1.2. The Semiotiko-functional method of research of a language category of the subject

The semiotiko-functional method becomes a basis, methodological base in our research. It has the sources, various treatments and realisations which vary depending on this or that foreshortening of the appendix and in aggregate, by a principle dopolnitelnosti Nilsa the Pine forest [1], make a uniform scientific paradigm in language researches.

N.N.Boldyrev naming a method "is functional-semiotics", reminds: «One of firm postulates of linguistics says, that each language represents not only and not so much static system of reflexion of an external world, its semantic model, how many and first of all the communication medium, the tool of speech activity, what even system aspect of language necessarily reflects its functional potential and signs of its real functioning» [Boldyrev 2001, 382]

Let's consider the basic postulates of this method, making a start from positions of one of its first adherents - the German psychologist and the linguist - Charles Bjulera who in the fundamental work «the language Theory» wrote: «the Ultimate goal of the present book - to show, that a scientific source of such theory is sematologija, and to show, how the general theory of signs can be realised in modern spirit on a material of such amazingly multilateral mechanism what language» [Bjuler 2000 is, 6-7].

K.Bjuler initially considered language as the tool (organon), given to the person for the activity product, organised “homo faber” (the manufacturer of tools) for realisation of three basic functions: «the sign appears multifunctional (has three functions): it is a symbol owing to the correlation to subjects and states of affairs, it is a symptom owing to the dependence on the sender and it is a signal owing to the appeal to the listener, it operates whose external behaviour or inwardness» [Bulygin 2000, XIX].

Allocation at K.Bjulera of three functions of language: 1. Representative; 2. Expressional and 3. Appellative — correlates with a function chart of the speech certificate of R.Yakobson which, as is known, allocated, depending on parametres of the communicative certificate (besides correlating), six functions, functions making a paradigm «language - speeches»: 1.

Referentivnuju; 2. Emotivnuju; 3. Konativnuju; 4. Fatichesky; 5. Poetic; 6. Metalanguage [Yakobson 1975].

Since then it is considered, that realisation of these functions is immanently inherent in each communicative certificate, whether it be the statement or the text.

Such approach, undoubtedly, it is possible to consider as interaktsionalnyj, on the one hand, and teleologic — with another. Interaktsionalnost such approach it is shown in the account of "the factor of the addressee» [Arutyunov 1981]. «Repeated opening of the partner in speech, - as writes

Elizabeth Shtreker in the foreword to "Axiomatics" reprinting, — represents K.Bjulera's special merit before linguistics »(TSit. On [Bulygin 2000, XIX] - it is allocated by us CH).

The model of the initial speech situation which necessary elements are speaking, listening and subjects (and states of affairs) about which there is a speech, in K.Bjulera's treatment assumes, «that speaking and listening are not what peripheral elements, a part of on what it can be informed; they take in a speech situation the own positions anyhow reflected in the statement, and in some cases acting on the foreground. Here we can speak about« the subject-objective relations "and" the subject-subject »relations [Petrenko 1988], first of which the second correspond to representative (descriptive) function, and - appellative (on Bjuleru), konativnoj (on Yakobson), argumentativnoj (on K.Popper [Popper 1983] and O.Djukro [Ducrot 1976]), and also interpersonalnoj to function (Alfyorov 2007] see [).

Special positions of participants of a speech situation predetermine communication of a sign not only with subjects and situations on which it is informed in the statement, but also with each of them.

Thus, the sense of any speech statement is derivative of interface intentsionalnostej and implikatsy (speech intentions and conclusions) co-operating speech subjects concerning the reviewer.

Besides sotsiodialogicheskogo the approach, for our research its intellectual activity connected, undoubtedly, with a society, with its language picture of the world (JAKM) and in many respects defined by the same JAKM is of great importance kognitivnaja ipostas the subject. Taking into consideration

