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CHAPTER 2. «RUSSIAN PROVINCIAL NECROPOLIS»: HISTORY, THE TECHNIQUE AND CREATION PROBLEMS. THE WORK BEGINNING UNDER THE DESCRIPTION OF FOREIGN CEMETERIES

The history of "Russian provincial necropolis», the scientists conceived and partially carried out by small collective under the guidance of grand duke Nikolay Mihajlovicha, represents itself essential interest as experience of the unique scientific enterprise which have yielded rich fruits.

The last, however, regularly were not studied till now, though the user interest to materials of "Russian provincial necropolis», both published, and archival, is extremely high.

The description of the Russian cemeteries out of Moscow and Petersburg became the most difficult and extensive part of the developed program. Its main complexity consisted that the similar description as it its initiators from the very beginning understood, physically could not be carried out professional historians: in this case «it would be required to organise variety of expeditions across the European and the Asian Russia. In view of complexity of such way it has been decided to address for necessary for" the Necropolis "data to natural keepers of tombs - to clergy of all confessions». Having stopped on this thought, grand duke Nikolay Mihajlovich reskriptom has expressed on October, 30th, 1908 to the ober-public prosecutor of the St. Synod P.P.Izvolskomu desire that «the order about granting by orthodox clergy of the necessary data» has been made.

Reskript said: «Now grand duke Nikolay Mihajlovichem publishes to the public, in 3 volumes," the Moscow Necropolis "and podgotovljaetsja for printing" the Petersburg Necropolis ". Such edition, apparently from responses of various scientific societies and journal reviews, has the big historical and genealogical value, not speaking about importance for each cultural people to hold in remembrance former figures of the state and public life.

It would be a pity to stop only on it, but expansion of such work on space of all Russia is inaccessible to forces of one person. If you have found possible to come to the aid of Russian historical science and genealogy and to make the proposal stavropigialnym to monasteries and diocesan nachal - stvam to deliver data on persons, buried in local temples and on cemeteries your assistance quickly would move business forward; nevertheless lists buried and in general all materials could be delivered directly Grand duke Nikolay Mihailovichu who is ready to continue the edition of the Necropolis,

Under the program of editions developed already "Moscow and S - Petersburg necropolises" it would be desirable to receive whenever possible exact copies from the gravestone inscriptions which have remained on tombs of ecclesiastics, noblemen, and also the largest local public figures merchant and other estates »2.

On November, 7th the same year "desire" of the grand duke it was offered ober - the public prosecutor on consideration Sv, to the Synod. Result was the decree of the St. Synod from the November, 29th, 1908, which all diocesan nachalstvam and stavropigialnym to monasteries and also protopresviteru military and sea clergy and managing court clergy were recommended to organise drawing up «lists of persons, buried in tserkvah and on cemeteries, with an exact designation of the gravestone inscriptions which have remained on tombs of ecclesiastics, noblemen and the largest local public figures merchant and other estates».

The collected data were recommended to be forwarded directly in the Administrative office of the grand duke. Simultaneously Department

2 RGIA. F. 549. On. 1. D. 1096. L. 86-87. etam. Op. 2. D. 1. L. 1.

Spiritual affairs of foreign confessions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs «has expressed readiness to deliver data on persons, buried on inoslavnyh and inovercheskih cemeteries».

On the first sent materials the local clergy has visually come to light, that, first, very much differently understands the made demand (that was reflected in different quality of sent lists), secondly, does not hurry up it to execute. Thereof on March, 14th, 1910 grand duke Nikolay Mihajlovich has addressed again with reskriptom to the new ober-public prosecutor of the St. Synod - With, M.Lukjanovu. In it it was spoken: «Till now data are not delivered absolutely not from many dioceses, thus from the most occupied dioceses of the central Russia, the delivered lists bolsheju a part are incomplete and inexact, and in particular is a little delivered data about buried on city cemeteries. Applying herewith the sample, which data are necessary for me, I ask you to confirm once again the above-stated order of the Most holy Synod, having paid especial attention of the diocesan power on dostavlenie data with clergy of city cemeteries, except S.-Petersburg and Moscow».

