Introduction

the Present research is devoted the analysis of system-semiotics and functional properties of a category «the language subject», uniting a functional class raznourovnevyh means and a typological paradigm subject reprezentativov (SR) which reflect kognitivnye and interaktsionalnye processes of functioning of different types of the subject in the communicative environment.

The subject represents the most actual for studying the phenomenon and not so much because concerns to semantiko to a-pragmatical kernel of language system, and how many because in a problem of polyfunctionality of the subject linguistic problems of the centre and periphery, decentralisation, transition from the system-structural immanent approach to antropotsentricheskoj to a paradigm of research of language are shown.

It is important to underline dual character of a category «the language subject»: on the one hand, it ontologically corresponds with individnym the subject, and with another, - personifies all society in the social subject. Besides, it corresponds with the polymorphic subject of the plan of expression. If «language sotsialen, and speech - is individual» (F.Sossjur) the category unites both a statics, and dynamics of forms of expression of such double subject.

Fundamental property of the language subject is its transcendental character: undergoing various transformations in respect of expression, it, changing, constantly is present at the plan of the maintenance in the form of this or that mental reprezentatsii.

One of constant transformations of the subject of language of-speech is the reduction morfosintaksicheskogo the subject from the expression plan («impersonal offers»). The reasons of this phenomenon are connected first of all with speech intentsiej the speaking: depending on a context and a situation in a discourse

It is quite often observed nevyrazhennost (elimination) of the formal subject, in a case when in respect of its maintenance replaces a general concept. The general concept of the subject (OPS) is as a matter of fact its partial substitute filling an information lacuna which arises owing to removal from superficial structure of the statement of a certain part of the information concerning the manufacturer of action.

Academician V.V. Vinogradov the term «elimination of the person» defined those cases when the speaking designates only one action, not caring about the operating subject. It considered elimination of the person as an element in gradation of expression of the subject with different degree of definiteness. V.V. Vinogradov on Russian material considered value of the person at a verb as a scale going from the least multiple-valued form (first person) through semanticheski more extensible forms second and the third party, further through indefinite-personal value to elimination of the person and impersonality [Vinogradov 1947, 462].

However elimination of the subject of action is carried out not only at leksiko-morphological level of expression of a category of the person, but also syntactic ways at which the real figure «goes down in a rank», losing the central position in actantial syntactic schemes (for example, a passive in its multiple displays) [Koprov 2000; Lomov 1994; Silnitsky 1981].

Continuing and expanding the given concept, we put forward a hypothesis about polysemiotics essence of the subject which process of expression mentions not only system-structural levels of language, but first of all is functional-pragmatical mechanisms intentsionalnogo codings and inferentsialno-interpretatsionnogo the mechanism of decoding of the language information that «the language subject» transforms into a polymorphic lexical and grammatical category at level of the plan of expression a category.

The polymorphic category of the subject (KS) in dynamics, in the form of various formal realisations subektnosti both in system "language-speech", and in the field of interaction of the form and a substance in refraction to kognitivno - to linguistic processes of formation of a category of the subject becomes object of research in this case. The category of the subject unites categories personalnosti and the definiteness, correlating with oppositions «odushevlennost / inanimateness», «the person / impersonality», etc., and includes them as the subcategories forming an is functional-semiotics field superkategoriii (JU.S.Stepan) of the language subject.

The mechanism of transformation of the language subject within the limits of a certain kognitivno-semiotics field of a category of the language subject understood as result kognitivnoj and language activity in the course of construction of this or that level of a discourse (a word-combination, the statement, the text) becomes an object of research.

Transformations and, in particular, "elimination" of the subject represent the important communicative phenomenon which arises in different communicative situations and realises various communicative intentions speaking, is carried out various language, speech and paraverbal (intonation, gesture i.t.p.) means. Many of these means were a subject of special researches. Thus, as a rule, scientific and practical interest represents studying of means of transformation of the subject in the form of an is functional-semantic field, raznourovnevye which elements are connected associative-logic inferentsijami.

