Expression of the reduced semantic subject by a pronoun “on"

The pronoun “on” acts as the central form of elimination of the semantic subject in the French language since it contains to this of the most general character odushevlennosti and personalnosti [Fran5ois 1984; Muller 1979; Vinay 1958].

Thanks to this pronoun it is realised most

Widespread type of an explicit way of a reduction of the semantic subject.

The reviewer replaced with a pronoun “on” the subject can be the definite-personal, indefinite-personal and generalised subject. The question on concerns what reviewer the given pronoun, is defined by the semantic coordination of the statement into which enters “on”, with a subject situation, a predicative kernel and a context:

(27) «Un jour, on trouvera le true pour acheter meme le talent. On endormira les gens, on leur fera dans la tete une petite operation et on leur donnera du talent, de Intelligence, tout ce qu’ils voudront (G. Duhamel.« Vue de la Terre promise », p. 239).

Indefinite-personal pronoun “on” the position protagonista at level ekzistalno-propozitsionalnogo knowledge which is directed on achievement stilistiko-kataforicheskogo effect of a cognizance can be designated:

(28) «Un dimanche matin, on sonne a la porte de mon petit appartement de l’epoque. A moitie habille, pas rase, bref lamentable, j’ouvre. Jean Nohain se tenait la, sur mon paillasson» (S. de Pasquale. «Paroles de stars, p. 97»).

On the other hand, ontologically universal situation is combinations of personal uncertainty in such contexts, when the subject or object identifications in the absence of one of pertseptivnyh sources (basically okulesiki) as the modules delivering the information [Fodor 1986] are not subject: «something has fallen», «someone calls!», Etc. the Thought going from ignorance to knowledge, naturally causes transition from semantic intensionala to ekstensionalu the subject, to it referentsialnomu to representation: indefinite-personal value

The semantic subject gives way definite-personal referentsii through a proper name: on — Jean Nohain.

The explication or implication of the semantic subject, completeness of the information on it [Jokojama 2005] depends on relevance of the given information both for the sender, and for the addressee [Sperber 1989; popova 2004]. The reduction of the concrete, certain reviewer can be caused a diskursivno-text situation (anaforicheskie communications, temarematicheskoe allocation [Tarasova 1992], etc.):

(29) «D’ailleurs, avec l'argent, on ne prend jamais trap de precautions. Pour ga, Joseph n’a pas tort (G. Duhamel». «Vue de la Terre promise», p. 285).

In an example (28) both pronouns carry out practically same function of generalisation, however, if animated on designates cumulative judgement vyvodno-argumentativnogo the character as which reviewer the cumulative opinion ("top wasps", i.e. "platitude" acts) the pronoun ga concerns in bolshej degrees to diskursivno to a-communicative framework of the statement and anaforicheski carries out generalising function.

Generalising function on as indefinite-personal pronoun allows it to become a basic component of semantic structure of statements of phraseological type (sayings, proverbs, any maxims):

(30) «On ne converse pas avec les fous ni avec les clochards» [ANDRE - Larochebouvy, 1984, p.5].

Often such function is concretised, the pronoun is transformed in definite-personal inkljuzivnoe (on = nous) with same illokutivnoj force (the speech certificate of argument):

(31) «On ne s’entend pas avec ces imbeciles. Laissez-les passer» (N. Calef. «Ascenseur pour l’echafaud», p. 19);

(32) «Le destin? Mais ne serait-ce pas simplement une auto-justification de l’echec? On ne l’evoque jamais que dans la defaite. La victoire, l’homme s’en pare. Vaincu, il accuse le destin». (N. Calef. «Ascenseur pour l’echafaud», p. 93);

(33) «—“ Allo? Qui? ”“ Mais qui demandez-vous, monsieur? ”

— “Qu’est - ce que c’est?” On ne reveille pas les gens an une heure pareille ». (N. Calef.« Ascenseur pour l’echafaud », p. 104).

In obobshchenno-personal offers the position of the semantic subject as though unites in a single whole the operating subject with a certain set of other characters. But the nominative semantic subject does not deduce on the foreground, masks it, shades among similar subjects, as gives the generalised character to expression of the subject and all statement. Speaking represents the real figure as any person to which probably to carry action named in the statement. Thus, speaking comes to generalisation, it expresses the judgement concerning all event. The pronoun eksplitsitno is eliminated by the certain nominative subject also in that case when the subject is in advance known to all participants of communications, therefore there is no necessity to speak about it once again (diskursivnokommunikativnaja a statement framework). In this case semantikogrammatichesky the status “on” - a definite-personal pronoun:

(34) «Ils ont entendu les coups de feu. Puis la porte s’est ouverte et M-me Hennigsen est venue tomber sur le palier de son etage. Elle avait une balle dans le ventre. Pour Valdemar, il ralait quand on est entre chez eux et il est mort tout de suite» (G. Duhamel. «Vue de la Terre promise», p. 34);

(35) «On venait de me donner cette somme apres bien des discussions (G. Duhamel». «Vue de la Terre promise», p. 197);

(36) «— Ou’est-ce qu’on ferait?

— On louerait un appartement au Ritz, on se fringuerait.

— Tu m’epouserais?

— Bien sdr, mais faudrait que ga soit... attends »(N. Calef.« Ascenseur pour l’echafaud », p. 38);

(37) «On precede a la reconstruction du crime. On lui passe son impermeable. On lui glisse un revolver entre les doigts. On le pousse dans sa voiture, on l’en tyre; sa tete eclate. Il doit faire quelques pas (N. Calef.« Ascenseur pour l’echafaud », p. 129).

The reduction of the subject - the real figure a pronoun “on” both uncertain, and certain does not lead to representation elimination about the subject as to the separate semantic position incorporating properties and signs of an actant. Confirming to that “on” is nuclear means of a reduction of the semantic subject, we will note it leksikogrammatichesky sinkretizm (number, the person, a sort) and polisemiju, realised in this or that context or a situation govorenija.

Thus, the base function chart of a pronoun on can be presented as follows:

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