2.1.0 new approaches to studying of development of the Soviet/Russian - Mongolian relations in first half of XX-th century

Formation, character and features of new, partner relations equal in rights between the Russian Federation and Mongolia with which for today development Soviet - the Mongolian relations has approached, it is impossible to estimate objectively, not addressing to earlier stages of history of two-way communications of these two countries.
The objective approach should start with results of new perusal of the historic facts relieved of such defects, as their "adjustment" under any theory, prosecution of the pragmatical purposes, etc. Such approach forms a basis of the author's concept as a whole which includes the account of lessons of the historical past of Russia and Mongolia, a paradigm of strategy of their development and the forecast of formation of new mutual relations under the influence of new tendencies of development of world history. The given section is devoted the analysis of Soviet-Mongolian, mainly political and military-political relations on a large time piece (quarter of the century) in which frameworks the international relations as a whole were defined by such largest drama events in history of all mankind as two world wars, disintegration of world colonial system, occurrence on a card of the world of the big number of the new independent states which have formed a special enclave in structure of the world community - developing countries («the third world»), occurrence of the socialist states. Its evolution - from the policy of the imperial government aimed at the decision so-called «Mongolian question» in favour of Russian empire was feature of interaction of Russia and Mongolia those years; after revolution of 1917 - on moral and material support of national-liberation movement in External Mongolia for the purpose of formation on the borders of the independent state, its use for distribution of communistic ideas to China and directions MNR on a socialist way of development. On time this period is outlined by frameworks 1921 - 1946 taking into account following factors: External Mongolia declared itself the independent state (1921), has established a republican system, (1924) has taken a noncapitalistic way of development and became the independent sovereign state in 1946 - after has been recognised that from the party gomindanovskogo China. All these sweeping changes in a life of the Mongolian people have occurred at the most active participation, the help, assistance and influence of Soviet Union. The history of the Soviet-Mongolian relations of a specified period when internal conditions in both states worried the hardest displays of a totalitarian mode, has especially visually shown as huge advantages of cooperation and solidarity of the great power with small underdeveloped country, and their essential costs. Therefore studying of the Soviet-Mongolian relations of that time in spite of the fact that till 1990 they were widely enough studied from ideological positions, is of great importance for revealing strong and weaknesses of experience of the Soviet-Mongolian relations, their influence on their further development. Thus the author of dissertation aspired, recognising all value of the ideological factor to estimate these relations taking into account a real international situation and problems of internal development of both countries. Struggle MNR for the statement of the state independence and its recognition from China was a dominant of this stage.
For the period specified above such largest events of the international life, as formation of the USSR (1924), creation of world socialist system, world split on two camps and the beginning of "cold war» had also. This section, proceeding from paramount value of a political component of the international relations, transition to the subsequent heads of the dissertation devoted to trade and economic, scientific and cultural relations of two countries is anticipated. In such historical context and under its influence there was a formation and development of relations between Soviet Union and the Mongolian National Republic. Those years the establishment of official diplomatic relations between two states, a new mode of trade and economic, investment, scientific and cultural cooperation has taken place. On high level military-political cooperation of Soviet Union and Mongolia, served in a result to business of wide international recognition MNR and the played huge value in stabilisation of geopolitical conditions in the Far East has risen. In the Soviet policy of that period on the Mongolian direction support of independent status MNR by Moscow, perfection of its international status, the subject of the international relations equal in rights prevailed. Consecutive and persevering influence of the USSR on internal processes in parallel increased in this country, bringing Mongolia to problems of building of socialism on the Soviet sample. Under its influence and direct influence of personal relations of the Mongolian leaders with Stalin and other higher Soviet heads management MNR borrowed the USSR methods of "red terror», the heat of reprisals in Soviet Union has generated a similar situation in the Mongolian National Republic. Influence of the Soviet state and Komintern stimulated also acceleration of rates of confiscation of cattle at the former feudal lords and large llamas, collectivisation and industrialisation carrying out, introduction of the planned beginnings in a national economy. Simultaneously the USSR rendered Mongolia the invaluable help in formation of its economy and an infrastructure taking into account modern achievements of science and technology, widely promoted 8 preparation of national shots, the organisation of modern system of