So, in the theory of psychosystematization of G.Guillaume the indefinite-personal form as boundless expansion of semantics of the concrete person is considered. "Elimination" occurs lexical by, i.e. by expression of the real figure by pronouns to indistinct semantics [Guillaume 1973; Moignet 1974]. The explanation of process of "washing out" of the form of expression of the subject was given in due time by E.Benvenista's theory [Benvenist 1974].

Elimination of the subject is carried out by means of the designs changing orientation of process and lowering valency of a verb, displaying a situation [the Hook 1991]. Noted on a material of the French language syntactic designs can be shown to an active design with a pronoun “on”. nevyrazhennost the subject of action it is found out in syntactic designs with impersonal turns, in personal offers in which the subject is expressed by the generalised pronouns with indistinct referentsiej, by subjective markers (verbs, possessive pronouns, prilagatelnymi etc.) [Kerbrat-Orecchioni 2002] or metonimicheski it is replaced by instructions on the action tool, means of transportation, on a site, a body part etc. Elimination of the subject can be reached also with the help nominalizatsii a verb.

Recently in connection with distribution antropotsentricheskoj paradigms of linguistic researches, development germenevtiki, text linguistics, paremiologii, structural semiotics, and also owing to researches spent by poststructuralists etc. the problem of the subject can be solved only at the integrating level which base is made by methodology of functional semiotics.

About specification and necessity of the further working out of a semiotics principle from the functional point of view, i.e. Workings out of the is functional-semiotics approach to studying of language units, JU.S.Stepan [wrote Stepans 1985]. Such approach should reflect the dynamic party of language, to be directed on functionality (at the moment of use of a language sign in the statement for expression of certain thought), that, as a matter of fact, reflects studying semiozisa as process of formation of value of a sign. Leaning against a principle of studying of an actual sign, it is possible to connect naturally its formal displays (sintaktiku - on J. Morrisu [Morris 1946]), its semantics (concrete value at the moment of the use) and to the pragmatist as sense display in a context of the use of a category of the subject ‘ hic et nunc ’.

By N.N.Boldyreva's definition, «at functional-semiologicheskom the approach language acts as uniform object — language-speech that allows to consider interaction of its two aspects: static and dynamic, system and functional (dejatelnostnogo). It is obvious, that in ordinary consciousness of native speakers these two aspects are practically inseparable» [Boldyrev 2001].

At all diverse lexicographic treatment of concept "subject" which varies depending on discipline, its studying, from language to language and, accordingly, from the author to the author, we in the work are guided by following position: «Presence of two levels

kognitivnoj kontseptualizatsii (phenomenological and strukturalnogo - [Verhoturova 2011]) - it is caused by difficult structure of the ontologic essence known under the name homo sapiens. As the major components of this structure the subject of perception "," the subject of consciousness "," the subject of action "and" the subject of knowledge ”act“, thus the various parties of these ipostasej are anyhow mediated through language ability of the person acting in a role of the subject of speech »[by Kravchenko 1996].

At a category of the subject difficult structure. On the one hand, to it everything belongs, that belongs to a concept structure, on the other hand, the category structure includes all that, as does by its fact of language culture - the initial form (prototype) compressed to the basic signs of the maintenance, and polymorphism in respect of language expression. To it estimations, displays intentsionalnosti speaking subject are added pragmakognitivnye associations. Unlike kontsepta, it is peculiar to a category implitsitnoe expression, so-called «a significant zero», equated to one of forms subject reprezentatsii.

So, the category «the language subject» is abstract mental reprezentatsija, staticized in speech otherwise by means of concrete subject reprezentativa (SR).

The subject as a language category is considered, as a whole, semasiologicheski: implementers kontaminirujushchih subcategories of the subject and subjectivity in language become an object of research.

In modern researches the subject as the language category is investigated, for example, from the point of view of mortgaging relations and pronominalnosti in syntactic, semantic and pragmatical aspects [Koprov 2000; Magomedov 2003; Tolstov 2010]; from the point of view of relations of the subject and object within the limits of semantic syntax [Iosilevich 2002; Makaradze 1984; Mataeva 2005]; the role of the subject in construction of the offer and its morphological realisations in different languages [Mamayev 2005 is defined; Mishina 2006]. The category of the subject, its lexical and syntactic realisations are considered in structural-semantic researches with the account diahronicheskogo aspect, is functional - a semantic homonymy, substitutsii and national specificity [Alyoshin 2003; Amineva 2005; Van Sjaotszjun 2010; Grishin 2002; Egorov 2007; Ilyichev 2007; the Goat 2002; Makeeva 2002; Olejnikova 2008; Pevneva 1996; pobegajlo 2001; CHzhan 2008].

