2.3. A role of the predicative centre in definition funktsionalnosemanticheskogo fields of the subject

From the ontologic point of view, the word accessory to this or that part of speech is defined by morphological forms and valency in which receive expression semantico-syntactical relations between this word and other lexical units in the given language.

So, names of persons un etudiant, un gar5on, un homme, un directeur, un aviateur, etc. Will mainly meet in a subject position in a role of the operating subject or the subject — the carrier of a condition, a sign. Names of subjects une pierre, un livre, un couteau, une fleur will be more often to name those subjects which become objects of human activity.

If the inanimate object name appears in a subject position in a design expressing process, — before us periphery of the semantico-syntactical field, one of a transform of the basic model.

As to the subject, it is possible to allocate direct dependence of its constructive role on a role of its reviewer in vnejazykovoj the validity. Agentivnaja function differs presence at an actant of all those characteristics which do the animated essence by the semantic subject.

However even in a subject position the animated noun does not guarantee the form of the semantic subject. Between the animated nouns, their positions in the offer, expressiveness-nevyrazhennostju in an offer design, concrete forms of the subject [Fran5ois 1994], object, the addressee, the addressee etc. (the terms designating the elementary scheme of the communicative certificate of R.Yakobson [Yakobson 1975], see tzh. [Apresjan 1986, 12-14]) not always there are direct conformity in superficial structure of expression.

We consider, that the category of a predicative sign and its carrier — the subject are, first of all, categories the logiko-semantic, expressed grammatical (structural) means. And logic level is deep in relation to semantics.

We, after French scientist ZH.K. The cook, we consider, that else since times of Grammar of the Time-grand pianos [Arno 1990] the offer (the statement, a discourse) has two levels: superficial level of expression (I say, that) and deep, immanent level of the maintenance (I believe/confirm, that). We will take advantage for an example of phrase ZH-K. The cook “Dieu est infini" [Coquet 1984, 14]:

Table 5. Two levels predikatsii (superficial and deep):
predikatsija
The expression plan Je dis que P (Dieu est infini)
The maintenance plan J’asserte que P (Dieu est infini)


The English variant such explicit performativov is found at J. Lakoffa: superficial — say and deep — state [Lakoff 1970]. The first expresses the linguistic (speech) certificate, the second — logikosemantichesky the certificate.

Thus, obviously, what role is played by a verb in identification of the subject: in respect of expression (statement) we see enuntsiatora

(Speaking subject), and in respect of the maintenance — conceiving (intentsionalnogo) the subject who in the real statement represents a single whole (merges with protagonistom). Thus in the analytical plan, at analysis metalevel there is a partition of the subject, and in the statement (superficial level) is observed sinkretizm the triune subject: speaking, reflexing and the figure (especially in a case Je dis que Je pense que Je n’y suis pour rien ^ Je n’y suis pour rien)

In the real statement performativnye verbs and verbs propozitsionalnogo relations (see more low), as a rule, fall (certain conditions for their explication [Arutyunov 1988]), carrying away for themselves and personal pronouns are necessary. In superficial structure remains only protagonist:

Table 6. A reduction of the subject and elimination performativnogo

(propozitsionalnogo) a verb
predikatsija
The expression plan Dieu est infini
The maintenance plan Relation (ego, l’infimte de Dieu)


Semantics and the form of expression of the subject and predicate in the offer shows their mutual selectivity [Vejnrejh 1981; Katts 1981]. The coordination based on conformity of harmony between nominal and verbal classes, it is necessary to name semantic [Stepans 1981а, 257]. At value sintaksicheski words connected among themselves there should be a same semantic component — the general sema [the Hook 1972]. Both it is predicative an interfaced component of the offer the semantikosintaksicheskimi potentialities, on I.P.Raspopova's expression, are prepared for a meeting with each other [Raspopov 1976]. Naturally, describing any process or the action, speaking uses for construction of the offer the lexical units bearing in a semantic charge of dynamics. It concerns both a choice of the semantic subject, and a predicate corresponding to it [Gross M. 1981; 1986; Gross G. 1994]. Inseparability of events from people who participate in them, conducts to penetration antroponimov in the subject or addition position, connected with them on sense aktsionalnye verbs appear in a predicate position [Kubrjakova 1992; Paducheva 1974; 1992; Rylov 2006; Benveniste 1949].

Thus, the lexical and grammatical field of the subject - protagonista is crossed with a lexical and grammatical field aktsionalnyh verbal predicates.

Aktsionalnye verbs on character of the action are subdivided by us into three groups (compare [Zolotov 1982, 162-163]). Such groups can be estimated logically [the Hook 1987], they are universal and are observed also in the French language:

The verbs designating physical actions of people: frapper qch; jeter qch; donner qch a qn, etc.;

The verbs expressing rechemyslitelnye actions: penser a qn; a qch; dire qch; raconter qch; etc.;

Verbs of motion of the subject: arriver a; voler a; partir pour; etc.

