Expression of the reduced semantic subject by a pronoun “quelqu’un"

eksplitsitno the subject of action is reduced also by a pronoun “quelqu’un”. Derivative of the numeral “un”, the pronoun “quelqu’un” is expressed only by the uncertain reviewer.
Uncertainty can be a double sort: uncertainty of the person or uncertainty of his name. In this case it is possible to speak about denotativnoj or nominative uncertainty [the Hook 1991, 83]. Thus, degree of uncertainty of the subject happens different, sometimes for speaking the semantic subject is unknown, however to define the figure does not cause in it difficulties as the semantic subject is included into rather limited group of the certain real figures which structure to the speaking is known. For example:

(37) Je dis:“ Quelqu’un marche dans l’allee ”Nous rentrames dans la chambre. Ce devait etre Prudent ou sa femme. (F. Mauriac. Adolescent d ’ autrefois, p. 357);

(38) Quelqu’un je ne sais qui, a sacrifie sa chaise pour me la rendre. (G. Simenon. Lettre a ma mere, p. 16);

(39) Quelqu ’ un entrebailla la porte et demanda si l’on se mettait a table (F. Mauriac. Le noeud de viperes, p. 197).

Sometimes the speaking establishes only the fact of presence of the real figure.

The uncertain semantic subject enters into very wide range unknown to the subject of speech. It can be protagonist, identified subsequently as known (referentsialno the acquaintance) the subject:

(40) Quelqu’un court sur la route. Un homme. C’est Vallone. Il sort de la gare aerienne et sans doute il cherche Laurence (P. Vialar. Pas de temps de mourir, p. 124).

In this case the text reproduces process of recognition in process of physical approach of the subject and ability speaking it to identify. This example once again shows gradualnost to a lexical and grammatical category not/definiteness in which a certain pleonasm of forms is shown: Quelqu’un ^ Un homme ^ C’est Vallone.

(41) Genevieve poussa un hurlement. Une passante, a tout hasard, fit chorus. On s’attroupa. Quelqu’un interrogea:“ a ne va pas, madame? ” (N. Calef. Ascenseur pour l’echafaud, p. 30).

The example (41) gives us variety of the reduced subjects that allows the author to concentrate on the main thing protagoniste narrations — ZHeneveve. And, singularity (Une passante; Quelqu ’ un) here resists cumulative on, leaning against semantics of a predicate s ’ attroupa. The example comes to an end with stereotypic question Qa ne va pas, about semantics and which pragmatist it will be a question more low. Compare:

(42) Quelqu ’ un risquait d’entrer dans son bureau, de decouvrir les preuves de son crime. N’importe qui pouvait le trouver a l’interieur de ces murs qui abritaient un cadavre (N. Calef. Ascenseur pour l’echafaud, p. 30).

In an example (42) subject of action is not defined because its definiteness is irrelevant in a context of the statement and it is impossible to designate it differently, not having lost intentsionalnost the author — Quelqu ’ un = N’importe qui. Here uncertainty aspires to obobshchennosti the semantic subject.

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A source: ALEXANDER MIHAJLOVICH CHERVONYJ. STRUCTURE And FUNCTIONAL DYNAMICS of the CATEGORY the LANGUAGE SUBJECT (ON the MATERIAL of the FRENCH LANGUAGE). 2014
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