Substantial enough and capacious works on the given problematics [Koskina 2004; Magirovsky 2009; Marylin 2006; SHkajderova 2007], we will stop on two researches opposite, at first sight, which subject is semasiological and onomasiologicheskaja ipostasi the subject. The first work is devoted display of the subject in language at it, probably, maximum implitsitnosti, nevyrazhennosti, but realisations in various means of expression, and the main thing - in a word [Bubnova 2008]. The second work [Nikitin 2006] represents "image-kontsept" the person ”» as object of wide semantic research, as an integral part kognitivnogo perceptions of a language picture of the world: «the person as the subject and object language kontseptualizatsii";" Image - kontsept "person" in Russian language picture of the world »etc. [In the same place: 3-5]. Stopping on the analysis of modern anthropological semantics, L.B.Nikitin underlines variety of approaches and aspects of a science about the person in language: from V Humboldt's background to« a computer metaphor »kognitivnoj semantics in which basis ideas kognitivnoj the psychology studying processes lay, connected with knowledge of the world the person: processes of reception, storage and information processing (see [Fodor 1986]). One of points of the research program of L.B.Nikitinoj is« stereotypification of the person of the reasonable world in Russian language picture », and"reasonable"it is necessary to perceive terminologically as«sapiens», instead of aksiologicheski, since otsenochnost semantic line of an image-category «homo sapiens» in Russian language picture of the world is considered separately as kategorialnaja, in particular, ways of its expression, for example, reflexion in a language image-category «homo sapiens» an estimated dichotomy «clever - silly» etc. In this aspect L.B.Nikitinoj's work participates in Russian (and can be, and prevails) in kognitivnodeskriptivnoj to a paradigm in which basis "reconstruction" of Russian language picture of the world (RJAKM) lays, containing "image-category" of the person in all it ipostasjah. "Stereotypification" of such image easily allows to allocate semantic blocks or the fields characterising the person (as in a role of the subject, and object), for example: « Ways of expression of intellectual sphere of the person »or an image of a category« homo sapiens »in a speech genre« censure "(approval)", etc. act as not casually illustrative material basically phraseology and paremii. Really, they represent the usual in "language-speech" usual and stable estimated nominations «homo sapiens». It is necessary to notice, that this idea is conformable to modern representations about «a role of the person» in communications, in particular, and to ideas of E.Benvenista rather popular now [Benveniste 1966], G.Guillaume [Guillaume 1992], V.G.Kolshanskogo [Kolshansky 1975], J.S.Stepanova [Stepans 1981а], K.Kerbrat-Orekkioni [Kerbrat-Orecchioni 1980; 2002], etc. about "subjectivity" penetrating all language.

Here pertinently to mention also one of primogenitors of semiotics —

CH.S.pier and its representation about semiozise — dynamic process sign formation. CH.S.pier, as is known, differs that one of the main components of structure of a sign considered (along with meaning and meant, as well as at F de Sossjura [Sossjur 1990]) Interpretantu as internal property of a sign to be interpreted [the Pier 2000]. interpretanta as «the internal form» sign defines communication between meant and meaning for co-operating subjects of speech. Arising «here and now» interpretanta as the result implikativnoj (revealing sense) "interpreter" activity (on C.Morrisu [Morris 1946]) gradually is included into usage, and then and in norm of language, turning in "symbol" - a conventional sign. As marks U.Eko, «a sign, causing a number of direct reactions (power interpretantov), gradually creates a certain habit (a habit), a certain regularity of behaviour at interpre - tatora (or the user) this sign. As the habit is «propensity... To behave in the similar image under similar circumstances in the future», definitive interpretant a sign is and there is a given habit.

Differently, the parity between value and reprezentamenom («a sign body», on the Pier - A.CH) gets the form of the law (law) »[Eko 2007, 321].

K.Bjuler has put forward «the Principle abstraktivnoj relevance» which essence consists in the following: «When in a role of a sign-carrier on sense acts sensually perceived hic et nunc a thing all set of its concrete properties should not be connected with semantic function carried out by it. On the contrary, for its functioning as a sign this or that is relevant« the abstract moment »(TSit. On [Bulygin 2000, XX]). Allocation of relevant signs of"thing"and the statement about it develops today in« Theories of prototypes »E.Rosh and J. Lakoffa [Lakoff 2004]),« a relevance Principle »[Grice 1979],« relevance Theories »[Sperber 1989], etc.

