4.1.1. Eliminatsija the semantic subject in passive designs

Considering process of generation of the offer-statement, it is necessary to specify a parity of concepts "subject" and "object", as well as to specify concept «action/condition time» (object).

As it was specified earlier, the subject grammatical and semantic in a role protagonista (the subject propozitsionalnyj) can possess as odushevlennostju, and inanimateness, irrespective of chasterechnoj accessories: «Pierre qui roule n’amasse pas mousse» (Nothing ventured, nothing gained); «L’hiver approche», «La pluie tombe», etc. However any statement, undoubtedly, possesses illokutivnoj the force directed on the interlocutor [Searle 1972], can have (or not to have) defined perlokutivnyj effect [Serl 1986] and reaction of the addressee which Such speech influence and interaction we in turn becomes enuntsiatorom etc. we name "subektsubektnym", or "interaktsionalnym" [Alfyorov 2007].

Object in such relation is vnejazykovaja the validity transferred in proposition (reviewer). Therefore in dialogue, in essence, there is «a contract concerning the reviewer» («kognitivnaja transaction» on O.Jokojama [Jokojama 2005]).

However relations with object (reviewer) of the statement which is exposed at first to coding (packing) in words and offers are not less dramatic also, finding language semantics, and then "is unpacked" by interpretation and extraction of this semantics (sense) [Ivin 1986а.б]. But, as is known, in it the first violin is played by a substance of the plan of expression — the phonemes forming morphemes, words, and then syntactic models of offers and, at last, the statements focused on the interlocutor [Bjuler 2000].

Therefore, on our belief, exist "subject-objective" of the relation, t.e relations vnutripropozitsionalnye, caused by a speech situation or will of the speaking subject, its relations with the reviewer [Van Dejk 1989]. Under the statement of many modern scientists [Kasevich 1985; Kolshansky 1979; Kravchenko 2008; Auchlin 1987; Brown, 1979; Charaudeau 1996; Fauconnier 1999; Fran5ois 1994; Goffman 1981; 1987; Jacques 1985; Kerbrat-Orecchioni 1990; Leech 1983, etc.] Descriptive function of language has turned for a long time to communicative, purposeful language and speech activity. Hence, the maintenance - "proposition", it prosodicheskaja and syntactic models, form finally speech product as the speech certificate with its pragmatical characteristics [Gochet 1980]. However, as it was already specified, in view of asymmetry of the plan of expression and the maintenance plan, between speaking, its proposition and the interlocutor arise, in essence «’ the subject-object-subject ' th» relations at active participation of object (metalanguage, metaspeech, poetic functions on R.Yakobson [Jakobson 1985]). It is necessary to notice, that interaktsionalnye the subject-subject of the relation «resistance of a material» are mediated first of all by the relation speaking to a proposition which we suggests to name interactive, in force, activity of the plan of expression and constant aspiration speaking to "agree" with the plan of expression and to achieve variativnogo (dynamic) balance at the specified asymmetry. In this foreshortening a problem of expressiveness-nevyrazhennosti of the subject in three it ipostasjah (enuntsiator, intentsionalnyj the subject and protagonist) and the transformations accompanying interactive subject-objective of the relation, seems to us actual and still is far not solved definitively [Petrenko 1988; Coquet 1984; Jokojama 2005; Stepans 1985; Tarasova 1992; Eko 2007, etc.].

Elimination of the person - the figure from superficial structure of the statement is carried out by means of passive analytical designs. Whereas telic verbs make the most part of the French verbs, syntactic designs of an analytical passive, basically, designate result of action of the semantic subject or the condition of the object which has arisen owing to its influence. Forms prezensa and imperfekta telic verbs of an analytical passive describe passive process only in a special context [Kordi 1981, 243].

Practically in all actions made by the semantic subject-protagonistom, it is possible to note an initial and final point of their course (in terms of J. Serlja — ‘ intentsija ’ and ‘ performatsija ’). Between

The time interval That _____________________________________________________________________ Tv is these two points (And and).

