In prototypical kognitivnoj models the subject - object, especially, when the subject is understood as homo sapiens (see above), the subject, undoubtedly, is characterised by a category odushevlyonnosti, and object - neodushevlyon.

Asymmetry of the plan of expression and the maintenance plan gives the following picture of primary and secondary functions of this category in kognitivnoj to model "subject-object":

The subject;---------------------------------^ _, ► odushevlennost

Object----------------------------------~~-1 ► inanimateness,

Where continuous lines designate primary functions of a category, and faltering - secondary. For example:

1. Maman prepare le dejeuner (primary, prototypical function);

2. La voiture renverse un pieton (secondary metonimicheskaja function). Discrepancy of a language picture of the world to scientific judgement

It is shown available the most subjective factor in language. The category odushevlennosti / inanimateness of the subject, as well as some other language phenomena, reflects antropotsentricheskuju installation of human thinking, asymmetry between perception of a live and lifeless matter. For example, in the offer La Tour Eiffel se trouve au milieu de Paris the reflexive verb literal translation is personified by the inanimate subject of the offer.

Though the reflexive verb has lost for a long time in the French language the internal form connected with primary odushevlyonnostju of a returnable particle (-), at language sources to "be" is to find itself (somewhere). Moreover, in this offer we deal kognitivnoj with model "subject-environment" in which the subject becomes a part of the environment and loses prototypical value of "figure".

Thus, odushevlennost/inanimateness, not always coincides with primary syntactic function of the subject, and these grammatical categories do not belong to a kernel kategorialnoj to a category subektnosti. To it promotes razmytost chasterechnoj language systems. V.G.Gak, after S.Balli and G.Guillaume, underlines a special role of a transposition (transition from one part of speech in another) in the French language [the Hook 2000]. For example: Vouloir c'estpouvoir - to want - means can where the subject is dissolved in the environment, it is deduced for frameworks of the offer with two verbs in a subject and predicate position. However it can easily be transformed to (return) in prototypical kognitivnuju model the Subject - object: Si je veux je peux y reussir... - If I will want, to a smog. Hence, at deep level abstract generalising kognitivnye the models demanding additional kognitivnogo effort, keep away from embodied kognitivnoj models towards generalisation ("downwards" on a scale voploshchennosti, i.e. kognitivnogo automatism).

Other display of asymmetry of the plan of expression and the maintenance plan consists in metaphorical (metonimicheskom) judgement of the subject. This phenomenon is peculiar to phraseological level of language-speech. Such representation of the validity "works" under the law of a metaphor and demands inferentsialnogo effort for an embodiment of the subject. For example: Pierre qui roule n ’ amasse pas mousse - "Nothing ventured, nothing gained".

Inferentsialnaja (deep) model of such phrase assumes veiled volitivno-aksiologichekuju interpretation: Do that-l., to reach that-l. Otherwise... (The negative estimation) follows.

Doing a conclusion from the above-stated, it is possible to ascertain, that actualisation of opposition "odushevlyonnost/inanimateness" gives way to a dichotomy "activity/passivity", or the "agent/patsiens" which left member first of all contacts kognitivnym (semantic) subject. Therefore the animated subject, becoming "patsiensom", turns to object. However passivity and odushevlennost / inanimateness of object does not deprive of its property and possibility to co-operate with the subject: Je regarde la montre: Bah! Minuit? Deja!. Here the object is interactive, it influences on the subject, causing its emotionally-estimated reaction.

A.Narushevich so sums up mutual relation protivochlenov an odushevlennosti/inanimateness category: Animated and

Inanimate nouns designate not so much live and lifeless subjects, how many the subjects comprehended as live and lifeless. Besides, between members of opposition ‘ conceivable as live / conceivable as lifeless ’ there is a number of the intermediate formations combining signs live and lifeless, which presence is caused by associative mechanisms of thinking and other features of cogitative activity of the person, for example:

1) conceivable as were live (the dead person, the dead man, deceased, etc.);

2) mentally represented live (the mermaid, leshy, a cyborg, etc.);

3) conceivable as similarity live (a doll, a naked doll, a jack, a queen, etc.);

4) conceivable as set live (the people, crowd, flight, herd, etc.).

Thus, a category odushevlennosti / inanimateness of names

Nouns, as well as some other language phenomena, reflects antropotsentricheskuju installation of human thinking, and discrepancy of a language picture of the world to scientific judgement is one more display of the subjective factor in language [Narushevich 1996].

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  4. the Table of contents
  5. Introduction
  6. Chapter 1. Methodological aspects of interdisciplinary research of the territorial organisation of the public power
  7. interdisciplinary research in the field of a constitutional law: use of achievements of other humanities
  8. a problem mezhdisplinarnosti in domestic researches of the territorial organisation of the public power
  9. JUridizatsija achievements of other humanities within the limits of studying of the territorial device of the state
  10. interdisciplinary research in the field of a constitutional law: use of achievements of branch jurisprudence
  11. Chapter 2. Tendencies of konstitutsionno-legal regulation of the territorial organisation of the public power
  12. features of konstitutsionno-legal regulation of the territorial device in the European countries