national education and medicine. Listed above event and the facts (actually them much more) - only the most general outline, only a large contour of the Soviet-Mongolian relations. Actually they represent the wide historical cloth which has absorbed in both many achievements, and contradictions of the epoch, which else continue to influence development of the Russian-Mongolian relations and today. First, it is expedient to remind, that in 1921 in Mongolia there was a victory of revolution which in the Mongolian historiography prior to the beginning of 1990th named народной139. Attempts of reconsideration of its character and the name Now have become frequent. Many scientific, domestic and foreign, even more often name national-democratic революцией140. Attempts to state a new estimation of character of the Mongolian revolution of 1921 were undertaken and before, at various times, but special success have not crowned. And only in 1990th the new term even more often began to meet in some diplomas MNRP, in separate works of the Russian and Mongolian scientists. Specially in scientific frameworks the question on character of revolution publicly and in all width has been lifted for the first time at the international conference in Ulan Bator in June, 1990 In the report of the Mongolian historian of the senior generation L.Ochirbata devoted to a periodization of modern history of Mongolia as a whole, revolution of 1921 it was offered to define as national - a democratic revolution, recognising that its main task there was a gain and revival of national statehood. It is possible to assume also, that such formulation has been made to underline on purpose, that national clearing was a revolution problem (from China), from here there is a first part of definition - «national revolution». The term "democratic" says that in revolution motive forces were wide national 1Э* TSedenbal J.Istorichesky a way of development of socialist Mongolia.-Ulan Bator. 1976; Choybalsan X. Iltgel uguulluud (articles and performances).-Ulan Bator. 1953; SHirendyb B.Istorija of the Mongolian national revolution of 1921-M.: the Main edition of east literature, 1976; the Collection «Mongolyn tuhaj BHK (N-yn barimt bichig (1920-1952). Barimtyn emhtgel (Documents VKP (about Mongolia Volume SH 1920-1932) I Sost. S.Damdinsuren, O.Batsajhan, And S.Zheleznjakov, B. N.Shepelev.-Ulan Bator. 2002. It is the multivolume collection of documents «Mongolia in documents VKP (. Its feature - attraction of documents from« a special folder »Central Committee RKP Political bureau () - VKP (), a legal part to Political bureau sessions, Orgbjuro, secretary of the Central Committee, the documents prepared by the Mongolian commission of the Political bureau of Central Committee VKP (), letters, messages of supervising figures of two countries, record of their conversations etc. Sm, for example, Roschin S.K.political history of Mongolia (1921-1940). - M: WILLOWS of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 1999. - C. 8. Weights, also revolution for the sake of interests of the people has come true. (It is considerable later this idea S.Roschin in its monography «Political history of Mongolia» (1999) has developed Russian mongoloved. One more Mongolian historian K.Zardyhan at the same conference named revolution of 1921 by national revolutionary revolution or national revolution, that is revolution emancipating, but without the set purpose on prospect. Undoubtedly, that on occurrence of such definitions of essence and character of revolution the big influence has rendered the new reference to sights X. Choybalsan, stated by it in the monography «History of the Mongolian revolution (Mongolyn huvgalyn tuuh)» (1944). Separate scientists defined the Mongolian revolution as bourgeois-democratic revolution of new type, by analogy to revolutions in other countries which were taking place in first half of the XX-th century (I.J.Zlatkin and others). Separate Mongolian scientists try to revive this definition. Known Mongolian historian C.Dashdavaa, for example, also names revolution of 1921 by revolution bourgeois-democratic революцией126, and begun then modernisation by transformations of "national - democratic character» 127. A little later it defines it as revolution of national-democratic character, underlining those emancipating mission of this certificate. Let's pay also attention to the head third «National - a democratic revolution 1921 (1921-1924)» In «History of Mongolia» (volume V) (2003). In it authors avoid to address to some base characteristics of subjects of revolution, for example, is told nothing about character of party. The general conceptual number is built as follows: revolution national - democratic, and national are a party, army, the government. In the work text there are also other names - national revolution, bourgeois-democratic revolution. Behind all these attempts there is an aspiration to use as criterion the class approach (bourgeois-democratic revolution), or to put in the forefront revolution merits in restoration of the Mongolian statehood and its role in democratic transformations of the country (national - a democratic revolution). It is remarkable, that at all distinctions in characteristics of character of revolution of 1921 in each of them there are strengths, but any of them does not reflect the main specificity of Mongolia. Therefore, according to the author of dissertation for today it would be expedient to leave former definition of revolution as national as this term answers a question on motive forces (people), about the revolution purpose (the national state). Not casually, that among the Mongolian researchers any certain terminological name of the Mongolian revolution of 1921 It especially considerably how in such large generalising work as recently left in