Now the next scale reforming of norms of Russian literary language is observed. Changes have mentioned practically all its sections. However it is the most appreciable these updatings have mentioned norms of word usage and a combination of words.

If in rather recent past "range" and "legislator" of norms of word usage there was a fiction last years this role by right belongs to mass media, to publicistic genres as the closest to informal conversation which recently all influences and literary norm of Russian more considerably. On modern TV different means of strengthening izobrazitelnosti are used and expressiveness of speech, the active reference to which transforms various spheres of display of verbal culture.

Ejzenshejn wrote, that «Actually art begins with that moment as in a sound and image combination communication existing in the nature not so simply is reproduced, but the connection demanded by problems of expressiveness of product» is established. Even at information level the message can get the special form. Synthesis visual and audialnyh expressiveness means helps the author with the decision of a creative problem. During flooding the plot has been included in Asia in news programs of different television channels on a disaster theme. On the First channel showed an apocalypse picture. In a shot there were inflatable boats on a football ground. Shortly, in a few words behind a shot the author made comments on a situation, and before the spectator there were at once some pictures. On a joint of those pictures which he saw on the screen, and that else dorisovyvalo [92] imagination of the televiewer, has arisen the compassion, inducing to participation in the humanitarian help to victims.

On modern TV authors quite often address to use tropov as to bright expressive means. Tracks it is equally significant on the telescreen and in the literature. In the journalistic text of tracks plays a special role: (tracks - with grech. Turn, a turn of speech) the two-planned use of a word at which its sounding realises simultaneously two values - allegoric and literal, connected with each other or by a complexity principle (a synecdoche, metonimija), either similarities (metaphor), or contrasts (irony).

In language of TV reporters metaphors more often are used. A metaphor / transferring - «a kind a track, the similarity formed by a principle» [93 [94]. Thus it is more often compared lifeless to the live: «the lorry was near death» (about the accident reasons, «Sunday time», 29.12.13), «Onishchenko at various times declared« enemies of the people »the Ukrainian fat, Moldavian wines, the Riga sprats etc.» («Sunday time», 29.12.13).

In political programs very often generalising concepts become object metaforizatsii: «the World has got tired of threats», «the World balances on the verge of war», «the Director by name of the Reality shows imagination miracles», «" Konvertnaja economy "- it is bad, to convert - well» etc.

In transfers ocherkovogo a metaphor genre are more traditional, are close to the literary: «In Vologda as if air lacy», «the Lace of reasons», etc. («The Vologda motives» - television channel "Culture", December, 2013). For this film graphic metaphors are characteristic also. Sometimes visual metaphors are preceded by a metaphor in the text: «Laces remind patterns on glass which will disappear with the first beams of the sun» (in a shot - the lacy curtain is drawn, behind it - the frosty pattern quickly thawing under beams of the sun).inogda the text is absent, the graphic metaphor is clear without it: blossoming phloxes are dismissed on a bed, and trace - in a lace, the unpretentious butterfly-cabbage white butterfly waves wings over a flower, and on a lacy cloth there is a firebird with freakish wings.

At the recipient the thought is born, that patterns of a lace are more perfect, than created by the nature.

Graphic metaphors on TV are frequent. On NTV numerous divorces of actor's pairs are often designated razryvaniem on air of family photos (the prickly fragmentary edge is characteristic), sometimes even without the verbal comment.

At stylistics of "the Vologda motives» there are also musical metaphors: at first "musically" sound - exchange calls kokljushki in hands kruzhevnits, at this time in the text it is said, that, apparently, it is impossible to understand this artful design of hundreds threads. On the screen only quickly moving kokljushki, ease of movement proving, that in skilful hands all is possible. The author, possibly, wished to say this thought behind a shot, but was ashamed to be instructive. However the spectator has understood it. A melody kokljushek join a musical sound of a spring thaw, and only in the end of a film the vocalese - a simple, quiet national melody without the tool support, gradually replacing a sound kokljushek and thaws is deduced.

However most brightly the metaphor finds out itself, certainly, in the text. So, on modern TV the approach to construction of an electronic caption in news programs has changed. In 1960 - 1970th years on TV a caption wrote a white and black paint on a grey paper, they preceded each news plot. Names of plots were plain more often: «the Best brigade», «All class - in collective farm», «Awards to leaders» etc. the Problem of such caption was to beat off one video topic from another. The caption revived nowadays, as a rule, is metaphoric:

- «Adventures imperceptible». In a plot about Edward Snoudene the name of an old film is beaten.