Owing to grand-ducal instructions on March, 27th on dioceses the new decree of the St. Synod has been dispatched, with the appendix of the detailed instruction according to which followed makes the description of burials. In the basic lines she repeated those principles which used in the work B.L.Modzalevsky and V.I.Sajtov. In its first section eight categories of the persons who were subject to entering into the future edition have been specified: « 1) Ecclesiastics: bishops, priors and priors of monasteries, devotees and podvizhnitsy, held in respect of local residents, monashestvujushchie of both sexes from surnames of noble family (with instructions of surnames), persons of secular clergy. In southern and western dioceses all ecclesiastics (and members of their families), occurring from sorts of noble family should be specified. 2) all persons of surnames of noble family (especially persons titled or old sorts of noble family), with all their relatives (as well female and juvenile), buried together with them and separately. In rural arrivals all should be specified buried in arrival before the former landowners and local land owners. 3) all persons who were consisting in military and civil service and having ranks. 4) teachers, i.e. Professors of universities and other higher educational institutions, the director and the inspector of average educational institutions, rectors and inspectors of seminaries, teachers and teachers of all educational institutions. 5) Public figures, as that members zemskogo and city self-management (chairmen and members zemskih justices, city heads, members of the town councils, the most visible vowels of municipal dumas), bankovye and in general financial figures, directors and members of the largest commercial and industrial firms, manufacturers, railway figures, engineers, lawyers, doctors. 6) the persons belonging to local old merchant sorts. 7) the persons known for charity, founders of charitable both educational establishments and the largest sacrificers. 8) writers and writers, publishers, editors and the most visible employees of newspapers, artists, actors and actresses ».

In the second section of the instruction explanations about data which followed contained include in sent lists: «1) the Name, a patronymic and a surname, a rank and a title (the prince, the count, a baron, etc.), an origin. The note. On persons of a female should be informed, what surname was carried by the dead before marriage or in other marriage (if marriage was not one) if such data are available. 2) year, month and birth and death number. The note. If birth time is not specified in a gravestone inscription it is necessary to inform, what years or on what year old the given person if the gravestone inscription speaks about it has died. 3) all other data on a life and service buried if they are comprised by a gravestone inscription. The note. These data should be informed in original expressions of a gravestone inscription or in the form of a full and exact copy from an inscription. 4) all ancient gravestone inscriptions (till our time for hundred and more years) should be written off with literal accuracy. 5) texts

Svjashch. The writing and Prayer books and the sayings usually used on gravestone monuments, like «Remember mja, My God, in tsarstvii Yours","My God priimi my spirit with the world","Upokoj, My God, soul of deceased Your slave","Blazhenni...», Etc. Should not be written off. 6) all original instructive reasonings, together with the verses which are on monuments should be informed. 7) (in church, in a crypt, in a fencing, the burial place should be precisely specified in a cemetery). 8) the Kind and a monument material should not be described, except monuments historically remarkable, especially original, art or erected over the well-known people. 9) at each buried entered in the list its relatives (also female and juvenile), buried in one fencing with it or a crypt and in general on the same cemetery, at least and separately »should be specified.

Originally with the diocesan authorities grand duke Nikolay Mihajlovich has charged correspondence to secretar A.A.Gozdavo-Golombievskomu. The image of gathering of data - by official correspondence - initially demanded "centralisation" of all process. Besides, the second basic employee of the grand duke, V.I.Sajtov have been occupied at this time by preparation of "the Petersburg necropolis». Organizers, apparently, not so hoped in the beginning for a little successful cooperation with the diocesan authorities as had already experience of unsuccessful mutual relations with the Moscow clergy. «The St. Synod has made the order about collecting everywhere nadgr inscriptions, - informed on January, 7th, 1909 Saitovu Gozdavo -

About

The Golombievsky. Is already success and that will be, of course, God knows! »

Meanwhile, already in the end of 1908 materials have started to arrive from various dioceses, monasteries and arrivals, without any general plan and in considerable volume. Their extensiveness and raznoharakternost demanded the big efforts on coordination of all process, a direction of actions diocesan on - chalstv in a due channel. Meanwhile, 1910th years became time of the most active scientifically-organising activity of the grand duke who has headed, after death in September, 1909 to A.A.Polovtsova, an imperial Russian historical society. Thereof also its personal secretary has appeared is loaded by different projects. First of all, this monumental ikonograficheskoe the edition «Russian portraits XVIII and XIX centuries», leaving separate releases in 1905-1909 and made five extensive volumes. After that preparation of the edition of the same type «Military gallery of 1812» has begun. Since 1910 grand duke Nikolay Mihajlovich supervised over release of "the Russian biographic dictionary».

Sharp shortage of time has forced Gozdavo-Golombievsky to attend priiskaniem the assistant in work on «Russian provincial necropolis». At the very beginning of 1910 he has addressed to the grand duke with the offer to involve in it the professional archivist, the former colleague on the Moscow archive of the Ministry of Justice of V.V. Sheremetevsky.

