3.1.2. Expression of the reduced semantic subject by a pronoun "yes"

In the French spoken language (FRJA) (about the term "spoken language" see [Zemsky 2004, 290]) or as it is accepted traditionally, "informal conversation" the semantic subject often enough eksplitsitno is reduced by means of a pronoun “5a”.

As it was already specified, dejkticheskie signs, in particular, pronouns in their regular use are most abstract and are extremely situationally caused. Proceeding from it, for example, A.A.Ufimtseva carries them to group of means subjective instructions [Ufimtseva 1977, 5] (see tzh. [Repin 1992]).

Possessing it is boundless wide semantics, pronoms neutres“ cela "," 5a ” [Grevisse 1980] are capable to replace the animated and inanimate names of concrete and abstract semantics, and predicates corresponding to them reflect both signs of people, and things.

The subject of speech resorts to the help of a pronoun “5 a” both at full uncertainty of the real figure, and at its full definiteness.

In the primary function “5a” specifies in inanimate objects, sometimes getting function (secondary) generalisations:

(43) II an une bicyclette... yes se faufile partout (B. Clavel. La grande patience , p. 185).

However in a spoken language [Repin 1992; Cressot 1959; Maillard 1985] dejkticheskoe the pronoun “5a” is frequent enough in a figurative sense specifies on the semantic subject as in the animated, reasonable, purposefully operating substance which is understood as "Person" or its metaphorical "sublimat" (simuljakr) [Butts 2008]. In case the action predicate serves as a marker of the semantic subject, replacement denominativa a demonstrative pronoun “5a” behind which remains, thanks to a verb (to-text), to wider context or a situation, only one, but a defining sign of the subject — odushevlennost is objectively possible. Other lexical and grammatical characteristics (a sort, number, semantics of a concrete name) are not expressed, that leads to loss by the subject of individuality.

The use “5a is based on konnotatsii, leaning on“ knowledge of the world ”, background knowledge or the general kognitivnoe space of interlocutors. G ovorjashchy, nominating a pronoun“5a”the real figure, some pejorative, pejorativnyj introduces in its semantics a shade. Thus can get generalising value:

(44) Les detenus qui se parlent, mais surtout les cris de ceux qui sont en manque. Et ga hurle, les prisonniers drogues en manque dans leurs cellules (PARIS - Match 11.12.92, p. 53).

On the basis of pejorative value there are various semantic nuances: neglect, contempt? Familiarity, irony, etc. [the Hook 1965, 50]:

(45) Imaginez un salon de coiffure tout en longueur.“ Palace-Coiffure ”, que ga s’appelle, avec quinze ou vingt fauteuils articules sur un rang, devant les glaces et autant de commis... C’est la bousculade du matin au soir la dedans. Qa entre, ga sort et je te taille, et je te savonne, et je te lotionne (G. Simenon. La pipe de Maigret, p. 137).

In a considered example the first Qa1 carries out some functions:

1) anaforo-index: antetsedentom yes the inanimate noun un salon (primary function) is;

2) ekspressivno-secretory, peculiar klishirovannomu to style of informal conversation or even popular speech (que yes s’appelle). By means of this pronoun inversion which in a kind anaforicheskogo isolations allocates (met en relief) [Tarasova 1992] the name of hairdresser's salon "Palace-Coiffure", underlining is made, that grandiosity of the name, judging by the further description, corresponds to the process maintenance (transfer raznoobraznosti procedures).

The second Qa2 in a combination to action verbs entrer and sortir (predicates - markers) acts in 3) the metaphorically-collective function peculiar FRJA as which reviewer the weight of people (les gens) acts. Further in an example secondary function of a personal pronoun of 1 person, a number unit - Je which in a combination of the repeating union et with the list of the verbs entering into the uniform frame un salon de coiffure, carries out the function peculiar to an indefinite-personal pronoun on is realised also, than the stylistic effect of partitioning of faceless weight on same faceless units is reached. Here it is possible to see delokutivnoe (on E.Benvenistu) the personal pronoun use, considering the specified transfer as repeating words of the hairdresser offering those or other procedures.

::*ON (Ils)


Thus, it is possible to construct the intermediate scheme of asymmetry of functions of analyzed pronouns (continuous line designates primary functions (standard, semantic), by a dotted line — secondary (stilistiko-pragmatical), basically, at use or effect level) (see above):

For identification of the semantic subject reduced by a pronoun “5a”, presence of the general fund of knowledge of interlocutors or an individualising context is necessary. For example:

(46) Ben, c’est comme un officier, ga commande des tas de soldats, ga donne des ordres (Sempe-Goscinny Joachim a des ennuis, p. 103). (Qa2 = tous les officiers);

(47) Je n’y coupais pas alors de mes“ quinze ans ”a propos des comptes. Ici au moins ga bougeait et ga c’etait deja de l’esperance (L.F. Celine. Voyage au bout de la nuit, p. 234). (Qa1 = qch en moi, un sentiment = Jeint).