- «To execute it is impossible to pardon». The phrase from performance «Twelve months» is beaten. In a plot it is spoken about household murders and mass fights.

- «All for sports, all for a victory!». A plot about preparation for winter Olympic games. Perifraz the military slogan «All for front, all for a victory!».

One more bright verbal expressive means in a modern television content - allegory. The allegory (allegory) - the image of abstract concept by means of a concrete image - also often meets in a modern teleether. The transfer name «School in New Light» (01 04. 01.14 television channel "Culture") - concept concrete: in America. At the same time a word-combination «in new light» - a new sight at the American school. In the program is narrated about versions of modern American schools.

Word-formation, formation of set phrases from habitual or unusual combinations of words has widely extended.

Specificity of television speech is shown that in it there are special speech formations - the program name, a theme, a heading. As the name one word, a combination of words, the offer, some offers and, of course, phraseological units can be used. The program name is the strong, accented position because the spectator first of all pays attention to heading. Phraseological units are capable to play a role of bright names, but also the witty sayings which have born "on the move" (kvazifrazeologizmy) which can turn subsequently to steady speech formations. In language of modern mass-media phraseological units (as usual, and kvazifrazeologizmy) with a view of strengthening of expressiveness and emotional influence can be exposed a different sort to transformations.

Television practice has developed already certain receptions of similar modification of steady combinations. Certainly, the problem of the journalist - to find an exact, bright word - would be extremely simple, if all receptions could be used mechanically. But it is not casual Otto Espersen (known Danish jazykoved) named phraseology «a whimsical and imperceptible thing»: practically each word as a part of a phraseological unit to some extent changes semantics. Changes first of all depend on that, how much closely words "are ground in" to each other, i.e. from degree of cohesion of components [95].

In the conditions of the information market, a rigid competition, struggle for the spectator of mass-media authors aspire as it is possible to "pack" more attractively production, i.e. to present the information in the brightest, characteristic, remembered form. Packing of the maintenance of the information is a so-called language game, the intellectual warm-up, drawing attention of public, therefore at drawing up of offscreen texts and names of programs it is necessary to select bright, bright, witty expressions.

Various transformations of phraseological units become a favorite method in texts of modern mass-media. Possibility of their transformation follows from preservation at phraseological units of the internal form, their initial, literal sense and relative stability. To transformations can be subjected both semantics, and structure of word-combinations. Transformation of semantics of phraseological units is possible because they possess the internal form that allows authors to "restore" to some extent erased image and to adapt the generalised, metaphorical sense of this or that expression for concrete conditions of a context.

All kinds of transformation can be broken into two types: transformation not analytical (semantic, semantic) and analytical:

At semantic transformation the phraseological unit structure remains invariable: new shades of sense are brought in it or, or there is a word-play as a result of combination of straight lines and figurative senses and then the certain expressional effect is reached.

Allocate two types of creation of a phraseological image by semantic transformations. In the first case the free combination (two-planned character of a phraseological unit) is resulted in a phraseological unit. The second way of creation of an image - primary appears a free word-combination (bukvalizatsija). "Gadzheotazh" - the name of the program of television channel "Rain" about the modern technics, merge of two concepts: "gadzhet" and "agiotage". «Scores do not burn» - television channel "Culture" program, - from a set phrase «manuscripts do not burn».

Quite often for expression of irony concerning an event or achievement of comic effect the author uses a phraseological unit (creates a phraseological pun), selecting a context in such a manner that phraseological unit components are perceived in literal value.

More difficult stylistic reception of reconsideration of phraseological units is their use simultaneously in two values - direct and portable. Quite often the author helps the reader to realise a phraseological pun, underlining, that the word-combination is used both in literal, and in portable, figurative sense, packing a corresponding context.

At semantic transformations the same word-combination is perceived and as semanticheski integral, indecomposable, steady, and as free, semanticheski the displayed. In the linguistic literature there are the different terms naming the similar phenomenon: «two-planned character of a set phrase», «synthesis of two values», «phraseological unit decomposition», «phraseological unit updating», «actualisation of the internal form of a phraseological unit». We consider, that semanticheski the transformed phraseological units are not that other, as phraseological puns.

Bright reception of creation of a phraseological pun consists in the parallel use of a phraseological unit and the free word-combination which are an etymological prototype of given expression: «Before a look of celebrities the live dead person» ("Bunin", television channel "Culture") has appeared sorokachetyrehletny.

Analytical transformation, unlike semantic, makes changes to verbal structure of a phraseological unit. It is more various on the receptions and is reduced to several basic types: change of quantity of components, syntactic transformation, lexical transformation, kontaminatsija, phraseological paronomazija.