Ulan Bator «the History of Mongolia» is observed on this question as it is told above, defined разнобой128 has not affirmed yet. Probably, that destruction of dependence of Mongolia from China that is distinctly traced under the first documents of the Mongolian people party was the main task of National revolution. Therefore in the dissertation the traditional term defining revolution of 1921 as «Mongolian national revolution» that is how it was made by creators of this revolution - the first Mongolian revolutionaries and the Mongolian people party will be used. Thereby we will show to them due respect and at the same time we will remind, that new definitions of character of the Mongolian revolution of 1921 are put forward many decades later after it svershenija. As the historians, offering to rename revolution in national-democratic, do not urge to rename, for example, national-revolutionary party in National-democratic party. It is necessary to consider and that circumstance, that attempt to review character and a terminological designation of revolution of 1921 from positions of today naturally reflects changes in the historical consciousness, the caused absolutely new conditions. In the Mongolia in the mid-nineties, when MNRP made efforts separating itself, present, from MNRP yesterday's, the similar idea was put forward, but has not received majority support. Having left in the name definition "national", MNRP has underlined necessity of preservation of historical continuity and the readiness to bear responsibility for the former errors made in the past. Hence, this circumstance is necessary for considering and more carefully to concern revaluation of concepts and terms with which the first Mongolian revolutionaries operated. The Mongolian national revolution of 1921 has opened a new stage in history of the Soviet-Mongolian relations and has put in pawn bases for their development in new conditions. The Mongolian heads have accepted a course on peace development of revolution. The primary goal they saw in destruction of a feudal system, in development of productive forces on the basis of variety of patterns of ownership, in maintenance of national unity, in strengthening of independence and national safety of the country. Provide the decision of such problem Mongolia could only at strong support from the outside. In a choice of the ally of alternative at it it was not simple. On southern borders of the country China still considered Mongolia as the country entering into its structure. And in the name of the USSR Mongolia could count on its military help and support as it and itself represented geopolitical interest for Moscow. But a primary factor was that Russia and Mongolia at that time had general problems - world preservation on borders and aversion of capitalism as development prospects. The sharp criticism of a capitalist system contains in all known to us Mongolian party документах129 though at the beginning MNRP and the Mongolian people, in particular, about capitalism basically knew by hearsay, and its heads - from resolutions and other documents of Komintern. But obviously one - expression «horrors of capitalist slavery», wandering of the decision in the decision of the Mongolian people party in the first years of people's power, in consciousness of the Mongolian revolutionaries associated with feudal and colonial oppression. Therefore the problem was logically put to deny prospect of the capitalist sh See MAXH them. A bug a hural, toe horoony bugd hurluuudyn togtool shijdver (Decisions of congresses, conferences, and Central Committee MNRP plenums (1921-1940)]. - Ulan Bator, 1956. - With. 14-17,59 slavery and to achieve the statement in the country of "originally national system» 130. In the Mongolian historiography the term «dagaar oroh was applied -« to become the vassal "." The Nomadic culture of statehood generated tradition of specific relations of the vassal and suverena - the sovereign, - the Mongolian historian of Island YONDON writes. - Such relation assumes culture of following behind the strongest in game »131. Much explains this in character of the Soviet-Mongolian relations, especially at their first stage. Secondly, propagation in MNR ideas and theories of noncapitalistic development became one of methods of the Soviet ideological influence. In our opinion, it was thought over enough choice as straightforwardness of a course on socialism mismatched level of development MNR, and the term "noncapitalistic" could be interpreted as reflexion of features of a transition period of the country to construction of not exploiter society. Therefore, MNRP this idea has picked up and became, in turn, the active propagandist of the theory of noncapitalistic development. It is possible to explain it a number of the weighty reasons. So in process of rapprochement with Soviet Union, representation about originally national system based on general equality and well-being, began to be identified with socialism. Achievements of the USSR in the field of industrialisation of the country and education system development were especially convincing. A noncapitalistic way of development of underdeveloped countries to socialism as the idea, arisen to prove, that the backward countries can (and development on the capitalist sample should) to avoid, bore at the same time in itself a negative charge. It a priori dictated to the countries of socialist orientation to avoid contacts to capitalist countries, acquaintance to experience of development of market economy, proclaiming all it is unnecessary and harmful. Thus, the thought on necessity and utility of isolation from the capitalist world was theoretically supported. We consider, however, quite natural acceptance of this theory by Mongolia as MNRP, like parties of many other things of the