the CHAPTER III. The LEXICO-SEMANTIC FIELD of MEANS RE DUKTSII of the SUBJECT IN the FRENCH LANGUAGE

Result of some the spent experiments with carriers of Russian and French of languages показал4, that, despite an open paradigm of lexical representation of the syntactic subject, in overwhelming majority of the immanent characteristic of the language subject, it kategorialnym a kernel becomes odushevlennost, and as a semantic kernel the sememe "person" [Verhoturova 2010 - el acts.
res.].

The person in language as it was already specified, receives set of various designations. It can be named on the public functions, sights, moral shape, moral propensities and tastes, on the acts and behaviour, a marital status, related communications, appearance, the relation to it speaking and to many other things, but is frequent, owing to the certain reasons, the lexical unit particularly expressing the Person, is replaced in speech, in the offer with the uncertain or generalised means of expression. Such potential variety, in our opinion, leads to an explicit reduction of the semantic subject. Apparently, than more important for language any concept (‘ an incarnate category ’), it is designated by especially various ways. Defining it appears intentsionalnyj a vector: to express in the offer presence of the subject.

In the third chapter offers with reduced RS, reflecting a subject situation in which action is carried out by that or other person are considered. The explicit reduction of the subject at syntactic level of the offer allows to express all components of a situation to the full

4 In particular, one of experiments became interpretation of a known phrase Glokaja kuzdra.... It is indicative, that among respondents (18-25 years) the majority of replacements was reduced to "human" sememes bad mum, the bad girl (has offended the guy, and now regrets). Psychologically experiment has proved, that the priority of "personal senses lays in sphere of human relations (compare [Zalevsky, 26-265]).

Actions. All semantic making structures “the Subject - Action - Object” in such languages, as French (the fixed word order), find in the offer the formal conformity [Perlmutter 1982]. Semantic values act in the offer in their speech realisations consistently, on a sequence of word forms. Thus, symmetric valency communication of a predicate with its basic actants is realised.

The offer with eksplitsitno the reduced subject expresses action, protagonist which, the real figure, semanticheski is shaded and presented not to the full. The circle of the nuclear pronouns allocated with function eksplitsitno to replace the subject, is rather limited. Pronouns “on”, ”quelqu’un”, “? a”, “qui” make recurrent enough grouping of lexicon which bears in itself initially most general, approximate representation about the real figure. Any of them designate a sign odushevlennosti, others only virtual communication with a predicate, i.e., mark (mark) a position of the subject in this or that syntactic role or actantial function (on Fillmoru). eksplitsitno the eliminated semantic subject loses the considerable part of the information characterising the person (referentsialnoe knowledge on O.Jokojama). Really, set this of an action source is not concretised. A sort and odushevlennost the real figure are not always designated obviously. Owing to language asymmetry all specified pronouns belong to third party group behind which the first or second face is often hidden, and the formal unique person of the given pronouns can really reflect semantic plurality of the subject. Explicit means of a reduction of the subject are directed on maximum nevyrazhennost characteristic this, making a category "person".

As we see, the explicit reduction of the subject is spent by lexical means which serve as only formal indicator of presence of the real figure, reprezentativom the subject (RS) at syntactic level of the offer. Explicit means of elimination of concrete forms of expression of the real figure make a separate subsystem in a lexico-semantic field of means of a reduction of the semantic subject.

Pronouns “on”, “quelqu’un”, “? a”, “qui” are in opposition to concrete forms of expression of the real figure, and also to implitsitnym to forms of a reduction of the semantic subject. Describing the action produced by the person, speaking resorts to a choice of one of the forms of expression of the semantic subject opposed each other or its full implitsitnosti. The choice of means of language expression of the real figure corresponds the subject of speech with contextual, situational and encyclopaedic knowledge (see above O.Jokojama's concept [Jokojama 2005]). Those elements of the plan of the maintenance which are informatively significant enter Into a syntactic sentence structure, i.e. relevant within one speech situation only. In case of a formal reduction of the semantic figure to restore it semnoe the maintenance, to concretise it, and furthermore to identify the reviewer without a situation and a context it is impossible [Raste 2001].

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A source: ALEXANDER MIHAJLOVICH CHERVONYJ. STRUCTURE And FUNCTIONAL DYNAMICS of the CATEGORY the LANGUAGE SUBJECT (ON the MATERIAL of the FRENCH LANGUAGE). 2014
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