In a modern French colloquial literary language has received development a special way of lexical and grammatical expression of the subject by its repeated expression by a pronoun “5a” (compare [Aleksandrova 1987; Repin 1992]).

The Hook, on the one hand, serves in the secondary functions “5a” as means of a repeated nomination of already mentioned subject, and sometimes [1972а] (see above - examples (41) to the whole proposition of the statement or its part; (55)), with another — anaforicheski specifies in the person on purpose to allocate this or that sign of the semantic subject and the relation to it speaking. More often “5a” it is used as anafora to a noun with an indefinite article, which enters into information focus intensional (the concept maintenance) the subject. In this case “5a” becomes synonymous is existential-index ‘ c’est ’. For example:

(48) Le pere: Les filles, c’est pur comme l’enfant, ga vous tend leur front pour le baiser du soir avec des yeux bien clairs (J. Anouilh. L’alouette, p. 18);

(49) Vingt enfants, ga chouine, ga crie, ga griffe un peu comme les chats dans le machin. — Qa chie, ga chante, ga pipiculotte, ga fait des pieds et des mains pour s’evader (A. Stil. Dieu est un enfant, p. 26);

(50) — Cesar: Les femmes c ’ est fier, et c ’ est delicat. On a beau ne rien leur dire: Qa voit tout, ga comprend tout, ga devine tout (M. Pagnol. "Marius", p. 215).

In the examples resulted above ga, as well as on carry out function koreferentsii and generalisations, in general correlating with 3 person protagonista (see the scheme 2).

Remoteness anaforicheskogo pronouns from antetsedenta can be minimum. In that case the pronoun concerns to diskursivnoj to a framework of the statement and its basic structurally-stylistic purpose - strukturnostilisticheskaja - to avoid nomination repetition (basically in genre range FRJA, getting a pejorative shade):

(51) J’ai commence par m’occuper du troisieme etage ou les agents ont trouve les locataires dans leur lighted. Qa rouspetait ferme, vous vous en doutez (G. Simenon. On ne tue pas les pauvres types, p. 164).

In general any demonstrativ (including “? a”) is one of the means destroying the general judgements and translating them in a class of judgements about individualised objects [Volf 1974, 144].

Replacement demonstrativom “5a” the semantic subject gives the last additional semantic accent [Shigarevsky 1980].

Structures with “5a” konnotativno transfer the information as about an emotional condition of the most speaking, and express its modal estimation not only the subject-protagonista, but also all proposition of the statement, carrying out thus anaforicheskuju function. For example:

(52) Je ne sais pas si Monita etait amoureuse. Une femme, ga cache mieux ses sentiments. Mais lui l’etait certainement" (G. Simenon. Maigret se fache, p. 56).

(53) Tu iras le voir et tu lui diras: “C’est notre niece, 5a c’est vrai, on ne peut pas nier, mais les enfants comme 5a, on ne sait jamais ce que ga devient, eleves dans ces maisons” (J. Giono. "Annette", p. 66).

Thus, the use “ga” in a subject position promotes increase of stylistic loading of the statement. Incorporating a positive or negative estimation, an ambivalent pronoun "yes" becomes semantic korreljatom mejoticheskih or pejorativnyh expression forms [Shahovsky 2008]. For example:

(54) Ils vont tous se marier. C’est comme une epidemie. Vous ne connaissez pas Claire. Vous n’y perdez pas trop. Une vraie femme pour Ferdinand. Qa parle bas, dans les coins, le futur menage, toute la journee du dimanche. Alors, vous pensez: l’amour? Qui’che? Qa parle interminablement de la chambre en noyer cire, de la moquette clouee, du service de Baccarat, enfin de ce qu’ils appellent“ le nid ”Je vous demande pardon, mais ca me degoute, ca me degoute (G. Duhamel. Vue de la Terre promise, p. 197).

Expressing propozitsionalnoe the relation, the speaking subject, merging with intentsionalnym, uses a pronoun ca which functional sphere remains FRJA, in obobshchenno-aksiologicheskih a cliche (frazeorefleksah - V.G.Gaka's term [1994; 1995; 1996]), carrying out various pragmatical functions: Qa me degotoe, ca me fait chier (it is rough.); Qa vous derange?; Qa va? / Qa vapas?, etc.

Thus, identification of the semantic subject expressed dejkticheskim by a pronoun “ga”, is carried out on semantics of explicit predicative markers (action verbs), through the nearest to-text (anaforicheskaja, structural function), with effect subjective modalnoaksiologicheskogo the value reflecting the relation speaking to subject-protagonistu. Functional "ga environment is the French literary spoken language and popular speech.

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A source: ALEXANDER MIHAJLOVICH CHERVONYJ. STRUCTURE And FUNCTIONAL DYNAMICS of the CATEGORY the LANGUAGE SUBJECT (ON the MATERIAL of the FRENCH LANGUAGE). 2014
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