The action index point corresponds to an initial condition of object, the final point specifies in its final condition. Actually linearity

To speech leads to that That ________________________________ Tv in a proposition coincides in due course it

Pronouncings (enuntsiatsii). On this property stylistic and rhetorical receptions (an antithesis, effect of the deceived expectation, metaphorical secretory designs, paradox and so forth) are constructed many:

(89) «Chercher an Ihumilier serait vouloir fendre l’eau avec une epee» (A. Langevin, «Poussiere sur la ville»). - ‘ to Try to humiliate it is lost labour. ’

(FRFS, the river 379).

The point In in which action of the subject has stopped, reflects its result in the form of a new sign or new quality of object, the effect of activity of the semantic subject thereby is shown. Thus, there is an alternation of action to a condition of relative rest (Т0). Object conditions can be divided on primary (natural, "stativnye") and secondary (reached as a result of action - "productive"). The natural condition can arise by itself, without desire of the subject or other character (objectively), it does not demand appendices of any efforts for the maintenance [Comrie 1976, 49].

The secondary condition is reached and supported by efforts of the semantic subject (protagonista). Hence, the arisen quality of object or its new condition depends on actions of the reasonable/active substance, capable to create a new, nonexistent subject or to change the status quo of the object existing prior to the beginning of influence. In case of occurrence of difficulties of differentiation of concepts of a condition (support) and rezultativa resort to the help of a situation or a context thanks to which at deep level presence or absence of the subject of action is defined. Presence of the semantic subject speaks about purposeful action and, means, its result. Nevertheless, the condition under certain conditions could arise by itself, without influence of the real figure. Differentiation of a category result and categories a condition is connected, in our opinion, not only with ontologiej language, but also with implikatsijami (the logic conclusions - on P.Grajsu) the interpreter, i.e. kognitivnoj ability, proceeding from a concrete situation and a context, whether to do the conclusion about the valid intention speaking to allocate result of action or an object condition. For example:

(90) «Le feu etait eteint. A bout de travail l’horloge s’etait tue, elle ecoutait avec son creur» (H. Barbusse. «L’enfer», p. 54).

In the given fragment the come condition is described as result of the termination of activity of two inanimate, but interactive subjects: fire and work (course) of hours. To-text testifies about

Spontaneous cancellation and consequently, rezultativom there is an absence of action. But the point of view of the subject remains in a personal pronoun elle, a verb ecouter and somatizme son cwur (noise of its heart), begun to sound in the come silence. Thus, three explicit subjects Le feu, I’horloge and elle are connected as follows:

‘ T01 + T°2 — Ta................................ (TK) ’ = «the Fireplace has gone out, hours have stopped, and it

Listened through palpation of the heart ».

Pertseptivnyj the verb ecouter does not assume active action on object, here protagonist elle merges with the worrying subject, however it is binding semoj between sequence of described actions. Absence of a sound of fire and tikanja hours have forced to listen to heart beat, i.e. kauzirovali pertseptsiju the subject. As a whole, here we deal with stativnoj a proposition (deskriptivom) with eksplitsitno expressed, but the inactive subject-protagonistom.

(91) «Tenez, une fois, ce tiroir an ete ouvert. On a meme retourne la pile de linge qui se trouve sur la planche, du dessus» (G. Simenon. «La pipe de Maigret», p. 195). — Implication of the active subject is easily distinguished in the first phrase thanks to the form of a passive and presuppozitsii «boxes do not open». That further it is supported kotekstnym with the use reduced indefinite-personal “on”, action nominating the subject.

Thus, at semantic level presence of the real figure can be expressed implitsitno through a condition of object of influence. Rezultativ becomes implication (a logic conclusion) from the nearest to-text and wider context — groups of the offers united by uniform sense of a narration:

(92) «II at avait encore quelques salons bleus a Limoges, de plus en plus rares, et celui des Rouargue etait un des derniers. Il y avait eu, en effet, une sorte de toquade generale pour le velours bleu d'ameublement dans cette ville, des annees auparavant et certaines familles, pour des raisons generalement financieres - ou de fidelite - les avaient conserves» (F. Sagan. «Un peu de soleil dans l’eau froide», p. 47).