released countries, considered capitalism as a source of wars and violence, enslavement of the people and their ruthless эксплуатации132. But another is true also - in the first decade after a victory of National revolution of 1921 in Mongolia there was a struggle for definition of a course of social and economic development. In other words, the course on socialism without reserve has not been accepted by all without an exception layers of the Mongolian society. In Mongolia there were different social and political forces which the future of the countries saw differently. As is known, supporters of a market, capitalist way have lost, not having support in a management of the Soviet Russia. The left forces, accordingly, have won at a support to the aid of the USSR and VKP (). Thus, the choice of a way of development in MNR passed far not simply. The policy of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and Komintern in the Mongolian National Republic pushed the Mongolian management to the prompt realisation of problems of construction of socialism, times causing at a part of the Mongolian management negative reaction To one of certificates of such reaction was that historic fact - the Mongolian national-revolutionary Party has refused to accept the resolution of Far East secretary of the Executive committee Communistic Internatsionala on the Mongolian question, accepted in the beginning of 1927 In it has been written down, that as the former princes, rich llamas and dealers are enemies of the Mongolian revolution, it is necessary to lead against them rigid class struggle, to confiscate them имущество133. The Mongolian delegation after the arrival to Moscow for an explanation of the position, has noticed, that in relation to the mentioned categories of persons it is necessary to spend «sustained and cautious» a policy. Delegates paid also attention and to that fact, that as many members MNRP are small proprietors and MNRP on the character cannot be communist party, and its political policy - to coincide completely with a position of others communistic партий134. The then it was courageous enough and risky statement fraught with many unpredictable consequences. The management of the USSR has preferred to lower business on brakes, having shown in this question certain flexibility. The USSR through Komintern and its representation in Mongolia continued to put consistently pressure upon management MNRP and the Mongolian state, developing it towards socialism. In 1928 heads of Komintern nevertheless have considered, that Central Committee MNRP was eliminated from protection of interests of workers of weights and pursues a policy, aimed at rapprochement of Mongolia with the capitalism countries, and have strengthened pressing on MNRP. The Komintern has withdrawn from MNR the representatives, has made decision to invite delegates MNRP to VI congress of Komintern only as visitors, that is without a vote. These measures had considerable influence on a management of national-revolutionary party and stirred up activity of the left forces in party. Results are known: it is a failure of the first attempts to spend mass collectivisation aratov, to pass to long-term planning of development of a national economy, to accelerate industrialisation. Healthy forces of party tried to warn MNRP against direct and immediate realisation of the Lenin plan of construction of socialism in the backward country, but these cautions have not been taken into consideration. It is obvious, that the theory of a noncapitalistic way of the development, become by mass ideology MNRP, especially after X congress in 1940 has got new sounding. Now not forced construction of socialism, and gradual and stage-by-stage was supposed. Management MNRP and the Mongolian state began to use now the theory of a noncapitalistic way of development with the new purpose - for the justification of a tightening of process of modernisation of productive forces and slow increase of a standard of life of the population. Affirmed, that Mongolia is at an initial stage of building of socialism, therefore the Mongolian society yet has not overcome many lacks, the population standard of living therefore grows slowly, but prospects are, it is necessary to work is better only for the sake of socialism. Thus, at different stages of development MNR this theory served quite defined, but thus to different social problems. The first impartial assessments of this theory have appeared in the West. English mongoloved, managing chair at School of oriental studies and afrikanistiki C.Bouden's London university wrote: «Mongols, obviously, consider themselves as the sample of the semideveloped nation to which the states which have achieved independence should imitate.... Suitability of this lesson so ogranichenna, that is not present sense to take it into consideration... Experience of Mongolia would be difficult for applying in the conditions of the majority of the young states of Asia and Africa where there is no neither desires, nor a necessity to eradicate traditional belief and institutes» 135. Recognising in general validity of such criticism, we consider, that application to Mongolia definitions "semideveloped" incorrectly. Correctly what to give out national experience as the sample for imitation other countries it is inadmissible, therefore, obviously, noncapitalistic idea has not been apprehended by the backward countries owing to impossibility of its realisation without a real support on strong external forces and presence of internal conditions and desire. Thirdly, the author of dissertation considers necessary to refuse an identification of history of Mongolia of the period 1921-1980гг. With history of the Soviet-Mongolian relations that is distinctly traced on variety of large works not excluding even «History