themselves «an aesthetic ideal», thereby giving possibility to the televiewer to "live" other, not every day life. Today we can say that the media discourse creates kvazirealnost. Who becomes the hero not only programs, but also time, who and as it is shown on the telescreen at times depends on the one.

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  2. perfection of style of professional work, optimisation of mutual relations between separate groups of professional skills, number augmentation of "freedom degrees" subject of professional work
  3. 1.2. The professional language person as the subject of a professional discourse
  4. 2.2.2. A professional language picture of the world and the professional language person of the employee of bank
  5. perfection of semantic sphere of the person of the professional, its "ja-concept", the decision of its personal problems, antiblastic professional skill
  6. 3.2 Perfection of diagnostics and otsenivanija key educational kompetentsy at senior pupils
  7. model of formation key educational kompetentsy senior pupils resources of a network the Internet
  8. concept and a general characteristic key educational kompetentsy
  9. diagnostics of initial level sformirovannosti key educational kompetentsy at senior pupils
  10. 3.1 Designing of the optimum maintenance, forms and methods of formation key educational kompetentsy at senior pupils
  11. productivity of experimental work on formation key educational kompetentsy at senior pupils
  12. use of resources of a network the Internet for formation key educational kompetentsy senior pupils