In separate (disputable at first sight designs) distinction between a support and rezultativom that the support informs only on a subject condition, rezultativ — simultaneously about a condition and kauzirovavshem its action [nedjalkov, 1983: 7]. For example:

(93) «Les champs de bataille sont prepares depuis longtemps» (N Barbusse. «L’enfer», p. 103). - (rezultativ/deskriptiv).

In this case illokutivnyj the statement status is defined by a context, and is faster - speech intentsiej than the speaking subject (the author of a narration). If the speaking makes the statement (86) as objection on reproach, that ‘ is ready nothing to fight ’, is a statement-rezultativ. The statement describing district on which there will be military actions, will be interpreted as a support. But in both cases the subject, more or less implitsirovannyj remains implitsitnyj.

(94) «La table etait disposee de fa? on a bloquer a demi l’acces de la porte» (R. Merle. «Week-end a Zuydcoote», p. 28). - Rezultativ;

(95) «Le piano avait ete transporte dans cette chambre deja bourree de

meubles, parce que Paule ne pouvait souffrir d’entendre “tapoter” son mari »(F. Mauriac.« Le sagouin », p. 232). - Rezultativ + argument in active

The additional.

In our opinion, the support is presented out of action or is remote from it by a sufficient interval while rezultativ arises right after ascertainings of complete action. The subject of speech establishes the fact sovershennosti as remu in communicative prospect of the offer for

Itself and for others kommunikantov [Tarasova 1992], i.e. an interval That ____________________________________________________________________ Tv

It is reduced in time from the moment of a plan (speech intentsii) till the realisation moment (result, effect).

Distinction between a support and rezultativom consists in communicative prospect of the statement: the first describes event as certain status quo (83), (85); the second - informs the fact from the point of view of result of action of the subject of a proposition (87), (88).

N.D.Arutyunov marks: «the First type is reflected in generalising value of such words, as event, a condition, property, action, an act, change, process, etc., and in concrete value of such names, as a meeting, farewell, departure, a redness, work, circulation, etc., going back to an offer predicate. The second type is reflected in generalising value of such words, as judgement, opinion, the statement, the message, the fact and so forth, and in concrete value correlative with them izjasnitelnogo the additional. With a small share of metaphoricalness it is possible to assert, that the first row unites all that makes the environment of immersing of the person in the world, and the second — that there is a result of immersing of the world in consciousness of the person. For the person the life develops of events, but its biographical representation transforms events into the facts» [Arutyunov 1988, 103 - is underlined by us CH].

The subject becomes that the witness, the direct manufacturer of action which leads to change of a condition of object:

(96) «Les faits sont exactement relates» (R. Vailland. «Beau Masque», p. 16). G ovorjashchy — pertseptivnyj the subject, the witness of action.

(97) «D’ailleurs, il y avait encore des aretes et des ecailles dans lapoubelle qui n’avait pas ete videe depuis quelques jours» (G. Simenon. «On ne tue pas les pauvres types», p. 184). Speaking — the witness of action.

(98) «De son cote, le commandant deploya l’energie la plus active. Du haut en bas en tous les coins. La Provence fut fouillee. On perquisitionna dans toutes les cabines, sans exception, sous le pretexte fort juste que les objets etaient caches dans n’importe quel endroit (M. Leblanc.« Arsene Lupin », p. 24). In the given example the author (speaking) names the subject-protagonista of action and establishes the fact summarising these actions.

(99) «Trois dessins etaient superposes sur la partie gauche de la feuille» (P. Boulle. «Le coeur et la galaxie», p. 110). - the Support/rezultativ;

(100) «Un mot des message etait dechiffre. Ils resterent un moment silencieux, bouleverses par cette constatation» (P. Boulle. «Le coeur et la galaxie», p. 112) - Results, fact ascertaining.

Omonimichnost the subject status in an example (97) the condition is defined omonimichnostju designs with ekzistalnym a verb which can designate both action in a passive, and. The sense defines a context that confirms an example (100) where to-text it is supported with a direct nomination ‘ cette constatation ’.