For the purpose of actualisation of a phraseological unit the author can reduce or expand its structure. The reduction, or reduction of structure, a phraseological unit is usually connected with its reconsideration. For example, «be not born beautiful» (teleserial) - cutting off of the second part of a proverb «be not born beautiful, and be born happy» has led to change of its value, sense of a new aphorism - the beauty conducts unfortunately.

Expansion of structure of a phraseological unit: «He has chosen a basic way of underground existence without everyone ogljadki on something Soviet» («Petersburg: time and a place. Art of free people», "Culture")

Change of structure of a phraseological unit - means of strengthening of expressional colouring of speech. In other cases introduction of additional words in set phrases gives them new semantic shades: there Will be a day - will be coffee («Perfetto! Secrets of the Italian coffee with Leonid Parfyonov» (television channel "Rain") from expression «will be day - will be peeping».

At syntactic transformation the affirmative design can be replaced by the negative. And on the contrary, the narrative offer can be replaced interrogative with lexical shifts. Besides, at syntactic transformation there can be a replacement of kinds of a syntactic link. The greatest expressiveness is reached when the sentence part role changes. For example, definition turns to a predicate: «Upon what have settled with your brother? Unless with it it is possible to settle something?!» («More than love. Chekhov, Knipper», television channel "Culture")

To settle upon what or from neoavenue it is simple. 1. To accept what-l. The decision. To come to the certain decision on what-l. To business.

One more means of creation of screen expressiveness - paronomazija (from grech. para near and onomazo I name) - the stylistic figure consisting in statement by a number of words, a little conformable, but not identical on value [96]. Phraseological paronomazija it is based on use of paronyms at lexical transformation: "Artificial selection" - the program name, television channel "Rain", - from a word-combination «natural selection».

The art form is an element of the maintenance. The phraseological pun allocates the essential party represented, its internal contradictions and unexpected communications. Besides, this speech reception, possessing raised informativnostju, causes activity of perception of thought of the author. Kalamburnoe phraseological unit transformation - not simply verbal game, this - effective weapon in hands of the publicist.

In a basis frazeologizatsii reconsideration of a free word-combination in which result this text gets stability, reproducibility and semantic integrity lays. The phraseological unit actual meaning becomes nesvodimo to the sum of direct senses of its components. In quality denotata phraseological semantics a certain repeating situation which requires in short, but capacious nomination acts.

Language of mass-media possesses property to combine two installations outwardly contradicting each other — on the standard and an expression (V.G.Kostomarov). Telelanguage is filled by a cliche, which problem — the fast description of a situation. Mass-media (especially it concerns information genres) appeal to background knowledge of the spectator on which depth the judgement of the apprehended depends. But thus the TV reporter should surprise the spectator with something unusual. In this sense the phraseological unit effectively realises both problems - and a problem of preservation of the standard, and a problem of formation of the expressional text.

Set phrase creation passes some stages. At first a certain word-combination starts to serve for a designation of a repeating situation or its part, then there is a reduction to the general conceptual skeleton, without details. As a result communication between actual and etymological value there is only an image-motive creating associations and causing interest at the spectator. Phraseological game, combinations and variations on a theme of traditional phraseological units allow to "pack" in short, capacious, sounding as a slogan to a phrase the basic idea of news.

Interference of art and television language is the most actual today. It is possible to notice as under the influence of art culture, the TV places emphasis on the certain form to material giving, on application of expressive means of art culture. And, on the contrary, there are prompt changes in art language of different art forms under the influence of a modern telecontent. The given tendency in theatrical and film language is most appreciable.


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  2. 1.5 Verbal means of language of tourism
  3. typical means of verbal demonstration verbally-tactile reguljativov in English dialogical space
  6. 1.2. An epithet as means of creation of art effect
  8. the Chapter II. Language as means of achievement of main objectives of a policy in a science and art (20-30th years of the XX-th century)
  10. the Estimation of an indicator of aesthetic expressiveness UPSN
  11. Taksonomichesky model FAMILIE and its lexico-semantic expressiveness
  12. PIGARKINA Evgenie Anatolevna. PARADOX AS MEANS SMYSLOOBRAZOVANIJA In the ART TEXT (on a material of products of O.Uajlda). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2017, 2017
  13. PIGARKINA Evgenie Anatolevna. PARADOX AS MEANS SMYSLOOBRAZOVANIJA In the ART TEXT (on a material of products of O.Uajlda). The dissertation AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2017, 2017
  14. kinds of verbal irony
  15. 3.5.1. Verbal strategy of creation of irony