of the Mongolian National Republic» 136, on performances of some mongolovedov on various scientific symposiums and conferences already today. Such identification, on belief of the author of dissertation, absolutely wrongfully. Really, acceptance by Mongolia in 1924г. The republican constitution politically and ideologically pull together the USSR and MNR. Some Russian politicians of that time even have come to conclusion that sociopolitical organisation MNR is approached on the structure to the Soviet type государства137. Not challenging that huge influence on model of political and social development of the Mongolian National Republic to which it was exposed from Soviet Union during stay in its orbit, the Mongolian people were the basic creator of the history. It has kept up to now the national identity, traditions and tsivilizatsionnye features, that for the first time has been in general established in works of the Russian orientalists M.I.Golmana, V.V. Grajvoronskogo, With JAskinoj, N.L.Zhukovsky, A.S.Zheleznjakova and some других138. In the international relations the Mongolian National Republic though followed, at first sight, exclusively in a waterway of the Soviet foreign policy, nevertheless, in its history is many facts when showed readiness to co-operate with the West, especially with the United States, tried to fasten economic and cultural contacts to France, Germany, Switzerland and other European states. As a rule, researchers owing to the clear reasons left these facts in a shade, and only in the beginning 1980-hgg. Articles and even the monographies devoted to it aspejuu of foreign policy Mongolian National Республики139 began to appear. Fourthly, it is necessary to mean, that at research of history of the Soviet-Mongolian relations in the Russian and Mongolian historiography the following chronology of development MNR, that is its division on three stages, the relation to which, on belief of the author of the dissertation have been accepted, demands revision. We will remind, that the following periodization till now practises the Mongolian historiography: The first stage is an interval of time with 1921г. (Struggle for a noncapitalistic way of development or a stage of all-democratic transformations) to 1940г.; The second stage - the period beginning 1940г. (The firm introduction on a noncapitalistic way of development); The third stage - from the beginning of 50th (a victory of socialist relations of production in all sphere of national economy MNR, creation of the same economy and the introduction in end of building of material base of socialism) 140. It is easy to notice, that at the heart of this periodization the problem of stage-by-stage construction in MNR a socialist society lays. Now to be guided by this criterion rather inconveniently as in the theory of a noncapitalistic way of development the erroneous postulate putting in the forefront industrial отношения.18 has crept in Taking into account the aforesaid, the following chronology of history of the Mongolian National Republic taking into account its real achievements in economy and culture development and a level of development of relations with Soviet Union and other countries of the world is offered. History of Mongolia with 1921г. Up to now centuries are expedient for considering on the basic four stages: in 1921 - 1946 have been put in pawn many preconditions of these communications which have predetermined many nuances not only relations during the period up to the end «cold war», but also modern mutual relations of two countries. Therefore between Russia and Mongolia, including history of the Soviet-Mongolian relations, it is necessary to consider evolution of history of relations stage by stage: The first stage - 1921g. - the middle 1946г. As the period of relations between Soviet Union and the Mongolia which has proclaimed the state independence as a result of a victory of revolution of 1921. The second stage - the period from the middle of 1946 and to the middle 1980 h is characterised by strengthening of the state independence of the Mongolian National Republic and development of economy, culture and a science. The third stage - second half 80 - the beginning of 1990th when preconditions for certain changes in system of the international relations as a whole were pawned, between the USSR and MNR in particular. For 1990 year it is necessary svershenie to a new Mongolian democratic revolution, on the beginning of 1990th disintegration of Soviet Union and world system of socialism. The fourth stage - since 1993 - on 2005 Signing of the Contract on a good-neighbourhood and cooperation between the USSR and Mongolia, developments of mutual relations in a new international situation. Russia and Mongolia, develop relations everyone in the new quality - Russia in the status of the Russian Federation, presidential republic, pravopreemnitsy the USSR, and Mongolia (has replaced the name with MNR with Mongolia according to the Constitution of 1992; on-mongolski - Mongol Uls, or the State Mongolia). Change of strategic targets and development problems both partners, a new international situation have resulted and in change of foreign policy of the Russian and Mongolian states, in whole, in the relation each other - in particular. At the first stage of the Mongolian history the special place is occupied with 1921-1932, that is from a victory National revopjutsii before convocation SH of the Emergency plenary session and Central supervisory commission MNRP in June, 1932 these years in Mongolia there was a collision of the right and left forces in MNRP, the certain critical relation from its party to intervention of the USSR and Komintern in internal policy MNR was outlined. It was time of struggle left and right popiticheskih forces for different courses of development