The condition as result of action of the semantic subject-protagonista can be: short-term (dot), rather constant, or perodicheskim, and also (irreversible) insuperable to the subject.

The time condition can interrupt and renew repeatedly again action of the semantic subject or intervention of others protagonistov. For example:

(101) «Henriette: Jean-Louis est impatient de partir. Nos valises sont termines» (A. Salacrou. «Histoire de rire», p. 178);

(102) «La scene, les balcons, I’orchestre etaient tout entiers drapes de drapeaux tricolores» (P. Vaillant-Couturier. «Enfance», p. 143);

(103) «La jeune fille regarda d’un air perplexe. — C’est que les canalisations sont detruites. — Rassurez-vous, dit Maillat, tout ce que je veux c’est un peu d’eau pour me laver» (R. Merle. «Week-end a Zuydcoote»). [-vydleno us A.CH.].

In (101) - a short-term condition (suitcases collect only before a trip; in (102) - rather constant (theatre usually decorate banners only in days of national holidays and celebrations); in (103) - the fact of breakage of a waterpipe is perceived by the girl as insuperable, from its point of view, at the moment of speech a condition - an obstacle for performance of the request of the interlocutor.

Rather constant, longer condition, can remain long enough — role of the semantic subject — non-interference, how much it is possible, pertseptsija, preservation of a state of affairs. For example:

(104) «Le bureau etait installe dans l’arriere salle du tabac. Qa sentait l’anis et la gauloise bleue» (A. Lanoux. «Le commandant Watrin», p. 32). — a Support defined kataforicheski: the subsequent to-text is expressed impersonal Qa sentait, that assumes result of actions protagonistov, but excludes them from informative focus of the statement.

(105) «Le clou est plante dans la bonne direction et l’anneau n’a pas trop souffert sous les coups» (P. Moustiers. «La paroi», p. 89). - In absence eksplitsitno expressed aktsionalnogo the subject its place is occupied estimated with "a position of the subject», transforming the statement in estimated rezultativ.

Sometimes the condition of object, time having arisen, cannot be changed, despite efforts of the semantic subject. Such condition is irreversible.

For example:

(106) «Il fit signe an un taxi, revint sur ses pas pour rappeler a Therese que les consommations etaientpayees» (F. Mauriac. «Therese Desqueyroux», p. 92). - Business is already made, and there is necessity no it to repeat.

(107) «C’est chose faite, dit celui qui a deploye le premier journal, la guerre est declaree» (H. Barbusse. «Le feu», p. 62). Here the text speaks about force majeure circumstance: war is declared, the given event in the statement is presented as come true fact. Rezultativ as a communicative dominant of the statement it is presented also in following examples:

(108) «Sort de toutes ces maisons: elles sont vendues une fois achevees» (S. de Pasquale. «Paroles de stars», p. 170);

(109) «Le jugement est prononce, il est sans appel» (bus).

In the passive offers which have arisen thus the predicate position is occupied with the special, passive form of a verb in which the subject mismatches the subject of action. It is necessary to tell, that the semantic subject is not presented as a part of syntactic structure of similar type of offers as a subject. The subject role, according to some scientists, incurs a verb [Brunot 1926].

Let's notice, that objective rezultativ can be formed only from transitive verbs in a combination with ekzistalnym a verb "etre", in the form of 3rd person + a participle of last time (p.p.) a transitive verb.

Participe passe in the designs designating result, it is formed from the verbs of active value reflecting a wide, multipurpose sphere of action of the person which semantics usually develops of a combination of such senses as: value, consciousness, voluntariness, effort. Before us verbs about which E.Benvenist spoke as about the verbs designating «movements and the basic vital displays sushchnostej...» [Benvenist 1974, 331-332]. To their number carry the verbs designating actions which direct consequences remain and after their end: faire, construire, fabriquer, produire, etc. And verbs destruktsii, opposite on semantics to the first group: detruire, casser, briser, etc.

To verbs aktsionalnoj semantics there correspond a similar class names animated, reflecting in reality reasonable, the figure, and names inanimate, having function of object of influence.

