Under implitsitnostju we understand that maintenance of the statement which is not expressed in a linguistic component of the statement, and is logically calculated deduced) by inferentsy, i.e. conclusions, which include the general informative base of the interpreter («encyclopaedic knowledge») to which knowledge of the previous (case) texts is added, and extraction of sense of the statement according to a situation of its generation, and advancing knowledge, "impozitsija", i.e.
expectation of the relevant statement in the given circumstances.

1. Essential components of sense of the offer (including value of the semantic subject) come to light only by offer consideration in a context of the speech certificate that demands transition from the offer as unit of system of language to its realisation in speech, i.e. to the statement. In the constructive plan the statement (the model in speech) can be as sintaksicheski ravnoobemnym, and more compressed in relation to polnooformlennomu to the reference offer that does not affect in any way its information value thanks to semantic indemnification of indistinctly expressed or formally eliminated syntactic components of the offer.

Implitsitnoe expression of the semantic subject is made at the expense of elimination RS at superficial level. Full formal elimination of the real figure is realised by means of the designs reducing valency of a verbal complex. Reduction of valency of a predicate is carried out in:

1) the passive designs expressing result;

2) reflexive-passive designs;

3) vozvratno-kauzativnyh designs;

4) impersonal designs under the form.

The semantic subject falls in different types nominalizirovannyh designs.

Infinitive (incomplete nominalizatsija) and a verbal noun express the action distracted from the concrete figure. Implitsitnoe elimination takes place in some nominative offers, in designs with subject and objective nominalizatsiej.

Besides, the semantic subject implitsiten in designs with verbs-konversivami also is eliminated from models in which the semantic subject is expressed metonimicheski.

The resulted models with implitsitno the eliminated semantic subject can be equivalent to active designs with "on". Besides narrative offers, elimination of the semantic subject occurs in some imperative designs. The request, the order, a wish in them are expressed not finitnym by a verb, and an infinitive or a name.

Implitsitnoe elimination of the semantic subject has a horizontal plane direction.

Implitsitnoe elimination is made both in monopropozitsionalnom, and in polipropozitsionalnyh offers, and also in offers with the reduced syntactic structure — one-compound. Full formal nevyrazhennost at superficial level of the offer dynamic event depending on allows to describe the semantic subject differently what element of a situation “action of the subject” is accepted speaking for a starting point.

The syntactic reduction of the semantic subject puts forward in a subject position, in focus of attention speaking the lexical units expressing process, or object of influence, means of human activity or result of its action. The models allocated with us cannot give the full description of a piece of the validity with all its elements, characteristics, communications. Forming in consciousness an in detail-logic picture of the event, speaking can in own way, subjectively, to select and group the elements making a situation “action of the subject”. It allows to describe the same situation in the different ways. In it variability of language also consists. The concrete choice of this or that model depends from intentsii speaking, on the purpose, to it pursued.

Formal nepredstavlennost in syntactic structure of the real figure it is compensated presuppozitsiej, covering a context, a speech situation and encyclopaedic knowledge about the world. Invariable there is only a general sense which contains in designs with the eliminated real figure. Models reflect antropomorfnyj process irrespective of, is expressed or not the semantic subject. The person of the figure is defined not within the limits of syntactic structure, and on the basis of wider context or a situation.

Most the general conclusions to which we have come as a result of research sintaktiki and semantics of a category «the language subject», are reduced to the following:

1). Elimination of the semantic subject takes place in different in the purpose

Statements offers: narrative, interrogative,

The incentive.

2). The semantic subject is eliminated as from offers with the expanded syntactic structure, and from offers with the reduced syntactic structure.

3). The analysis of a language material convinces that the reasons leading to elimination of the semantic subject, have objectively-subjective character. Elimination of the semantic subject occurs objectively at absence at a speaking necessary choice of forms for reflexion of the real figure, for example, at uncertainty of the subject.

Subjective elimination completely depends from communicative intentsii speaking when he meaningly chooses this or that model from which syntactic structure the semantic subject is eliminated in one way or another.

4). The semantic subject is eliminated only at syntactic level of structure, at deep semantic level, in consciousness it is present always at a kind implitsiruemogo speaking, narrating subject and its "point of view"

5). Formal elimination of the semantic subject is caused:

vnejazykovymi factors (presuppozitsiej, the situation);

6) intralinguistic factors (in order to avoid repetitions, a mention of the real figure in the previous or subsequent text).

