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4.2.1. Subject nominalizatsija

The process name taking of a position of a subject, and the verb expressing character of action and predicative values (time, a modality), make the uniform is functional-semantic whole. The verbal name corresponds with semanticheski the weakened verbs expressing [Martinet 1979]:

1) life: avoir lieu, se manifester; etc.

2) occurrence, development, change of the situation named a predicate name: se produire, se former, se realiser, se faire, etc;

3) change of physical characteristics of process behind which there is a person: s ’ accelerer, ralentir, etc;

4) repeatability: se repeter, reprendre, etc;

5) aspektualnye process characteristics, in particular its phase: s ’ achever, se terminer, s ’ interrompre, s ’ arreter, etc;

6) movement: aller, venir, bouger, etc, used in a figurative sense [Guiraud, 1967];

7) an action estimation: s ’ ameliorer, empirer, etc.

With value of action the subject of action gives the chance implitsitno to express use of names, it remains “behind a shot”, and to focus attention to the action, to underline character of its course. Thanks to elimination of the semantic subject from a superficial sentence structure designated action is represented as "given", carried out as though "in itself" without additional instructions on the figure owing to what the attention is concentrated to action. For example:

(208) L ’ enfant ne bougeait pas.

— Entends-tu ce que je dis? Sors! La punition an assez dure (G. Simenon. La pipe de Maigret , p.79). — protagonist (who has punished the boy) not

It is concretised, it is a question of the action, its character and course time.

(209) L ’ implantation de I’industrie se poursuivit apres la Seconde Guerre mondiale (R. Merle. Derriere la vitre, p. 21). Subject of speech intentionally does not specify, who develops economy, for it is more important, that industrial introduction has proceeded.

Absence semantic protagonista in investigated structures does not break their semantic completeness. It is represented to us, that nevyrazhennost the real figure has function of the organisation of communicative prospect and focus of the statement which assume insignificance of a designation of the semantic subject-protagonista and thereof - importance of display of the action. Thereupon and actual for us A.F.Losev's thought that language says about subjects and the phenomena depending on that consciousness namereno from them to choose for transfer to other consciousness is interesting. A.F.Losev allocates in language communications the certificate of understanding of a subject, distinguishing it from the thinking certificate. The understanding certificate, on Losev, has the purpose to put forward in given (subject) one parties and to remove, black out others, on purpose anyhow to understand this subject and in this or that light to inform its other consciousness [Losev 1983, 182].

Possibility to present event of the validity by several language ways and, thereby, differentsirovanno to reflect variety of variants of vision of the given event, gives to the event the important semantic prospect. So, comparison of different possible variants of language representation of the same phenomenon allows to recreate more precisely intensional for its cases semnoj concrete definitions and referentsii.

In structures with subject nominalizatsiej a designation of the semantic subject-protagonista insignificantly. At insignificance of expression of the real figure there is no also a reviewer. protagonist it is represented in consciousness saying intensionalno, at level hidden semy [Raste 2001], that is supported with semantics of nouns.

Thus, the essence of considered designs consists not so much in expression of uncertainty of an agent, how many in expression of insignificance of its referential relevance both on the basis of definiteness, and on the basis of uncertainty. For example:

(210) Nous arrivons a Paris et I’entretien s’arreta la (G. Duhamel. Vue de la Terre promise, p. 286);

(211) La dispute se ralluma pendant le dejeuner (F. Mauriac. Le noeud de viperes, p. 136);

(212) Avec cette neige qui se prepare, la descente serait plus longue que la montee (P. Moustiers La paroi, p. 106). — Speaking ascertains action and a phase of its course;

(213) Un rire fusa de quelque part et il se retourna, l’oeil feroce, puis s’adressa enfin a Labre (G. Simenon. Sous peine de mort, p. 222);

(214) Elle n’eut pas le temps d’achever, les applaudissements crepiterent (R. Merle. Derriere la vitre, p. 433);

(215) La sonnerie avait retenti, brutale, le rappelant a l’ordre (G. Simenon. Maigret se fache, p. 103);

(216) Les raclements de la pelle retentissaient comme au fond d’une caverne sonore (E. Robles. La croisiere, p.85). The action expressed subject nominalizatsiej, in the intensionale has to this "pertseptsii".

Considered designs with subject nominalizatsiej comprise rather poor indirect information on the semantic subject. In the offer “Un cri s’eleva” one person could cry and thousand could shout. The same can be observed and in the offer in which the noun “un cri” would be in plural: “Les cris se suivent”. The real figure in the given offer can be both unique, and plural. C confidence it is possible to tell only, that action — antropomorfno. The use of verbal nouns in plural is one of the basic indicators of recurrence and intensity of semantics of action.

The predicative name in a position of a subject does not specify in quantitative definiteness of the semantic subject in sense habitual for us “one - more than one”. In designs with subject nominalizatsiej quantitative definiteness is insignificant.

However to reveal quantitative characteristics of the real figure it is possible not only by means of a context and a situation, but also by means of semantic value of a noun. For example, semantics of a subject “le combat” in the offer “Le combat se termina” prompts, that characters there were a little, not less than two.