In connection with the aforesaid it is again reversible to the semiotics concept

CH.S.pier. As well as K.Bjuler, CH.S.pier allocated three functional types of a sign, depending on distinction in the basis for them semiozisa, i.e. in interpretante. The Sign-icon is based on isomorphism with meant (a photo, a card, in language - onomatopeja); the sign-index at the heart of the interpretanty has instructions (a directing arrow, index words, etc.) . Such sign is completely situational (is pragmatic) and depends on a context and a situation [Kerbrat-Orecchioni 2002]. The index is close to a symptom, and its implication (sense extraction) operates by a principle «if And» and often depends on a situation (interpretations and aksiologii). For example, movement by a head upwards and downwards in Russian and the French use means "yes", and in Bulgarian - "is not present", in east etiquette it is not accepted to sit before the interlocutor a foot on a foot (to show the soles - it is offensive for associates) as well as to look «eyes in eyes» to the interlocutor), etc. In language universal dejktikom (the index, a marker) is prosodija and, in particular intonation («an expression in a voice and in language» on K.Bjuleru)

[Aleksandrova 1987; Bjuler 2000, 8; Potapov 2003; 2006; Torsueva 1979]. In language signs-indexes have, as a rule, no constant referentsii. Their reviewer exists «here and now», losing referentsialnuju communication with designated out of a situation of their relevant actualisation in speech. It dejkticheskie nominations (index words) "I", "here", "now", "yesterday", "the day before" etc. Such words often name "relative" or "sinsemanticheskimi" [Gulyga 1967; Solomonik 1995]. However dejkticheskuju on those or other aspects of communications «speech words» can carry out instructions function and so-called: interjections, particles, modusnye verbs, adverbs and so forth [Alfyorov 2001]. Their canonization and a role in speech behaviour [Sternin 2000; Karasik 2008; Shahovsky 2008] depends often from

«Behaviour regularities» and at the heart of the receives final interpretantu, coming nearer to a symbol. And at last, interpretanta a sign-symbol it is based on "habit" or "arrangement" within the limits of this or that ethno-or sotsiostereotipa, that F de Sossjur and named "konventsionalnostju" a sign. Borders between signs are mobile, and, as shown above, the sign-index can come nearer to a symbol, or on the contrary such meaning-bearing words as "freedom", "equality", "brotherhood", as well as certain speech strategy, can aksiologicheski specify, for example, on political credo or speech behaviour of the language person [Sentries 2007; G rishaeva 2009].

Long before creation of "the Theory of speech certificates» [Austin 1970; Searle 1972], modern attempts of structurization of dialogue [Borisov 2007] and speech interaction [Roulet 1985] K.Bjuler as the seer of the today's approach to dichotomy F de Sossjura about language and speech, not rejecting it, offers transtsendentalnyj the approach to a problem of such division.

Already today N.N.Boldyrev writes: «... At functional - semiologicheskom the approach language acts as uniform object - language-speech that allows to consider interaction of its two aspects: static and dynamic, system and functional (dejatelnostnogo)» [Boldyrev 2001, 387].

K.Bjuler in «the language Theory» has allocated four conditions in language existence in operation: I.1 Speech action (RD), I.2 the Speech certificate [2] (RA), II.1

Language product (JAP), II.2 Language structure (JAS) [Bjuler 2000, 50 and a trace.].

Schematically K.Bjuler specifies in interactions between them:

Table 2. Interaction of structural levels of language (on K.Bjuleru)

I. II.

Where 1. - actions and products at the lowest step of formalisation;

2. — certificates and structures at the higher step of formalisation;

I. — Correlated with the subject;

II. — Distracted from the subject and consequently interpersonal.

As an example of the lowest level of K.Bjuler results the following analysis, leading it eventually phraseology and paremijam: «At first it is reversible to speech action and to language product. I do not know, whether really Caesar has told once Alea jacta est (« The die is cast ») or whether Luther in Vormse Hier steh ichimd kann nicht anders (« Ha volume I stand and I can not differently ») has told. In my opinion, these statements repeat after their authors as the examples which are of interest from the point of view of their speech character, almost the same as also history with Kolumbovym jajtsom. Plutarh tells about Caesar's stop at the river Rubicon and internal fluctuation of the commander. Further I quote:« At last, as though having rejected reflexions and bravely directing towards to the future, he has said words, usual for the people entering the brave enterprise which outcome will be doubtful "Let the lot is thrown!" — Also has moved to transition ». Thus, Caesar has not shown an ingenuity, it has used« a usual appeal »which associates since then at all Latin scholars with Caesar's boldness. What should be speech linguistics if to take into consideration, what Caesar and Luther's statements take a certain place in this system?

