3.3. A reduction of the subject and an offer and text actual division

The statement — message unit does not exist in speech separately, but is created in speech, serving as a link in a chain of the is situational-connected messages [Fleas 1986, 97].

At text construction the basic model and peripheral act as units equal in rights, and the choice of this or that of them in each concrete case is determined by a previous context [Le langage 1980] and installation of the subject of speech on defining “actantial prospect” or design "focusing".

In a choice of this or that design subjectivity of generation of the text as process of reflexion of a situation is shown. However this subjectivity is defined by objective rules and cultural norms of speaking collective, it, thus, — intersubektivna [Alfyorov 2007] and intersubektna [Bakhtin 2000; Bjuler 2000], i.e. "subject-subject" by relations (V.F.Petrenko's term [Petrenko 1970]) is defined.

The coherent text describes a continuous number of fragments of a situation, chlenja them for the separate moments which pass each other just as of film shots develops dynamic whole [Bellert 1978; Laparra 1982]. In the similar text in process of statement expansion by different ways the same situation that generates elimination of superfluous syntactic components is designated. Formally not expressed or shaded in separate fragments it can appear and the semantic subject. Two models expressing one proposition, can follow one another in the text or, that takes place not less often at formal nevyrazhennosti the semantic subject, one of them is explicit, or reduced, another becomes implitsitnoj, thanking presuppozitsii [Ducrot 1968; 1969; 1972; Tutescu 1978].

For example: La porte venait de s’ouvrir. Mere nous regardait avec etonnement (G. Duhamel. Vue de la Terre promise p. 272) = (La mere a pousse la porte et...)

At generation of the new offer before the speaking it is necessary to carry out a problem a subject choice so that the planned functional prospect of the offer "was entered" by optimum image in wider functional prospect of the previous text [Fornel

1987]. That element of the offer which semanticheski and is thematically most closely connected with the previous text, as a rule, appears In a subject position, and at the same time serves as a reference point for expansion of other elements of the offer.

As we see, one of the main organizers of connectivity of the text, movement of thought from the offer to the offer, the semantic subject generating elimination, actual division categories act.

Theme function, joining one of the arguments, not always action designating the subject, transforms it into a subject of model of the offer that leads to formal elimination of the subject. The theme is defined speaking as a subject which is worthy. An initial component of the offer can be, thus, not only the words designating the figure, but also the lexical units specifying in its object of influence and even on action, made by the semantic subject.

Besides, the consecutive organisation when a theme of the following offer becomes rema previous [Cornulier 1979], as is known, is typical for the text, i.e. subjects are entered into the description on a chain. It gives the chance to eliminate earlier named or all a known component including the semantic subject, therefore for a certain part of the message is not obviously necessary to inform on the real figure. In the text the information arrives by a principle consecutive, portsionnogo introductions of the new information. Course of input of the information consists that in each new message the information volume increases by one unit of value, and it conducts to that communicatively little significant element is exposed to elimination from structure of the separate offer that, however, does not affect sense of all text [Luzin 1995].

Actual division, as is known, proizvodno from two sizes: a semantico-syntactical sentence structure and the concrete text (to-text).

The Semantico-syntactical sentence structure predetermines potentialities of an actual division or communicative use of the offer [Zolotov 1973, 292].

The actual division enters into a deep sentence structure, its models [Susov 1974] since speaking in advance knows, that will be in its text a theme, and that remoj, that will be verbally expressed, and that is formal implitsitno.

Thus, movement from known to the unknown person, from a theme to reme, a question, more likely, not a language sentence structure, and reflexion kognitivnogo thought developments in somebody a context [Hagege 1978]. Similar movement of thought does not suffer semantico-syntactical excesses, but allows to understand told, to define the real figure, to comprehend its role, after all intelligence is a basic condition, to which any unit of any level should satisfy to get the linguistic status [Benvenist 1974, 132].

In the given work we have subjected to the analysis separately taken offer with the eliminated semantic subject as in the isolated offer contextual communications are reflected, and it conducts to detection of the eliminated semantic subject. According to U.Vajnrajha, the return problem is possible: under the separate offer to restore a context, it

Signs are capable to predict a context [Vajnrajh 1970, 210], and it absolutely definitely will specify the semantic subject [Kolshansky 1980; Kleiber 1994]. As is known, in speech, as well as in the text, the offer gets additional functions, it acts as a part certain whole, its link, its composite-syntactic cell [Konev 1995]. Means by which these links whole are connected together, are concluded in each offer and, mainly, by an offer actual division.

Force of an actual division takes out in a preposition of a word with objective and other not subject values, and the lexical units designating the semantic subject, do not find the expression in offer model. Being realised in the concrete text, the reference language model of the offer is exposed to various structural changes.

In the text describing action, the lexical unit designating the semantic subject, is in a post-or prepositions in relation to a design, it is formal its eliminated. For example:

(81) Elle mit une main sur mes cheveux et les rejeta en arriere comme pour son baiser de soir quand j’etais enfant, mais ce soir-la, il n’y eut pas de baiser (F. Mauriac. Un adolescent d ’ autrefois p. 403);

(82) Un matin, le domestique qui faisait les pieces du bas, entend un revolver au premier etage, un cri d’angoisse; il se precipite; la chambre de ses maitres est fermee... La porte s’ouvrit, Madame de Villenave, les cheveux defaits, vetue d'une robe de chambre, se tenait debout au pied du lighted, un revolver a la main (F. Mauriac. Le noeud de viperes p. 129-130).

The context compensates a lack of the information on the real figure. It is possible to tell, that it acts some kind of the terminator of use of means of a concrete definition and identification of the semantic subject.

Thus, semantics of the text develops of set in different degree of the expressed components. In the formal plan the text consists of various designs with eksplitsitno and implitsitno the expressed subject.

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A source: ALEXANDER MIHAJLOVICH CHERVONYJ. STRUCTURE And FUNCTIONAL DYNAMICS of the CATEGORY the LANGUAGE SUBJECT (ON the MATERIAL of the FRENCH LANGUAGE). 2014
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