. Two types of a reduction of the subject, its "elimination" come to light:

Explicit which allows to keep formal instructions on the real figure in syntactic model of the reference offer (SR);

implitsitnoe — the semantic subject formally does not mark.

Explicit elimination is made by lexical means:

Specially intended for this purpose indefinite-personal, obobshchennolichnymi and vaguely-demonstrative pronouns which dejkticheski specify in the real figure.

Implitsitnoe elimination is reached by syntactic means, namely: nominalizatsiej the process, which nature antropomorfna;

Reduction of valency of verbal knot, in our case valency of the subject is not staticized. The semantic subject implitsitno is eliminated from designs with verbs konversivami, and also from structure of models in which the subject of action metonimicheski is replaced by a designation of the tool of action, a scene of action etc. Implitsitnoe elimination occurs in a horizontal direction. Presence of the real figure is deduced from sense of all offer.

7). The presented logic calculation of forms of elimination of the subject once again underlines thought that language aspires to expression of semantic structure most sinkretichnym and economical, adequate to a situation and a context, image.

In the models allocated with us event is displayed nekonkretno since the main character is shaded or receives only partial oformlennost.

8). In the models presented in a semantico-syntactical field contextual communications are reflected. On separately taken model of the offer it is possible to restore a context which will be specified absolutely definitely by the semantic subject. Thus, for the permission of a problem of restoration of the semantic subject it is necessary to leave for syntactic borders of the separate offer. During the analysis of sintaktiko-semantic structure of a kernel of a category «the language subject» compensatory functions of a context thanks to which the real figure came to light have been confirmed. Thanks to "inclusiveness" in a context and to knowledge of the general situation exact enough decoding of deep semantic structure is possible. A reduction and formal elimination of the semantic subject it is caused intentsiej speaking to be focused on the frame “action and its elements” behind which there is a subject.

9). The built paradigm of forms of a reduction of the semantic subject gives the chance to present the offer expressing a category «the language subject» as system of the forms connected by general intensionalom. Uniform sense for all models is propozitsionalnaja the form which is fixed in reference, prototypical semantico-syntactical model. In designs with the eliminated semantic subject asymmetry between the semantic sentence structure bearing concept “action of the subject” and syntactic forms of its expression comes to light. The form of expression of the semantic subject acts at syntactic level as variable function from a predicative constant.

10). Between the models making one functional field, there is a phenomenon sinonimichnosti as one model depending on concrete speech conditions is capable to replace another without damage to the maintenance of the information. The choice remains for speaking which considers all vnejazykovye and language factors. The paradigm constructed by us has allowed to confirm also the concept known as the concept of packing (packaging) U.Chejfa. In the presented scheme discrepancy put in pawn in the offer informed (message) and is observed in what packing it moves. Packing, on U.Chejfu, is the registration of the offer connected with way of giving of the offer speaking.

Similar syntactic modelling gives the chance to describe a situation from the different parties and positions. In focus of attention speaking there are the elements making a category «the language subject» taking into account its nuclear slota “actions of the subject”.

11). Than less than the components reflecting semantic structure - a proposition, the given transforms since reprezentativy the subject aspire to generalisation will be especially peripheral. Probably, that one of slotov is presented an investigated category («prompting to action», «a condition of the subject», «the environment of existence of the subject», etc.).

12). It is marked defined sinkretizm denotativnoj (referentsialnoj) functions of analyzed models at their preservation signifikativnoj functions.

13). Completeness of a formal designation of the semantic subject depends on detailed ordering and studying not only direct, but also indirect ways of its registration. The presented sintaktiko-semantic field of a reduction of the subject once again has visually confirmed that fact, that the French language — extremely rich with expressive means, the plastic system well adapted for various expression of the language subject. Functional dynamism of a category «the language subject» is provided with the considerable nomenclature dejkticheskih and denominativnyh means of expression of the subject, its explicit reduction, and also replacement implitsitnogo the subject lexical substitutes, «elimination of the real figure», compensated kognitivnymi implikatsijami, occurrence afferentnyh this, specifying on absent the subject.

In functional dynamism of expression of the subject semantic-stylistic variability of speech is visually shown.

<< | >>

More on topic CONCLUSIONS:

  2. Conclusions
  3. Conclusions
  4. Conclusions
  5. conclusions
  6. Conclusions
  7. Conclusions
  8. conclusions
  9. conclusions
  10. Conclusions
  11. conclusions
  12. Conclusions
  13. Conclusions
  14. conclusions
  15. conclusions
  16. Conclusions