It would be possible to supply both statements with valuable biographic (historical) comments and to reflect in a subject catalogue of department of the linguistic literature. Trying to understand essence of a problem, it would be possible to operate more resolutely and to think in general of a word role in a human life, about its influence on destiny speaking other persons, about glorification of diplomats, exposure of fools and its transformation into a phraseological unit. The popular expression has speech character irrespective of, whether is it a vocable, the offer, an idiom or a proverb. We will come nearer to the purpose, slightly having displaced accent from destiny of the person on words. Each phraseological and not phraseological expression can be interpreted as the human act, after all each concrete statement is connected with other conscious actions of the given person. It ranks with acts and itself is an act »[Bjuler 2000, 52-53 - is allocated by us CH].

If speech action and the speech certificate are pragmatic and situational (and first of all are connected with the speaking subject) language product, on Bjuleru, is equated to the offer, and in its representation «there is a clearing of the offer of a speech situation» [In the same place: 54 it is allocated by us - A.CH.].

So, speech action gives rise to speech product - the offer (on K.Bjuleru). Distinction between them makes correlation to the subject. Speech action necessarily has the author and, as a rule, the reference to this authorship. Speech product (e.g., steady expression — a phraseological unit or paremija), as well as any another again created RP,

Gets the status of the offer torn off from the concrete author and concrete conditions of its product and perceived exclusively from knowledge of language structure (JAS), i.e. syntactic and other grammatical rules of this or that language. Here structure and it konventsionalnost leave on the foreground and possess exclusive signs and properties of this language, since phonetics and phonology and finishing syntactic links, a word order, etc. In support of the thesis about «clearing of the offer of a situation» K.Bjuler appeals to idea immanentizma the recognised structuralist - F de Sossjura («Language in itself and for itself»), not forgetting about its other saying: about «a unification of sense and an acoustic image», confirming with that, that «semantic relations really make the object named“ language ”» [Bjuler 2000, 57]. However, including semantics in language (the maintenance plan), To. Bjuler inevitably should assume and possibility of different interpretation (see, e.g. [Raste 2001]) which he as though lays aside. Connection process sintaktiki and semantics develops in modern researches a little differently: «the Center... Language the offer is. Starting with

Statements as centre, the researcher with the help of "shuttle procedure» makes operations of abstraction from syntax to semantics, from semantics again to syntax and back while — in the course of extending abstraction — will not establish, at least, hypothetically, all communications of semantics and syntax, i.e. System as a whole »[Stepans 1981, 9]. Here, in our opinion, the specification brought by K.Bjulerom, separating lexical value from syntactic (a word and the offer) is necessary. To Bjuler, being the psychologist, represented hierarchy of language at least in two significant units — a word and the offer (compare [Zalevsky 2005]):« the First class

Language structures and corresponding establishments as though pursues the aim to break off the world on a part, to dismember on classes of things, processes etc., to divide into abstract aspects, each of which correlates with a sign while the second class aspires to give in advance sign means for the same designing (reprezentiruemogo) the world on the basis of relations »[Bjuler 2000, 70]. Here, according to G.A.Zolotovoj,« there are preconditions of the analysis of the offer, generalising which results should pour out in regular classification of syntactic models ».

Preconditions this following:

1). Abstraction level on which language elements become sintaksicheski relevant Should be established.

L.V.ShCherby's well-known experimental phrase «Glokaja kuzdra shteko budlanula bokra and kuzdrjachit bokrenka», repeatedly interpreted by linguists, tsenna and that gives accurate representation about border between lexicon and syntax. Grammatichnost this offer allows to understand, that it is a question of actions of one live beings in relation to another and its cub. Remained the unknown person concerns lexicon, to individual lexical values. Known contains the sufficient information on kategorialno-semantic value of components, organizujushchih a syntactic design. It also is level of syntactic relevance.

2). At this level offer components as parts whole, being simultaneously with carriers of structural and semantic values also are allocated... »[Zolotov 1988, 54].

Thus, to transfer concrete thought to the interlocutor, speaking should use not simply the pledged word as a language sign in the value fixed to it, but also definitely to arrange this value under expressed thought, i.e. To generate its functional value (sense) by means of concrete language means: grammatical value of this word, lexical and grammatical values of other words combined with it, type of a syntactic design, etc. In other words, transition «from taksonomicheskih classifications to sushchnostjam other sort — to statements [3]» [In the same place is necessary: 17]; see tzh. [Boldyrev 2001, 386; Zolotov 1988; 2001].