The special direction is made by subjectivity researches as basic characteristic and function of the subject (in language and speech) in its various demonstrations both in synchronism, and in diahronii [Kapre 2011; nejdaeva 1985; Orehova 2011]. They are adjoined by the researches devoted to typology of subjectivity and text (etc.) markers of the subject in various rechejazykovyh forms [Kamneva 2011]. Studying of a category of the subject is beyond the offer-statement, and the subject starts to be considered as tekstoobrazujushchaja a category [Imeretinsky 2002; Stepans 2002]. Researches become in many respects textual and philological [Bobkova 2008; Garamjan 2004; Gluhov 2010; Dumanisheva 2011; Loktionov 2005; Merkusheva 2010; Nikitchenko 2000; Butts 2008; Pelevin 2009; Poles 2005; Trofimova 2004].

Now in the works devoted to the given problematics, was outlined methodological bifurkatsija: one researches are focused all as on characteristics of the subject in language or speech formations (lexicon, the statement, phraseology, the text) [Belau 2009; Bubnova 2008; Karlina 1999; Merzljakova 2010; Moiseyev 2006; Talalaj 2004; toptygina 2003], others leave on intersubject functional level, considering rechepovedencheskie characteristics of the subject in various institutsionalnyh realisations and communicative genres [Atabekova 1984; Germasheva 2011; Zjatkova 2003; Izjurov 2005; Kazantsev 2007; Krapivkina 2011; Rabotkin 2009; Spodarets 2011; Tagiltseva 2006].

For frameworks of linguistic concreteness in studying KS there are the works of an is functional-pragmatical orientation focused on sotsiolingvisticheskie aspects of speech interaction and intercultural communications: especially it is necessary to note works on onomastike as

To the prototypical form interaktsionalnogo markings of the subject [Gorjaev 1999; Kosichenko 2006; Rylov 2006; Tjukalova 2005, etc.]. The researches devoted to speech behaviour of the subject as the person, as member of social collective with the certain code of behaviour (including speech) [Kravtsov 2008 successfully develop; Nikitin 2006; Svintsitsky 1985, etc.].

These works became logic continuation of the scientific thought which have been put in pawn in works by J.D.Apresjana [Apresjan 1995], N.D.Arutjunovoj [Arutyunov 1979; 1996], J.N.Karaulova [Sentries 2007], V.B.Kashkina [Kashkin 2013], I.A.Sternina [Sternin 2000], etc., having embodied in researches of different codes of speech interaction of subjects [Varvarin 2009; Kireeva 1999; Kulichenko 2011; Prihodkina 2007; Sapega 2008; Sidorov 2008].

In the linguistic literature on a problem of the subject in the French language, besides mentioned above, it is possible to allocate enough of the publications devoted to the linguistic subject and demonstrations of subjectivity. These researches originating in antropotsentrichnoj of the theory of the speech statement of E.Benvenista [Benveniste 1966; Benvenist 1974], are presented in works [Andre-Larochebouvy 1984; Apostel 1981; Charaudeau 1995; Coquet 1984; Ducrot 1980; Fran5ois 1994; Jacques 1983; 1985; Kerbrat-Orecchioni 1984; 2002; 2005; Parret 1983; Recanati 1979; Roulet 1985], and also in variety of publications is faster than the filosofsko-philological plan which go back to poststructuralism in which frameworks from a position of the author and the reader the problem smysloobrazovanija [Bart 1994 is considered; Smiths 2003; the French semiotics 2000; Eko 2007].

Thus, summing up the short review far not all researches, anyhow representing the subject and its displays in language (subjectivity, etc. categories), in speech and speech behaviour and, at last, as a whole in JAKM this or that lingvokultury, it is possible to ascertain sinkretizm and a polysemy of the term "subject".