It is necessary to tell, that the base verbs forming productive designs, are characterised by the semantic limit as the verbs designating purposeful actions, cannot proceed after the purpose has been reached, the result is received:

(110) «Et le courrier, des 1931 fut transporte pour la premiere fois, en quatre jours, de Toulouse a Buenos Aires» (A. Saint-Exupery. «Terre des hommes», p. 104);

(111) «- Le reste? Attends que je me rappelle bien. Le reste est divise en 3 parts» (G. Duhamel. «Le notaire du Havre», p. 46).

Semantics of telic verbs specifies in transition of object from one condition in another, caused by action implitsirovannogo the semantic subject removed from communicative focus of the statement:

(112) «Le papier des murs an ete change, mais les meubles d’acajou sont restes aux memes places» (F. Mauriac. «Therese Desqueyroux», p. 102).

The left part of this compound sentence can be considered as rezultativ, right — as a support (result not-action). The action opposition - conditions is noted by the union “mais” and semantics of verbs “changer” - “rester”

(113) «C’etait sans doute ici, dans un des deux placards que le reste desprovisions etait range (R. Merle.« Week-end a Zuydcoote », p. 62).

The observable condition of object expressed by semantics of a participle, sends us to a verb describing action, and from it to implitsitnomu to the subject. It is necessary to notice, that process of search of the subject goes from a condition designation to a designation of the action which have caused this condition, and further to the real figure. The category "action" carries out mental, indissoluble communication between the semantic subject and the arisen condition of object:

(114) «La chambre est usee, il semble qu'on y soit deja infiniment venu» (H. Barbusse. «L’enfer», p. 35);

(115) «La concierge devait etre en course: saporte etaitfermee» (G. Duhamel. «Le notaire du Havre», p. 101).

In many cases a support (condition) kauziruet action of the subject:

(116) «Quand la serpillere fut saturee, elle la lui tendit et il la tordit audessus de la cuvette» (R. Merle. «Week-end a Zuydcoote», p. 135).

In some cases rezultativ provokes the subject to the further actions, changing a condition of the subject (interactive communication):

(117) «Notre nouvelle salle a manger fut transformee, comme l’ancienne, en atelier de couture et maman commen5a de rever sur des patrons de papier gris. Elle avait l’air d’un general qui consulte ses cartes et combine une bataille» (G. Duhamel. «Le notaire du Havre», p. 55).

Despite lacking the subject in passive structure, a category "figure" implitsiruetsja in consciousness speaking through action, result of action or an object condition.

(118) «Une assiette de charcuterie fut posee devant le retardataire» (A. Lanoux. «Le commandant Watrin», p. 38).

Intentsionalnost cубъекта to speech it is directed on an action end result, instead of its executor.

(119) «Ade: Avec mon revolver! Oh! Que c’est drole! Vous avez cru que le revolver etait charge!» (A. Salacrou. «Histoire de rire», p. 176).

In rezultative (120) real figure is not expressed, but the result, its final point concentrated in object is reflected. The interactivity of object marking implitsitnyj the subject of action, is supported with a subjective possesive adjective mon, reflecting presuppozitsiju “mon revolver et je le charge".

Action and the come result are connected among themselves not only obligatory semantic bonds, but also defined konstruktivnoderivatsionnymi by relations. Unlike full trehchlennoj an active design in offers - rezultativah aktsionalnyj the subject not only is eliminated from the central position of a subject, but also at all from offer structure [Hrakovsky 1992]. The object, interaktsionalno specifying in action and characteristics aktsionalnogo the subject appears the communicative centre.

For example:

(120) «La camionnette etait rangee au pied des trois sapins» (R. Vailland. «Beau Masque», p.33);

(121) «La villa avait ete construite en 1955, dans le style cote d’Azur» (R. Vailland. «Beau Masque», p. 115).

Implitsitnost the semantic subject it is accompanied by erection of inanimate interactive object in a subject position.

Thus the subject of speech (enuntsiator, the author) describes a situation from object, thereby underlining its interactivity. The inanimate object becomes remoj messages, the theme — implitsiruetsja (is meant).