K.Bjuler insists that the language structure (JAS) comes off the subject, it «interpersonal ("sotsialna"- on Sossjuru). And if the speech certificate (RA) by the nature is individual and situational (today we would tell — is pragmatic, occasional,“ token "unlike" type ”- on the Pier)« the theory of structures deduced by former methods from original model of language as organona, and thereby from objective treatment of language and the social character of language interfaced to it, should precede logically or at least to be logically rjadopolozhnoj the theory of certificates focused on the subject »[Bjuler 2000, 66].

In such foreshortening all "toolkit" of system of language, its elements and categories are directed on specific goal achievement, namely «sematologicheskoj relevance» (on K.Bjuleru), i.e. the combination of elements of system (JAS) and their functions depends on the message purposes according to a situation and intentsionalnostjami partners in communications.

— paradigmatic and syntagmatic — K.Bjuler considered as basic means of association of two types of relations the "field" which has come to linguistics from psychology. Psychologists first of all connected "field" with an internal lexicon [Zalevsky 2000] and associative communications. And, as marks And. R.Lurija, allocates two basic types of associations - external and internal, proved by various experiments (see tzh. [Reasonable behaviour 2008; Kognitivnye researches 2006; 2008]).

A.R.Lurija writes: "Under" external »associative communications« associations on a contiguity »when the pledged word causes any component of that evident situation which includes the named object (such associative communications, as« the house — a roof "," a dog — a tail usually are understood "," a cat — the mouse »etc. can be an example similar"external"associative communications).

"Internal" associative communications are understood as those communications which are caused by word inclusion in a certain category («a dog — an animal","a chair — furniture","an oak — a tree»). These associations in classical psychology were called «as associations on similarity"or"associations by contrast». It is easy to see, that in this research involuntarily emerging verbal communications reflect those features touch, nagljadnodejstvennogo or "kategorialnogo" thinking... »[Lurija 1998, 96].

However, on A.R.Lurii's expression, «abundantly clear, that similar attempts to understand generation of the whole coherent statement from separate denotativnyh or konnotativnyh word meanings are insolvent: neither the designation, nor generalisation of subjects, actions and properties, actualisation of" semantic fields », standing up for a word, yet do not lead to occurrence of the coherent statement which basic form is the phrase» [In the same place: 156].

Nevertheless, at metalevel polevyj the principle receives development in modern functional linguistics (see, e.g., [Bondarko 2002]). Concerning elements and categories of language such functional approach,

Being teleologic, it is represented as onomasiologichesky (from function to an element as to means of its satisfaction). Such approach unites raznourovnevye language elements in is functional-semantic fields (on A.V.Bondarko). A.V.Bondarko marks: «By consideration of aspects

Differentiation and integration of various types of categories and categories into grammar sphere the concept «kategorialnoe unity» can be used. This concept of offered interpretation covers bilateralnye categories, classes and categories, and also the fields allocated on a semantic basis including various grammatical and leksiko-grammatical structures in a combination to elements of "front lexicon» (compare funktsionalnosemanticheskie fields aspektualnosti, temporalnosti, taksisa, personalnosti, kachestvennosti, lokativnosti, bytijnosti, posessivnosti, etc.).

The concept «kategorialnoe unity» reflects wide sphere kategorizatsii in which interaction of components of a grammatical system is realised. In system kategorizatsii the important role gradual transitions and partial crossings of system objects play mezhkategorialnye communications; one of the concepts integrating various types of analyzed relations, — «field structures» [Bondarko 2009, 21-22].

Further it allocates unities of three types: grammatical, leksikogrammaticheskie and is functional-semantic kategorialnye unities:

1). Grammatical categories and is substantial-structural types of syntactic designs;

2). Parts of speech and lexical and grammatical classes allocated in their structure, and also more fractional categories;

3). Semantic categories in their language expression (in razrabaty - vaemoj A.V.Bondarko of model of functional grammar — funktsionalnosemanticheskie fields).

The language category of the subject can be considered, for example, within the limits of an is functional-semiotics field personalnosti as set «kategorialnyh unities» three types set forth above correlating with language elements of the different sign nature.

Speaking about importance of the account mezhkategorialnyh communications, interaction of lexical and grammatical forms, it is necessary to recollect (without what funktsionalnosemiotichesky the approach would remain incomplete) three concepts, allowing to structure so various means and their relations.