Therefore the analytical descriptive approach to a category the subject, besides «the human factor», should be added sinergeticheskim by the approach uniting in one category both metaspeech, and ontologic, and metaphorical both regular, and occasional, kognitivnye reprezentatsii. Such holistichesky the approach used in given work, is especially justified, as it is much closer to the concept "category" which, being structurally difficult mental formation, bears in itself as lines vnejazykovoj (ontologic) pertseptivnosti, ponjatijnosti and emotional otsenochnosti in its explicit or inferentsialnom aspect, and language ipostas "points of view" speaking/listening on a source or object of action (or absence of that) in respect of the maintenance. Exists also organizujushchy an element of a role of the subject, to some extent necessary in respect of expression.

So, complete representation slozhnostrukturnoj, i.e. a polymorphic category «the language subject» as poliaspektnogo semiotics konstrukta, as operating and regulating antropotsentricheskogo the beginnings in functioning of the language and speech systems which maintenance cannot be shown exclusively to a figure speaking or its semantico-syntactical language simuljakru becomes a research objective. The carried out system research of transformations and functions of a studied category creates conceptual basis of the semiotiko-functional theory of the subject, relevant for all its demonstrations in system «language-speech».

The subject and illustrative language material used in work, concerns various levels of language and speech: from semantiko - parse of the offers taken from products of the French literature, to the lexicographic description of the French phraseological units and paremy as certain transitive level of the "language-speech" most approached to a discourse and representing to realisation of a category «the language subject», is standard or usually fixed in French raznozhanrovoj to idiomatics.

The basic hypothesis which has been put forward on the basis of spent researches, consists that the category of the subject represents the polymorphic category generated on rechemyslitelnom level of this or that ethnos which demands transurovnevogo dynamic representation of elements of the structure subject to transformations in the course of functioning.

The declared research objective assumes the decision of following problems:

To reveal communication between syntactic, semantic and pragmatical components of a category «the language subject» (the semiotiko-functional approach);

To allocate the subcategories forming a kernel investigated

Supercategories and to show them organizujushchee the beginning in its semiotics structure;

To define possible transformations KS in language and the speeches connected with intentsionalnostju speaking, by a communicative situation, syntactic features of representation of the subject (on a material of the French language);

To develop methodological model of research of such syncretic categories, as a category «the language subject», applicable for other languages and rechepovedencheskih cultures;

To approve realisation of the developed model funktsionalnosemioticheskogo the analysis on various lingvokulturnyh objects at level of system "language-speech".

Statement of the specified problems demanded in frameworks funktsionalnosemioticheskoj methodology of research of attraction of such private methods, as: oppozitivnyj, distributive, generativnyj (diahronichesky), a method of semantico-syntactical (actantial) modelling, interpretatsionno-implikativnyj the analysis.

On protection following theoretical positions are taken out:

1). The category «the language subject» is realised on kognitivno-language and rechefunktsionalnom levels, supposing semiotics kontaminatsiju in the real realisation of three plans — syntactic, semantic and pragmatical. Means of their expression form functionally - a semantic field (FSP) categories.

2). A kernel of an investigated category of the subject in its relation to ontologii the world and language is antropotsentricheskoe concept "ego". As defining quality of the subject interaction (interaktsija) the subject) with object acts; with the subject; with Wednesday of existence.

3). korreljatom semantic kernel FSP of a category «the language subject» personal pronouns "ja I" as a prototypical basis of language communications are language. They are defined as centripetal elements of the system-structural organisation of a category. In system of pronouns typologically relevant transformations of the subject, i.e. subject reprezentativy which differ presence of some harakterologicheskih transformatsionnyh indicators in French and in other languages are shown.

4). oppozitivno two types of centrifugal signs are opposed centripetal elements: neutralised and zero.

5). The element, the neutralised subject, in ontologii language and the world is presented by the object co-operating with the subject on the basis of interactive communication. "Subject-objective" of the relation are dialectic, dynamical, vektorno vzaimonapravleny and vzaimodopolnjaemy, presuppozitsionalno assume each other in structure of the category. Neutralisation of the subject occurs at the expense of transferring intentsionalnogo focus speaking and-or the interpreter on semantic object in its interactivity.

