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4.2. Metonimichesky expression of the semantic subject

At consciousness of the person there is an indissoluble communication of the person - the figure and a product of its activity that allows to carry out metonimichesky carrying over:

(275) Peu a peu, les echecs, le bridge, puis le poker avaient remplace les hautes speculations de l’esprit, suivis d’autres jeux qui demandaient encore moins d’effort intellectuel (P.

Boulle. Le Coeur et la galaxie, the river 99);

(276) Le haut-parleur avoua un retard de trente minute (A. Wurmser. Aurelie s’en va, the river 38).

This process became so habitual for native speakers, that they at all do not give themselves in it the report. “The speech mechanism”, consisting in regular or occasional carrying over of a name from one class of objects on other class, assotsiiruemyj with it on a contiguity, adjacency, an involvement into one situation [Arutyunov 1990, 300], is characteristic to cases metonimii. Elimination of the semantic subject is especially frequent is made by way of lexical replacement of the name expressing the real figure, lexical units which designate: tools of work of the person, the weapon, vehicles, moving in space; stay places (dwelling, establishments, etc.;) somatizmy, the parts of a body acting in a role of the whole. Thus, the place protagonista occupies interactive object (obekt - objective or object-subject of the relation).

The subject made by the person, always is in the subordinate, a state of dependence in relation to the semantic subject. He objectively assumes separately from it the existing figure. The product of human manufacture specially used by the subject in the activity for achievement of the diversified vital purposes, we name the tool or the action tool.

Communications and the relations existing in the nature, are realised by thinking, fixed by language and materialised in speech. The given judgement proves that fact, that kategorialno semantic values of subject names predetermine their syntactic positions in the offer [Zolotov 1982, 37]. A usual place of an inanimate man-made subject - in an addition position. However, at formal nevyrazhennosti the real figure at superficial level of the offer, at the description there is nobody technical action, the name of the tool, the action tool becomes a subject.

There is a formal elimination of the semantic subject from a syntactic sentence structure though kommunikanty at mental level realise its role in an event. Promotion on the foreground in the offer of the tool or a work subject not casually as the name, besides semy inanimate concreteness, contains to this rukotvornosti. It associates that is made by the person for the life and activity, and by it copes and supervised. For example:

(277) Les musettes se vidaient de leurs billets pour se remplir de ces mechants re? us (J-P. Chabrol. Les comptes du maquis, the river 5).

In the semantic plan — action — a subject ”, the subject is reflected in syntactic level the semantic subject implitsiruetsja ontologija relations“.

The person having the purpose for its achievement carries out the diversified actions with application of the diversified arsenal of tools and tools. The associativity of some number of actions of the semantic subject to the tool allows to achieve certain result which is materialised in this or that display.

The name expressing the semantic subject in a sentence structure, can be replaced by a lexical unit designating:

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A source: ALEXANDER MIHAJLOVICH CHERVONYJ. STRUCTURE And FUNCTIONAL DYNAMICS of the CATEGORY the LANGUAGE SUBJECT (ON the MATERIAL of the FRENCH LANGUAGE). 2014
Otvety.Online. :

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