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4.2.1. Latentnost the semantic subject in structures with objective nominalizatsiej

The real figure implitsitno is eliminated from designs in which the verb “etre” precedes a name expressing concept of action, process, event.

In designs with not named semantic subject the subject is designated by a demonstrative pronoun "se", in a predicate role the existential verb “etre” which expresses value of "presence", "existence" not only subjects and the phenomena, but also actions, processes acts.

The verb “etre” — leksicheski is weakened, semanticheski nepolnoznachen, that causes it tesnejshuju communication with a pronoun "se" and a name in an addition position. Using structure c’est + Nv, speaking takes out the judgement about action, estimates the validity or lozhnost propositions. For example:

(227) Nos adversaires crient que nous n’avons pas de programme. C’est une calomnie; nous avons un programme, mais... (A. France. Monsieur Bergeret a Paris , p. 154).

(228) Tout? a, c ’ est du mensonge, mon Pere. Et pourtant, vous etes pretre (B. Clavel. La saison des loups, p.39).

(229) — Racontez-moi une bonne creme au chocolat.

— Oh: ce n'estpas I’examen (bus);

With the names expressing action or process, prezentativ c’est forms propositions with which help the subject of speech (enuntsiator) identifies, classifies, characterises action implitsitnogo the subject-protagonista. Action of not expressed subject is identified in following examples:

(230) Cesar, les yeux au ciel. Bonne mere, c ’ est un meurtre, mais c’est lui qui l’a voulu (J. Anouilh. L’alouette, p. 98);

(231) Lampions, drapeaux tricolores, bal public, pense Paul. Alors? an aussi c’est une bataille... Vive la Republique! (P. Vaillant-Couturier. Enfance, p. 75);

(232) Le lendemain il me fit le plus beau cadeau que j’aie re? u de ma vie: un petit bloc de vrai papier a dessin et tout petit bout de crayon.

— Tiens, c’est pour toi, cela provient du bureau d’etude des S.S. Disons que c ’ est une requisition (B. Taslitzki. Interpretation libre , p. 45).

G ovorjashchy gives the name referentsialnomu to action, delimiting it from other phenomena of the objective validity. The design c’est + Nv serves specification of the referential maintenance of action. Sometimes the judgement concerning the reviewer has metalanguage character and concerns identification speech intentsii speaking (illokutivnoj forces of the statement). For example:

(233) — Pas un geste, vous m’entendez?

— C ’ est une menace?

— Peut-etre. En tout cas, ce n’est pas une plaisanterie (P. Moustiers. La paroi , p. 14);

(234) Hoederer: Fermez les volets et tirez les verrous, on ne sait jamais qui rode dans le jardin. C’est un ordre (J-P. Sartre. Les mains sales, p. 112);

(235) Cesar: Je dis que je vais manger une soupe au poisson chez Mosteque. Ce n’est pas une explication, c ’ est un renseignement (M. Pagnol. Marius, p. 47);

(236) — Ram, dit notre mere vivement, il ne s’agit pas d’une avance, puisque c’est un remboursement, c’est-a-dire tout le contraire (G. Duhamel. Vue de la Terre promise, p. 167).

As in considered statements the basic

Informative loading is concentrated in a nominal component, special interest name determinatives since they substantially define semantics of a proposition, bringing in the statement represent additional shades of value and konnotatsii. For example:

(237) Helene: Quelles vilaines choses veux-tu insinuer?

Jules: Ce fut un voyage manque (A. Salacrou. Histoire de rire , p.

144);

(238) Il y avait des cris autour d’eux maintenant. C’est une sorte de plainte faible, aig ^, emasculee (R. Merle. Week-end a Zuydcoote, p. 84);

(239) Complet en bas... Encore trois places a l’imperiale... C’est une promenade magnifique (P. Vaillant-Couturier. Enfance, p. 73).

It is necessary to notice, that designs with objective nominalizatsiej c’est + N, like structures with a subject element, are capable to begin and finish in the text thought about antropomorfnom action. For example:

(240) Au Nord, au Sud, a l’Ouest, ce sont des batailles de tous cotes dans la distance. On peut se tourner dans un sens ou l’autre de l’etendue: il n’y en a pas un seul au bout duquel la guerre ne soit pas (H. Barbusse. Le feu, p. 63).

In offers with objective nominalizatsiej, especially if they begin the text, the subject and predicate opposition will be neutralised, the process name designates action neraschlenenno. Speaking a similar phrase in an initial position enters action listening in epicentre.

Let's consider the examples opposite first, when the offer with objective nominalizatsiej is in a final position. For example:

(241) II y a dans l’assistance des tas de copains qui font partie de la bande que Paul a constitue depuis longtemps, une bande romantique de redresseurs de torts dont Lalouette fut jadis le premier element et compte Grunewald, Rollin et Lena comme lieutenants. C’est une ruee (P. Vaillant-Couturier Enfance, p. 108).

The offer “C’est une ruee” puts end to the aforesaid, cубъект speeches makes identification of forthcoming action.

Initial or final position in the text prezentativa “c’est” with objective-nominalizovannym component it is information it is extremely significant. Similar designs bear exactly so much information, how many it is necessary for adequate understanding of the stated thought. For revealing of information value of its statement it is necessary to correlate with a corresponding context or a situation. The resulted examples mikrokotekstov testify that for the decision of communicative problems there is a necessity objective nominalizatsii in specified diskursivnyh positions.

Thus, the choice speaking nominative designs is caused its communicative intentsiej. The subject of speech gives them preference as to an effective remedy of language economy, especially in cases of an indirect nomination of the semantic subject. As shows the analysis of an actual material, a version aktsionalnyh fragments can be presented structure c’est + terme nominalise which eliminates communicatively-superfluous elements from structure of propositions. In focus of attention of the subject of speech are only nominalizirovannye actions or processes. The semantic subject-protagonist comes to light from set to - the text (anaforo-kataforicheskie communications), a context and a situation of expansion of a discourse.

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A source: ALEXANDER MIHAJLOVICH CHERVONYJ. STRUCTURE And FUNCTIONAL DYNAMICS of the CATEGORY the LANGUAGE SUBJECT (ON the MATERIAL of the FRENCH LANGUAGE). 2014
Otvety.Online. :

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