of Mongolia. By the main inspirer left on the specified plenum representatives of Komintern in МНР141 have been named. Really, at direct participation of representatives of Komintern from Mongolian partijno - the state management those figures who consistently adhered to national-democratic ideas have been eliminated. Many scientists consider, that it has opened before Komintern possibility directly to supervise over socialism building in MNR. On plenum the important conclusion that MNR owing to the national features can exist only as the national-revolutionary, antiimperialistic bourgeois-democratic republic of new type pawning bases for gradual transition to a way of noncapitalistic development has been drawn. Plenum has put forward problems «strengthenings MNR, considerable development of its productive forces, liquidation of the rests of feudalism, gradual restriction of exploiter capitalist elements according to problems of development of a national economy of the country and strengthening of defensibility of the state» 142. To solve this problem MNRP assumed by isolation of broad masses from feudal lords and the higher lamstva, to concern llamas with class позиций143. We consider pertinent to spend here comparison with Kalmykia where in 30th as took place levatskie the excesses consisting in speeding up of rate of collectivisation of agriculture. «From the beginning of 1930 in Kalmykia as well as as a whole on the country, collectivisation and liquidation passed in conditions of impetuous speeding up and were accompanied« by excesses "and" distortions »144. The second under a stage in the dissertation are named 1933 - 1946, with special accent for the military period 1941-1945 these years there is an international situation aggravation, frequent collisions between parts of the Mongolian national-revolutionary army to the Japanese armed forces. War in territory MNR against aggression of Japan. 1945 - sign year in history of Mongolia when as a result of a national referendum it finds independence of China. The help of the USSR these years had mainly military character, the national economy developed slowly. The second large stage of history MNR also is connected with lifting of the Russian-Mongolian relations on new, higher level. Successes MNR on international scene those years were especially considerable: it accept in Council of economic mutual aid, in the United Nations Organization and abreast other international organisations. The given stage is the period of peace building which are beginning after 1945 and coming to the end with occurrence of preconditions for elimination of warps in internal and foreign policy of the USSR, carrying out of reorganisation and updating of public relations. But reforms have appeared overdue, contradictions of internal development of both countries have poured out in sharp political and an economic crisis of the end 1980 - the beginnings of 90th High dependence MNR on the Soviet help at its appreciable curling has put this small, economically still insufficiently developed country, in catastrophic position. All lacks of extensive type of development, limitation of international contacts have come to light. The country has almost entirely settled potential of extensive development, it incapable it becomes effective to use the external help, it is weighed by amplifying dependence on the USSR. Simultaneously in the Soviet Union become ripe fundamental changes, the policy of reorganisation and idea of new thinking are formed. As a result of disintegration of the USSR and formation The Russian Federation, owing to comprehension of the reasons which have caused in MNR sharp political and an economic crisis, Mongolia has refused building of socialism and has taken a way of creation of democracy and market economy. To the fourth stage of the Mongolian history signal to start sversheniem in MNR has been given to so-called velvet revolution. Researchers define its character on - a miscellaneous. But its definition as liberally-democratic революции145 though in this kind it is still insufficiently developed is closer to true, perhaps. Therefore while, apparently, it makes sense to use the wide circulation which has received more in a modern Mongolian historiography definition - a new democratic revolution. There are also researches in which authors in general refuse to recognise behind events of 1990 the right to be called as revolution, including their democratic обновлением146. At the given stage the Russian-Mongolian relations evolved from time decrease in their level, especially in the field of the economic cooperation which have fallen to the beginning of 1990th, to new partnership now, that became especially appreciable after Putin's visit to Ulan Bator in the autumn of 2002 and the decision of a problem of debts MNR in front of Russia as pravopreemnitsej the USSR in favour of Mongolia. Are that, in general, preliminary reasons of the author of dissertation of the methodological plan before directly stopping on the analysis of the basic moments of evolution Soviet - the Mongolian and Russian-Mongolian relations.
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A source: Dzhagneva O. A.. DEVELOPMENT of the Russian-MONGOLIAN RELATIONS: the BASIC DIRECTIONS, PROBLEMS And PROSPECTS (1921-2005) / the Dissertation / Elista. 2006

More on topic 2.1.0 new approaches to studying of development of the Soviet/Russian - Mongolian relations in first half of XX-th century:

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  3. Dzhagneva O. A.. DEVELOPMENT of the Russian-MONGOLIAN RELATIONS: the BASIC DIRECTIONS, PROBLEMS And PROSPECTS (1921-2005) / the Dissertation / Elista, 2006
  4. 4.2. Actual problems of the Russian-Mongolian relations at the present stage
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