3.1.3. A reduction of the semantic subject a pronoun“qui”

Opacity [Recanati 1979] the semantic subject reduced by a pronoun “qui” as a part of the narrative offer, transfers the generalised designation protagonista to a statement proposition. For example:

(55) Personne, chez moi, ne doit frapper, et l’Evangile a dit:“ Qui frappe par Tepee perira par Tepee ” (P.

Souvestre, M. Alain. Fantomas, p. 281).

In this case “qui” has konnotativnoe the value peculiar to phraseological units and paremijam, and tells the expressional, emotional, figurative shades reflecting that concerns not only sphere “that is told”, but also “as is told”. As stimulus for citing of a bible aphorism with eksplitsitno the reduced subject the reminiscence (association) caused by a verb frapper has served. Bibleizm it is directed the concrete addressee and carries out argumentativno-konativnuju function (influence on kognitivno-behavioural sphere of the addressee), not losing thus illokutivnuju force a top wasp, "platitude" [Marov 1996] (see tzh. More low).

In the speech certificate tsitatsija gets force of the judgement which are giving reason for the relation to the interlocutor, its statement (proposition) or behaviour (interpersonalnaja function [Alfyorov 2007]). The statement with a pronoun “qui”, the having generalised value, correlates with pronominal dejksisom the addressee: “tu” / “vous”.

Therefore the generalised value “qui” will have in proverbs, sayings, maxims both directed, and not directed on real the partner on speech interaktsii [Meschonnic 1976]. The last can have in presuppozitsii modus Tout le monde sais que: qui va a la chasse perd sa place, qui ne risque rien n’a rien, etc.:

(56) Qui fait soi-meme ses affaires ne se salit pas les mains (M. Maloux. Dictionnaire des proverbes, sentences et maximes, p. 12);

(57) Qui apprend et oublie est comme une femme qui con5oit et avorte (M. Maloux. Dictionnaire des proverbes, sentences et maximes, p. 38).

However in speech interaktsii these statements are directed the concrete addressee, they are actual, as as argument result the general experience of people which in each concrete case is connected with dejatelnostnoj a situation and with the speech moment. The contextual information is not obligatory for such statements. The information concluded in these proverbs, is similar in some respects to the encyclopaedic information: in both cases it is a question of elements of experience and the knowledge which has been saved up by mankind.

As shows the analysis of a language and speech material, the certain paradigmatics, sintagmatika and functional the pragmatist is peculiar to such uses.

Nevertheless, the reviewer “qui” can be and the certain semantic subject.

The pronoun “qui” in distributive function is capable also eksplitsitno to reduce the semantic subject.

Offers with distributive "qui" reflect denotativnaja a situation which participants is a certain set of subjects. For example:

(58) Les clients de l’hotel prenaient qui du the, qui du porto, qui un cocktail, qui un whisky au soda (P. Bourget. Le danseur mondain, p. 32);

(59) Aussi les immigrants arrivent-ils, qui en chariot traines par des boeufs, qui en voiture, qui a cheval, qui meme a pied (J. Chastenet. En avant vers l’ouest, p. 218 - tsit. On Grevisse: Le bon usage, 1975. - P. 518).

As usually plural semantic subject is known speaking, distributive “qui” more concrete forms of expression of the real figure on purpose are replaced to avoid unreasonable repetitions and to concentrate all attention to a choice made by the semantic subject-protagonistom. The subject pronoun “qui” gets special functions in French interrogativah.

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More on topic 3.1.3. A reduction of the semantic subject a pronoun“qui”:

  1. 3.2.1. A reduction of the subject a pronoun “qui” in the questions which are carrying out secondary function
  2. Expression of the subject by a pronoun “qui” in interrogativah
  3. Expression of the reduced semantic subject by a pronoun “on"
  4. Expression of the reduced semantic subject by a pronoun “quelqu’un"
  5. 4.1.5. Implitsitnost the semantic subject in the designs formed by verbs-konversivami of type “recevoir”
  6. 3.1.2. Expression of the reduced semantic subject by a pronoun "yes"
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