With a field sensual (worrying, intentsionalnogo) the subject following types of verbs are interfaced:

1). Verbs of emotional action (G.A.Zolotovoj's term): "aimer", “detester”, etc., which are expression of various feelings and emotions on advantage. The animated noun at such verbs, though plays defining role in formation of feelings (intentsionalnyh conditions [Searle 1985]) the subject, at the same time is not actually the agent [Seliverstov 1982, 142]. Many linguists include verbs emotional (propozitsionalnogo, intentsionalnogo) relations (this term is preferable) in a class of supports [Comrie 1976; Lyons 1977].

In offers with verbs “aimer”, “detester”, etc lexical designating the subject accept a role eksperientsera (U.Chejfa's term).

2). The animated substance designated by a name or a pronoun, also becomes ekspirientserom in a combination to verbs of perception "voir", “entendre”, etc. [Kibrik 1990, 17; CHejf 2003, 168].

3). Possession verbs “avoir”, “posseder”, etc. Demand in turn role performance, semanticheski distinct from function of the semantic subject-agent (protagonista). The relations taking place in benefaktivnoj of a situation and described by this type of verbs, are supported by the person called "benefitsiantom" [CHejf 2003]. Thus, not each verb can far give possibility to the animated name to be aktsionalnym the subject. The semantic role of an actant of a predicate depends on semantics, a verb combined with it, and, as a whole, from character of a situation which the verb reflects [Rylov 2006].

The verbs resulted above demanding the filled position of the subject, include in the value a component namerennosti (intentsionalnosti), that underlines semantic tesnejshuju communication of the subject and a predicate; they make one grammatical-semantic whole (kernel) having the value and sense [of Zolotov 2001 in the offer; Lomov 1994].

Thus, the midfield of the semantic subject is always connected with a predicate which lexical value, besides already included concepts about action, a way of its realisation and a direction, includes metaknowledge of its typical arguments [Lakoff 1981].

This knowledge is the most reliable index unmistakably specifying in presence — absence of the semantic subject-figure [Silnitsky 1973]. For example:

(25) Il faut que nous ayons un temoin de notre force: quelqu ’ un qui marque les coups, qui compte les points, qui nous couronne au jour de la recompense... (F. Mauriac. Le noeud de viperes, p. 131).

In the given example the semantic subject (un temoin) kataforicheski multiplitsiruetsja at the expense of a reduction in a pronoun quelqu ’ un qui which keeps semantics of the figure at the expense of action verbs (marquer, compter, couronner).

The semantic reduction here is connected with stilisticheski-text necessity of replacement of a concrete nomination of the figure the generalised reduced forms of the semantic subject in general, connected with a primary nomination only anaforicheski. Following J.D.Apresjana's concept, it is possible to assert, that such reduced forms concern the centre of a lexico-semantic field of the subject (see above) that proves our hypothesis reflected in the Scheme 3, about the central position of pronouns in an is functional-semantic field personalnosti.

(26) Therese, poursuivit-elle, avant de monter te coucher, previens notre brave intendant Dollon de donner les ordres necessaires pour qu ’ on atelle la voiture, demain matin a six heures (P. Souvestre, M. Alain. Fantomas, p. 139).

In an example (26) predicate defines a professional accessory of the real figure (servants on a stable).

Process of a reduction of the semantic subject is accompanied by reduction in functional conformity of a predicate with possible subjects in such cases. Semantic balance is reached by lexical and morphological means. For example, predicate pledge [Gurevich 1983] can change. The pledge category specifies in conformity - discrepancy of the semantic subject of a position taken by it in the offer, its expressivenesses-nevyrazhennosti. In certain cases of which it will be a question in following heads, dependence of a subject on the real figure is expressed by semantics of some verbs, such as: “recevoir”, “entendre”, “regarder”, “voir”, “ecouter” These verbs underline neagentivnuju a role of the subject, the animated substance in a subject position.

Thus, the word order in the French offer is not responsible (for rare, the truth, an exception) for distribution of semantic roles [Fillmor 1981]. Semantics of separate lexical units (since ‘ odushevlennost ’ etc. and even sema ‘ the person ’ can carry out a semantic sign both a role of the subject, and function of object of influence) also is not always capable to make it. Only the predicate reflecting a certain situation of action, ranges actants on roles. Everyone speaking, depending on data on a situation, chooses also in appropriate way expresses the real figure, the patient, the addressee etc. Sometimes, for whatever reasons, the semantic subject is reduced. In more details eksplitsitno-implitsitnye forms of elimination of the semantic subject will be considered by us in the second and third heads of the given research.

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A source: ALEXANDER MIHAJLOVICH CHERVONYJ. STRUCTURE And FUNCTIONAL DYNAMICS of the CATEGORY the LANGUAGE SUBJECT (ON the MATERIAL of the FRENCH LANGUAGE). 2014
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