Model etre + p.p. The result or a condition in which there is an object by the speech moment is transferred. The result of action is represented as online specifying on the subject of action.

Implitsiruemyj the semantic subject can be revealed with the help diaforicheskih relations: anafory:

(122) «Un homme entra, qui tenait a la main une lanterne electrique. Un autre homme et un troisieme surgirent qui portaient un rouleau de cordes et differents instruments. Le premier inspecta la piece, et dit:“ Appelez les camarades ”... Arsene Lupin passait d’un meuble an un autre, l’examinait et, suivant ses dimensions ou sa valeur artistique, lui faisait grace ou ordonnait:“Enlevezj”

Et I’objet etait enleve, avale par la gueule beante du tunnel... Et ainsi furent escamotes six fauteuils et six chaises XV. En quarante minutes, 1e salon fut "desencombre"... »(M. Leblanc.« Arsene Lupin », p. 64).) katafory:

(123) «L’assassin a jete dans la Seine tout ce qui pouvait le compromettre. Une

partie du paquet an ete recueillie et me fut remise.

— Par qui?

— Un batelier... »(M. Leblanc.« Arsene Lupin », p. 125).

The analysis of an actual material has shown, that the animated substance in a subject position in certain syntactic designs does not designate the real figure as it turns in patsiensa. The sign neaktivnosti the animated essence means, that it is similar to object, a thing, a body [Kibrik 1990, 369].

For example:

(124) «Lorsque l’unique route de Saint-Clair mena? a de devenir impraticable, je fus ramenee au bourg, dans la maison a peine moins tenebreuse que celle d’Argelouse» (F. Mauriac. «Therese Desqueyroux», p. 59);

(125) «Pourquoi est-ce que vous n’etes pas alle dejeuner chez les Malik, puisque vous etes invite?» (G. Simenon. «Maigret se fache», p. 55);

(126) «Mais il an ete renvoye de deux colleges» (F. Mauriac. «Le sagouin», p.

The semantic subject in a passive design is not expressed, but it is meant:

(127) «L’homme an ete enterre dans son abri et n’a eu que le temps de faire jaillir son bras» (H. Barbusse. «L’enfer», p. 68);

(128) «Les actions baissent un peu. Nous avons ete prevenus. C'est une chose tout a fait normale» (G. Duhamel. «Le notaire du Havre», p. 143);

(129) «Professeur en Inde dans les annees 55, j’ai, un jour, ete pris dans une emeute sanglante» (S. de Pasquale. «Paroles de stars», p. 255).

For the description of a condition of object or result of actions of the subject verbal lexemes which combine at least three roles are used: active, peculiar aktsionalnomu to the subject, interactive, peculiar to object influencing on the subject and passive, fixed to object on which action is directed. Implitsitnyj the animated subject (aktsionalnyj, pertseptivnyj etc.), co-operates with animated/inanimate object. Owing to such interaction the passive subject or the animated object get new qualities:

(130) «Mesparents Delahaie ont ete expropries, une fois, pour un terrain qu’ils avaient a la Riviere-Saint-Sauveur, quand on y a mis le chemin de fer» (G. Duhamel. «Le notaire du Havre», p. 111);

(131) «L’inquisiteur: Tu as ete baptisee et toute petite tu as vecu a l’ombre de l’eglise qui touchait ta maison» (J. Anouilh «L’alouette», p. 119).

dvuchlennye statalnye designs fix result of action in a separation from its semantic aktsionalnogo the subject. The primary factor creating a potentiality of passive transformation, semantics of verbs is. She underlines the animated essence as the semantic subject, and patsiensa:

(132) «Il s’appelait Raskolnikoff: il an ete empoisonne par des chocolats aux liqueurs» (J-P. Sartre. «Les mains sales», p. 242);

(133) «La mere, trente-deux ans, nee Leonte Durieux, avait commis l’erreur, quand son mari avait ete mobilise et depuis, de garder son fils dans son lighted, comme lorsqu’il etait enfant» (A. Stil. «Dieu est un enfant», p. 118);

(134) «Quand l’empire est tombe pour la seconde fois et que le pauvre Ney an ete fusille votre arriere-grand-pere s ’ est trouve par malheur et misere, dans le peloton d’execution» (G. Duhamel. «Le notaire du Havre», p. 56);

(135) «Il an ete revoque de son poste pour faute administrative. Il an ete reconnu coupable de rebellion contre la personne du colonel (A. Lanoux.« Le commandant Watrin », p. 57).