"Subject-subject" (interaktsionalnye) relations

Are considered by a principle dopolnitelnosti in relation to «the subject - objective» (interactive) relations and are characterised at three levels: dejatelnostnom, speech and in detail-referential.

6). A zero sign is extreme decentralisation when the subject ceases to exist as that in given pertseptivnoj to environment: or leaving it (passing to other level of perception), or being dissolved in the language environment surrounding it, losing the basic qualities. Elimination (reduction) of the subject in respect of expression causes in kognitivnom the device of an individual «a general concept of the subject», filling formed kognitivnuju a lacuna.

7). Typological line of expression KS is onomastikon, combining the personified appellative function with nominativno - descriptive function of the language subject. Proper names in various functions can move from periphery to a nuclear zone of a category «the language subject».

8). Transformations KS are caused by efficiency ekspressivnodeskriptivnoj functions of language and depend from intentsionalnosti the speaking. Hence, subjectivity as the basic sign of the subject exists as a category forming kernel FSP along with categories of an estimation, emotivnosti and ekspressivnosti.

9). The reduction of the subject in respect of expression, causing in kognitivnom the device of an individual «oboshchennoe representation of the subject» (OPS), conducts to metaphorically-metonimicheskoj indemnification at superficial level of language - of speech.

Scientific novelty of research consists that in it the system is functional-semiotics analysis of a category of the subject and functional typology subject reprezentativov (SR) for the first time is given, correlating with the mental models making the maintenance and structure of a category «the language subject» on a material of the French language; prototypicalness of transformations of the language subject as in kognitivnom, and language aspects comes to light; it is described semiogenez subject reprezentativov at different levels of system "language-speech"; mechanisms semantikopragmaticheskih the transformations causing laws of formation and functioning of a category «the language subject» reveal.

Scientific novelty of work concern and the operational categories developed in the course of the analysis, such as types of relations «the subject - object» - «the subject - the subject» - «the subject - environment», i.e. gradualnye the relations defining centripetal and centrifugal vectors funktsionalnosemanticheskogo of a field (FSP) of a category; «subject reprezentativy» (SR), demonstrations of the subject making typology at language and speech levels; (OPS), allowing mentally to restore «a general concept of the subject» absent in respect of expression and in respect of the maintenance the subject.

For the first time complex research of the language subject is carried out the French Romance philology as multifunctional mental reprezentatsii (categories) from the point of view of transformations subject reprezentativov on morfo-syntactic, lexico-semantic, is functional-semiotics, phraseological and is functional - interaktsionalnom analysis levels.

In work classification of semiotics types subject reprezentativov for the first time is presented, the system of functioning of a category of the subject in French raznozhanrovoj to idiomatics is described.

The theoretical importance of work consists in the working out of is functional-semiotics typology of the language subject based on poliaspektnom the approach to formation JAKM, uniting kognitivnye laws of generation and perception of speech with the teleologic concept of language as sign system. The theoretical importance is substantially defined by the revealed set of properties subject reprezentativov, somehow: ability of formation of sintaktiko-semiotics fields; diaforichnostju substitutes of the subject, i.e. koreferentnoj communication with the previous and subsequent elements of the statement and a discourse; dopolnitelnostju (compatibility) with other semantico-syntactical units (verbs and so forth) And modusnymi statement and discourse elements; ability to participate in inferentsionnom construction of a general concept of the subject (OPS) as "points of view" which is defined by system functions in the semantico-syntactical organisation of the statement and a discourse. The theoretical importance the deduced concept pragma-inferentsialnoj conversion of the language subject as result of interaction kognitivnogo (inferentsionalnogo) and communicative (implikatsionnogo) thought and language mechanisms possesses. Application of categories «the subject environment», «the subject - objective» and "subject-subject" of the relation, and also the relation «the subject - environment» is theoretically proved; on a material of the French language the complex description of the maintenance and category structure «language subject» is spent. The carried out system research of functions and transformations of a studied category has allowed to create conceptual basis of the semiotiko-functional theory of the subject, relevant for all its demonstrations in system "language-speech".