It is necessary to notice, that designs with subject nominalizatsiej meet in the beginning of a certain semantic continuum (narration) or, on the contrary, in its end. If this design begins for the first time the stated thought the phrase following it or a part difficult syntactic whole, as a rule, defines a character if, of course, it enters into a plan of the speaking. Occurrence in the text of the concrete subject is preceded by an informative preamble. But such nomination can be indirect or metonimicheskoj (see more low). For example:

(217) Le repas commenga par un potage, comme a la campagne, dans lequel nageaient des pates en formes de lettres. Cela rappela an Olivier le temps ou il apprenait l’alphabet avec ces lettres molles qu’on amenait sur le bord de l’assiette pour former des mots (R. Sabatier. Les allume ttes suedoises , p. 42);

(218) L’agitation prit fin d’une seconde a l’autre. Il y eut un silence de quelques secondes, puis une voix changee questionna, mefiante: Qu'est-ce que vous savez? (G. Simenon. Maigret se fache, p. 77);

(219) La discussion autour de la table ovale rebondissait. Les uns parlant pour, les autres contre et Nunc suivait les debats avec un certain malaise (R. Merle. Derriere la vitre, p. 475);

(220) Les baisers claquerent sur les joues, puis I’oncle serra les mains des jeunes gens qui rentrerent bien vite chez eux (R. Sabatier. Les allumettes suedoises, p. 186);

(221) La persecution avait suivi toutes les nuits et toutes les heures de la nuit, des etudiants se relayaient pour l’appeler au telephone a son domicile et l’injurier sous le couvert de l’anonymat (R. Merle. Derriere la vitre, p. 412). The semantic subject comes to light kataforicheski.

In the end of the statement (characterised by completeness of thought) the reduction of the subject underlines objectivity of end of some process or action. For example:

(222) Le diner venait de s ’ achever et l’on passait au salon (P. Souvestre, M. Allain. "Fantomas", p. 135);

(223) “ Appelez les camarades ”. De ces camarades, il en vint huit par le soulerrain, gaillards solides, au visage energique. Le demenagement commenga (M. Leblanc. Arsene Lupin, p. 64);

(224) Les antecedents deplorables de Victor Danegre recidiviste, ivrogne et debauche, influencerent le juge, et bien qu’aucune circonstance nouvelle ne vint corroborer les deux ou trois indices primitivement decouverts, rien ne put L'EBRAN - ler. Il boucla son instruction. Quelques semaines apres les debats commencerent (M. Leblanc. Arsene Lupin, p. 52).

As it is possible to notice, the subject, being the only thing protagogistom, penetrates the text uniform semantic communication and exists in uniform narrativnom space (une narration).

The semantiko-semantic space of the text with implitsitnym the subject is easily limited to structures with subject nominalizatsiej. For example:

(225) Brusquement une clameur s ’ eleva. Un des Stukkas avait du etre blesse par la D.C.A. du torprilleur. Il revenait vers la terre peniblement. Il volait bas, a faible vitesse. On avait dit qu’il se trainait dans l’air. De tous les coins de la petite ville une fusillade rageuse eclata. Mais les hurlements de la foule la dominaient presque (R. Merle. Week-end a Zuydcoote, p. 45);

(226) Un cri immense, inhumain jaillit de la foule. L’avion parut s’immobiliser comme si son helice soudain n’arrivait plus a mordre dans l’air, et Maillat l’espace d’une seconde eut l’impression absurde qu’il reculait. Puis subitement, il reprit de la vitesse, disparut derriere les maisons. La fusillade s ’ eteignit (R. Merle. Week-end a Zuydcoote, p. 45).

As follows from examples, adverbialnye components at finitnom a verb alternate with adjectives and participles in structures with subject nominalizatsiej. Use of the given structures allows to increase flexibility of expressive means of language and to allocate various shades of processes and the actions proceeding actually. Semantics of process is found out in a name, and grammatical categories - in verbs. The name and a verb make indissoluble unities. The similar type developed nominalizatsy generates more or less idiomatizirovannye combinations [Gross 1986] (see more low).

Nominalizatsija brings objectivity in ontologiju deskriptsii process and creates possibility to diversify indirect ways of expression of the semantic subject. It acts as degree of the generalised expression of action or process course in an is functional-semantic field personalnosti. Nominalizatsija essentially fills up system of nominative means of language sinkretichnymi, the compressed, economical ways of expression of the difficult maintenance [Whether 1995].

In summary we will notice, that the phenomenon subject nominalizatsii — the phenomenon universal, peculiar to many languages. Frequency of the use and ways of its expression in different languages neodinakovy, the general for them is ability to eliminate the semantic subject at superficial level (in respect of expression).

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A source: ALEXANDER MIHAJLOVICH CHERVONYJ. STRUCTURE And FUNCTIONAL DYNAMICS of the CATEGORY the LANGUAGE SUBJECT (ON the MATERIAL of the FRENCH LANGUAGE). 2014
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