The semantic object — animated patsiens, appears, thus, in informative focus. The role choice patsiensa, apparently, is connected with speech intentsiej saying and its estimation of communicative prospect of the statement, pompously that is informed, with a previous and subsequent context. Passive voice use in the statement appreciably speaks the various extralinguistic reasons. At rather identical semantics passive and active designs have various syntactic structures — in a passive design aktsionalnyj the semantic subject eliminiruetsja.

Temporalno the long characteristic of a condition patsiensa (support) is marked by nonlimiting times Present and Imparfait a verb etre. For example:

(136) «— Qu’est-ce qu’il y a? Repeta-t-il en anglais.

— Les Stukkas, Sir, Nous sommes attaques »(R. Merle.« Week-end a Zuydcoote », p. 76);

(137) «Un jour a l’ecole, il a passe toute une recreation au piquet, pres d’un autre arbre, un vieux marronier. Il etait appuye du cul, du dos et d’un pied au gros tronc rugueux, mauvais comme la gale de s ’ etre ainsi fait punir (A. Stil.« Dieu est un enfant », p. 74).

The result of action of the semantic subject (rezultativ) is expressed by the form of dot times. For example:

(138) «Les Amable ont eu un seul enfant, un fils qui an ete tue quelque part dans le nord de la France pendant la retraite de juin 1940» (P. Modiano «Les boulevards de ceinture», p. 17);

(139) «Vint enfin le soir ou je fus appele a mon tour dans le bureau du directeur» (A. Saint-Exupery. «Terre des hommes», p. 91).

Such uses can become steady speech cliches:

(140) «II est regu dans les premiers» (A. Stil «Dieu est un enfant» p. 89).

Enough the frequent use of passive designs specified G.Shuhardt in the reason. He marked: “ If the problem of the person consisted first of all in exact reproduction of the validity it certainly would consider an agent, how much it is accessible to its knowledge as the subject, and the passive use would not be possible: however, when the person created language, it was guided by only personal convenience. Deepening in the validity widely promotes understanding of the language phenomena ”[SHuhardt 1950, 109]. Thus, G.Shuhardt has anticipated an explanation of the use of passive designs as possibility obektivizatsii ontologii language whereas, on M.M.Bakhtin, the animated subject - protagonist, losing role of"hero", becomes patsiensom, undergoes action, and the subject of speech, not identifying itself with protagonistom, turns to the witness, altering, according to this role, communicative prospect of the statement, interchanging the position« a theme "and" focus »(see [Alpatov 2001; Bakhtin 2000]).

Such treatment can be applied and to following type of a reduction of the semantic subject of action (protagonista).

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More on topic 4.1.1. Eliminatsija the semantic subject in passive designs:

  1. 4.1.2. Latentnost the semantic subject in reflexive-passive designs
  2. 4.2. Eliminatsija the subject in imperative designs
  3. 4.2.2. Eliminatsija semanticheskgo the subject from the designs formed by an impersonal turn ilу and + N
  4. Implitsitnost the semantic subject in impersonal designs
  5. 4.1.3. nevyrazhennost the semantic subject in vozvratnokauzativnyh designs
  6. 4.1.5. Implitsitnost the semantic subject in the designs formed by verbs-konversivami of type “recevoir”
  7. Semantic classification of designs with kauzativnymi link-verbs
  8. Semantic classification of designs with kauzativnymi link-verbs
  9. 4.2. Elimination of the semantic subject by means of nominalizatsii
  10. 4.2.3. Implitsitnost the semantic subject in polipropozitsionalnom the offer