1.4.5. Definiteness/uncertainty

If language did not give possibility to speak about not known it could not serve as the knowledge tool. Not casually therefore in all languages of the world there are special pronominal forms (uncertain pronouns), specifying on not clear, unknown or not named the reviewer or on absence of the reviewer [the Hook 1998, 84-85 and further].

The person of the figure can be expressed by various way: a separate word-noun, a pronoun or a verbal inflexion. The category of the person considered quite often as one of base categories predikatsii, belongs to the offer, is realised at syntax level in obligatory or possible communication finitnoj forms of a verb with a word specifying on the subject, whether it be a noun, an independent or office pronoun. Thus, comes to light four ways of a possible look of the figure:

Morphological — in a verbal inflexion: I speak, you speak;

Syntactic — on communication with an office pronoun which, having grammatical signs of a syntactic word, nevertheless, morfologicheski is not a part of the verbal form: frants. je parle, tu parle (s), il parle;

Syntactic — on communication with an independent pronoun or a noun-subject: I, you spoke; Masha spoke;

Sintaksiko-contextual when the person is defined not on a direct connection of the verbal form with a subject, and on the basis of wider context or a situation, for example: Has come also villages. It is happy and disturbing, pensive yours I repeat (Fet) has abated. Only posessiv you anaforicheski specifies that has come also villages concern the second person (the poet addresses to the Muse) [In the same place].

Modifying V.V. Vinogradova, V.G.Gak's scale represents process of generalisation and elimination of the person of the figure as follows:

1) the is concrete-personal subject (with internal gradation from singularity to plurality);

2) the cumulative subject (we with you);

3) the collective subject (group of students);

4) the indefinite-personal subject (knock);

5) the obobshchenno-personal subject;

6) the vaguely-index subject (it);

7) the eliminated subject (knocks!);

8) impersonality (bessubektnost: dawns).

The Indefinite-personal subject takes a certain place on this scale of elimination and generalisation of the person. At all its uncertainty, by V.V. definition. Vinogradova, in it the direct or latent relation to the manufacturer of action what the animated being is remains.

The animated substratum of indefinite-personal forms proves to be true two facts: replacement possibility their passive designs with the eliminated subject (a field have ploughed - the field is ploughed) (V.V. example. Vinogradova); that circumstance that in languages where there are special pronouns of the uncertain person (fr. on, it. — man), the last go back to a word ' the person ' [the Hook 1998, 86 and a trace.].

Expression means neopredelennolichnosti form funktsionalnosemanticheskoe a field. It is necessary to distinguish the centre and field periphery in ontologic and functional aspects. The ontologic midfield is formed by an element which is specially created for expression of the given value, and does not represent result of reconsideration any protivochlenov a paradigm. The functional midfield is formed by an element, the most common in the given function and having the least stylistic markirovannost. The ontologic and functional centres can coincide or disperse.

As to elements of a functional field they can be revealed as a result of combination of methods of deduction and an induction. In the first case the means expressing given value, are estimated logically with coverage of different levels of language system. In the second, following from language to language, we find out all new ways of expression of the given value. Both methods supplement each other. Deductively established facts are checked is inductive, on a material of foreign languages whereas it is inductive the revealed ways of expression of the given value are not infinite, they are defined eventually by language system.

Functional midfields neopredelennolichnosti in different languages can be rather various. In expression neopredelennolichnosti means of different language levels are used: lexicon, morphology, syntax.

The ontologic centre of expression neopredelennolichnosti are combinations of type any person, one person, people, and also uncertain pronouns. Russian concern the last someone, somebody, someone, somebody, French on, quiconque, quelqu'un, German man, jemand, Spanish uno, alguno, English one, somebody, anybody, etc.

Synthetic means of expression neopredelennolichnosti are most various. They are connected with instructions elimination on the semantic person of the figure. Uncertain the figure appears in two cases: or when it is really unknown, or when it is known, but for whatever reasons is not called. Elimination of the person of the figure is reached by two basic ways: reduction of valency of verbal knot and nominalizatsiej process [the Hook 1998, 86 and a trace.].

At deep level of semantic structure the indefinite-personal offer represents a combination antropomorfnogo process with the uncertain subject. Such interpretation neopredelennolichnosti allows to expand even more a circle of the structures expressing this value. Such structures concern:

— Designs with verbs-konversivami.

— A special case of actantial transformation of the indefinite-personal offer — erection of an adverbial modifier of place in a subject which thus acts as a site of certain group of characters. Compare: in a class rustle and the Class rustles. In the first offer — the indefinite-personal subject, in the second a word the class can be interpreted as instructions on set of rustling subjects or their site.

— Metonimichesky descriptions. Quite often personal offers represent transformations of offers which at deep level have structure of the indefinite-personal. For example, in the statement From time to time behind a fence the scourge an in itself scourge clicked could not click, this offer is a phrase transform From time to time behind a fence clicked a scourge or Someone clicked a scourge. The subject of action metonimicheski is replaced by the action tool. Distinction of definite-personal and indefinite-personal offers is defined quite often by a situation and how speaking imagine transformatsionnuju history of the given statement, that is they think or not presence at deep level uncertain dejstvovatelja.

The review of types of means of expression neopredelennolichnosti shows, that this value is transferred first of all by the elements, containing to this to uncertainty (uncertain pronouns, general meaning nouns), then — perenosno some verbal and pronominal forms (mainly 3rd persons of plural, as most the general on value), then by means of syntactic designs and morphological means (a passive, etc., an infinitive, verbal

Noun), promoting elimination of the subject from superficial structure of the statement.

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