First, it is the thesis (integrating) J.S.Stepanova whom after E.Benvenistom [Benvenist 1974], G.Guillaume [Guillaume 1992], etc., underlines: «the anthropocentrism Principle implitsitno contains and in the concepts based on« the central role of syntax »as their original basis is not so much syntax in general, how many syntax of the statement analyzed in a concrete situation.

At last, this principle receives explicit expression in the concept of the semiotics device of language where the central role of system of indexes «I — here — now» and a role antropotsentricheskoj metaphors »[Stepans 2001 is proved, 51]. Moreover, the anthropocentrism principle is one of the process bases of" grammar integration »[In the same place] as association of various language categories in frameworks of" a supercategory »occurs finally on the basis of that they so are grouped in language consciousness speaking — the researcher» [Stepans 2001, 51].

Thus, supercategory formation «the language subject» assumes the account of crossing of such lexical and grammatical categories, as definiteness/uncertainty, odushevlennost/inanimateness,

Mutual relations of semantics of the subject and predicate etc.

The anthropocentrism principle is supplemented with a functional principle of research of language, and function, on J.S.Stepanovu, «... There is a transposition and in this sense — conformity between two variables; but this transposition, always creating language unit, actual for the given situation, carries out thereby a certain problem speaking and in this sense answers its purpose, receiving“ a role and a problem ”» [In the same place: 41 - it is allocated by us - A.CH.].

The second concept represented to us necessary at operating by a functional method, definition is

V.G.Gaka's functional approach [the Hook 1998, 180-195]. It allocates

Some postulates summarising main principles of the functional approach in linguistics:

1. The functional approach investigates objects (subjects) in their relation to Wednesday, the relation between the subject object which is a substratum or the carrier of function, and environment. Element function (the subject - of object) is defined by its role in system. Therefore functioning studying allows to understand the internal device of object (subject) better. Functioning is first of all movement.

2. The functional approach, investigating the relation of subject objects to Wednesday, studies their role in a context of the whole. Hence, it is necessary to speak about part function in relation to the whole...

3. The concept of function is connected with concept of a special-purpose designation irrespective of, whether this appointment as the nature or the person is created. It is necessary to distinguish, thus, concepts function, the use and effect.

Function is structurally caused: the object (subject) arises or is created with a definite purpose thanks to which achievement the object (subject) or system as a whole remains. But appointment can vary. In that case it is necessary to speak about secondary, portable function of object (subject).

The use differs from function nepredusmotrennostju systems, but approaches with function of purposefulness of action in which function is shown. Use has irregular, facultative character.

The effect is characterised by purposefulness. We will specify: effect it is not simple intentsionalnost (namerennost and an orientation), but also its realisation.

At last, V.G.Gak marks: «Difference of function from the use and effect lays, apparently, at the heart of distinction of semantics and pragmatists of the language statement» [the Hook 1998, 182].

Last judgement brings us to third methodically important concept: speaking about is functional-semiotics aspect of a category

And recognising a presumption of the sign nature of means of its expression, it is possible to result the subject correlating with the above-stated unities triedinstvo plans of structure of a sign on C.Morrisu: sintaktika a sign as features of designing of the plan of expression (‘ JAP ’ and ‘ JAS ’ on K.Bjuleru - see above); semantics of a sign as «relations of signs to their objects» and, at last, «an object of research can become, further, the relation of signs to interpreters. This relation we name pragmatical measurement semiozisa, and studying of this measurement — pragmatikoj» [Morris 1983].

However the first embodiment of an is functional-semiotics method in the language theory belongs to K.Bjuleru who has divided language on two "hyperfields": a field indeksalnosti (dejksis) and a field deskriptivnosti (a symbolical field) [Bjuler 2000].

Thus, at centre and periphery definition chasterechnoj and lexico-semantic components of a hyperfield of the subject in language we lean on kategorialnuju kategorializatsiju the language subject (J. Lakoff), on functional-polevyj a principle of the organisation of the elements expressing a category (including gradualnost and shkalirovanie, defining kernel and periphery) (A.V.Bondarko, K.Bjuler, V.G.Gak, etc.) and in respect of expression — on prototipicheski relevant division on dejkticheskoe and a nominative field in language (K.Bjuler).

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More on topic 1.2. The Semiotiko-functional method of research of a language category of the subject:

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  4. 2.2. A reduction of the semantic subject as display of functional dynamics in language
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