the SEMANTIC SUBJECT is first of all the active, reasonable (conceiving) substance, kauzirujushchaja the reason of a certain action (relation) and carrying out it in real (or possible) the world: a being, or an artefact, or, as a rule, the INDIVIDUAL, or it "sublimat", ontologically or metaphorically replacing a position of the subject, or certain "point of view", or as circle of the subject, vosstanovimaja from a context or a situation.

1. The semantic subject when it acts in an agent role becomes the central element kategorialnogo fields "Subject".

2. It is necessary to understand as is functional-semantic transformations of the subject in different degree formal nevyrazhennost leksikogrammaticheskih categories of a name of the subject (a noun, a pronoun) which reviewer is the real figure, intentsionalnyj (worrying), or expressing feelings (volitivnyj) and speaking (informing, dialogizirujushchy) an individual. The reduction as the basic revealed transformation of the subject represents the tendency to curling in respect of expression and sinkretizmu in respect of the statement maintenance (the offer, the text, etc.) information concerning the semantic subject.

3. In offers with transformation of a reduction function of a nomination of the subject is shown in the special form or practically is not realised. It is caused by that mental display of event by the offer assumes its global allocation by means of the name (nomination), or an event partition on a predicate, the semantic subject and other arguments. A subject in the French language — an obligatory component of the verbal offer having two-member structure. Even in case of communicative redundancy of the semantic subject or when the offer describes subjectless event, the subject position will be occupied by a formal subject “il”, “? a”, “on”.

4. An actant meaning the real figure in a position of a subject, despite the semantico-syntactical relevance as well as other subjects, can be sintaksicheski a changeable element. The predicate usually numbering of some arguments, is that core which allows each sentence part to act in a subject role. At the same time each predicate is functionally focused on a subject. The subject choice sets the semantical-grammatical prospect defining in any measure of possibility of syntactic expansion of other offer. Is actantial-predicate structures are considered by us as structure semantic, including semantic actants (variables) and a semantic predicate (constant).

5. As the main tendency of an anthropological variation the reduction of the semantic subject, i.e. replacement semanticheski full names on reduced and semanticheski more sinkretichnye pronominal (dejkticheskie) forms acts. The reasons of elimination of the semantic subject are generated:

Situation of uncertainty (uncertainty) — definiteness (popularity) of the real figure;

Insignificance of the semantic subject, owing to its informative redundancy;

Use of a reduction by the subject at expression of various ekspressivno-stylistic and modal shades, konnotativnyh this of the subject;

Theme-rheme prospect (in communicative focus of the statement there is an action, a verb);

Generalising function of some pronominal RS, fixed in speech stereotypes, phraseological units, etc.

6. As reviewers of the reduced subject act:

The Subject the uncertain individual;

The Uncertain figure in collective value;

Defined aktsionalnyj the subject (actant).

7. The semantic subject is present at a proposition implitsitno or eksplitsitno, but at syntactic, linear level it is expressed, besides aktsionalnyh nouns, pronouns “on”, “qui”, “? a”, “quelqu’un”, etc. Implitsitnyj the semantic subject is verbally reduced up to 0th form though semantics of a predicate continues to exist as interpretanta the offer-sign.

8. If in the French impersonal offers nevyrazhennost the subject outside of will speaking, a reduction of the semantic subject in personal offers — one of ways of representation of the subject, lingvorechevaja the strategy, at the disposal speaking which leans against contextual or situational presumptions.

9. The basic model of the offer is formed necessary for the adequate description of action by language means, by a primary nomination of components, its components, for the purpose of transfer of sense of the offer. In base model the semantic subject is expressed by a noun or a definite-personal pronoun, its action is presented by the verbs underlining purposeful character of influence on object, entering into a field of activity or relations of the subject at observance of the word order established in the French offer.

10. Forms of a reduction of the semantic subject form semantikosintaksicheskoe a field which represents the system uniting round initial structure its formal updatings. Variants of basic model allow in a new fashion, variously to describe reality, to concentrate attention to its separate fragments. Transformation of the base model, allowing to keep at superficial level of the offer a formal marker of the semantic subject, we name an explicit reduction.

11. The reduction of the semantic subject is embodied in dejktiko -

To pronominal paradigm, and, referential washing out of the semantic subject in bolshej concerns degree: obobshchenno-personal and

Indefinite-personal semantics of pronouns.

12. The explicit reduction of the semantic subject occurs in different in the purpose of the statement offers:

In narrative offers, depending on the communicative reasons set forth above, S it is replaced by pronouns "on", “? a”, “qui”, “celle”, “celui” etc. For reception referentsialnyh knowledge of the semantic subject situational contextual support is required.

In interrogativnyh designs the semantic subject is expressed by an interrogative pronoun “qui”. Full formal elimination of the semantic subject occurs in force transformatsionnyh the processes having the elliptic nature. The predicative position in this case raises in a rank, becoming the semantic centre concerning which interpretation interrogativa is carried out, irrespective of a part of speech: “Contente? - Oui, tres";"Heureuse? - Pas trop, tu sais”; ccPige? - T’mquiete! ”, etc. Such forms (speech stereotypes) are characteristic for not smooth dialogical speech in the French usage.

13. Full, formal elimination of the semantic subject from syntactic structure of the offer we name implication of the subject. The arising certain lack of knowledge of the semantic subject, caused by a lacuna in the syntactic plan of the offer, is compensated by semantics of a predicate, preliminary knowledge speaking, a context and a situation, therefore the reduction and implication of the semantic subject by appreciable image do not affect communications.

14. nevyrazhennost the semantic subject in offers with aktsionalnym the subject, in our opinion, semanticheski it is significant, as in communicative focus there are the actions produced by it directed on objects (the subject-objective of the relation). The form implitsitnogo the semantic subject is always found out as a subject position or "point of view".

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