The practical importance is defined by that the material and results of work can be used in the further research of laws of systems of language categories, and also by working out of courses on theoretical grammar of the French language, leksikologii, comparative typology of French and Russian of languages, communicative grammar. Theoretical positions and the conclusions received as a result of research, approaches used in the dissertation and analysis methods can form a scientifically-methodological basis for a writing of course, degree and dissertational works on linguistics. Materials of the given research have found application in practice of teaching of the French language, in theoretical courses on leksikologii and grammar of the French language at the Taganrog state pedagogical institute of a name of A.P.Chekhov; on chair of the French language of Pyatigorsk state linguistic university.

Dissertation approbation. Substantive provisions and scientific results of research have passed approbation at the international, All-Russia and interuniversity scientific conferences in Moscow (1994, 1996, 1998, 2008); in Minsk (2010); in Saratov (1999); in Volgograd (2007); in Sochi (1996); in

To Vologda (1997); in Orsk (1998); in Arkhangelsk (1998); in Tambov (1998); in Pskov (1999); in Irkutsk (1998, 1999); in Maikop (2006); in Rostov-on-Don (2007); in Pyatigorsk (1997, 2012, 2013); in Taganrog (1998, 2005, 2010, 2011, 2012), at scientific seminars of chairs of the French language of the Taganrog state pedagogical institute and Pyatigorsk state linguistic university. The dissertation has been discussed on faculty meeting of the French language of the Taganrog state pedagogical institute of a name of A.P.Chekhov.

Results of research are reflected also in 2 personal and 2 collective monographies, and also in publications - total amount more than 40 items of l.

Objects in view and problems have defined structure and volume of the dissertation consisting of introduction, five heads, the conclusion and appendices.

In introduction the research urgency, its novelty, the theoretical and practical importance are proved, the object, a subject, the purposes and research problems are defined, the positions which are taken out on protection are formulated.

In 1st head «Theoretical preconditions of research of a language category of the subject» theoretical preconditions of research of the language subject in three it ipostasjah, making semiotics essence of a category, — syntactic, semantic and pragmatical are considered. The basic methodological principles to which the developed concept follows are proved; structure of a polymorphic category «language subject» is represented, the subcategories making the integral signs of a category are described and it COMPARE

In 2nd head «Syntactic semantics and transformations of the subject in the French language» is considered the semantico-syntactical category of the language subject consisting in turn from lexical and grammatical forms COMPARE the phenomenon of a reduction of the semantic subject and interaction of the plan of expression and the maintenance plan Is investigated COMPARE the role of the predicative centre (kernel) in an is functional-semantic field of the language subject Is defined.

The chapter 3rd «the Lexico-semantic field of means of a reduction of the subject in the French language» is devoted more detailed research of transformations of the language subject in the French language on an example of nuclear personal pronouns - markers and operators COMPARE

In the chapter of 4th «Implitsitnye forms of the semantic subject» the paradigm of the means marking formal absence SR and compensating restoration of the semantic subject in a context of the statement and a discourse is resulted.

In the chapter of 5th «Functional transformations of the subject in the French phraseology» the concept argumentativno - the estimated nature of cores SR in aggregate with a context and rechezhanrovoj realisation is developed.

In conclusions and зaключeнии results are generalised, the basic demonstrative positions are resulted and is summed up the carried out research.

In appendices the lexicographic bilingual comparative description of a phraseological field «Speech activity» with different degree of expressiveness and functions subject reprezentativov is given; on an example of the poetic text explicit markers of the subject, employees raznourovnevymi, having different oformlennost subject reprezentativami (SR) are resulted.


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A source: ALEXANDER MIHAJLOVICH CHERVONYJ. STRUCTURE And FUNCTIONAL DYNAMICS of the CATEGORY «the LANGUAGE SUBJECT» (ON the MATERIAL of the FRENCH LANGUAGE). 2014
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  1. in introduction
  2. INTRODUCTION
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  4. 10.1. Introduction
  5. INTRODUCTION
  6. approbation and introduction of results.
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  15. PRACTICAL INTRODUCTION OF RESULTS OF WORK
  16. 5. Attention strengthening to questions of legal introduction.
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