«Materials for the future" Russian "or" All-Russia "(?) the Necropolis continue to arrive, - wrote A.A.Gozdavo-Golombievsky, — so realisation of this important and necessary for Russian genealogy and edition history is obviously possible, though and not without lacks. The plan of the edition will demand still detailed processing. Probably, that it is necessary to stop on the edition on provinces, and not to adhere to an alphabetic order, and to publish tomy in process of material processing on different provinces.

Whereas materials are delivered without any order, simultaneously from different places, and from others still at all have not sent anything, it is necessary to establish exact registration of receptions for the material control. Besides, it is necessary to make lists of provinces, districts, arrivals and monasteries in each province where and to do marks about reception of data. Often last turn out insufficiently full or with other defects in view of what it is necessary to direct immediately them for replenishment, and also it is necessary to enter in this occasion correspondence with bishops, priors of monasteries and churches, clergy inovertsev, etc.

All this work easy, but difficult and demanding unusual assiduity and accuracy, it is equal also to love to such business to which should devote regularly a lot of time. Owing to these reasons at me the thought was to charge all this spadework to one suitable person. That person is available: he/she is my former colleague V.V. Sheremetevsky, in Moscow, having all necessary qualities and possessing especial propensity to spiritual department in general. I am assured, though informed nobody, especially to him, that if you [mu] to the Highness will need to be appointed to it the smallest compensation, it in a year or 2 will put all in order and will develop the edition plan. I would assume to conduct definitive editing and printing of the Necropolis itself, in process of material processing. If your Highness finds all it is useful, maybe, you charge to me, in stay in Moscow, to talk over with Sheremetevsky and to charge it this work, gradually transferring to it henceforth all again having to arrive data from clergy from different places of Russia ».

Grand duke Nikolay Mihajlovich has agreed with the offer and has appointed Sheremetevsky compensation in 480 rbl. a year. Originally gozdavo-Golombievsky, as well as assumed, actively supervised over its work. «Tomorrow I will go to Moscow for 2 days, - he informed on February, 10th, 1912 the grand duke, - I will charge and there Sheremetevsky to choose from materials for a necropolis of considerable dead men». On October, 15th he reported: «the Volume I" Rus the Regional Necropolis "already is almost prepared for printing, it is necessary to make the foreword only. Then it would be possible to start to print? In total there will be 4 volumes, I believe to print enough 400 copies». Having talked over, apparently, with the grand duke, next day Gozdavo-Golombievsky wrote to other former colleague on Ministr N.P.'s CHulkovu Moscow archive; «V.V. Tell, that nekr it is necessary to print a little, pieces 4-500 (i.e. 4 volumes on 500 copies — D. JAL). Concerning the foreword with it I will speak».

However in August, 1913 Gozdavo-Golombievsky has suddenly died, not having lived, thus, to an exit of the first volume. Since V.V. this moment. Sheremetevsky became main and, actually, unique motive power by preparation and the publication «Russian provincial necropolis».

All Sheremetevsky, living in XIX century in Moscow, received nobility and got popularity in different fields, were descendants of several graduates Imp. The Moscow educational house, studying as grants of known Moscow philanthropist M.P.Sheremetevoj and among themselves in relationship not consisting. Peter Vasilevich Vatagin (07.05.1806, Москва-30.03.1879, in the same place), the son of a merchant V.I.Vatagina was one of such pupils. Remained in seven years the round orphan, it has been defined in

The Moscow educational house where has received a new surname. In 1827 it has ended verbal branch Imp. The Moscow university also has arrived on service in office of the Moscow presence of Tutorial council, where long time served as the assistant to the forwarding agent (with 1835) and the forwarding agent (with 1849). Leaving in 1855 in resignation in a rank of the outdoor adviser, Sheremetevsky in 1859 again has arrived on service - pismovoditelem in the Moscow control expedition of IV Branch With. E. And. V offices, and in some years has held a nominal post consisting for commissions at Moscow the governor general and «he has lived last ten one and a half years of the life on rest in patriarchal conditions of Zamoskvorechye; at first in own (presented by one friend), burning« at the Frenchman », a clumsy and crude small house in three windows on a facade in the Monetary lane, and after sale of the house (1875) in hired apartment at« deadlock »at the Assumption in Cossack». Under the certificate of its biographer and the grandson, P.V.Sheremetevsky was the passionate bibliophile («by books have been filled up not only close rooms, but also pomestitelnye sheds of the archaic house in the Monetary lane»), the fan «to rummage in archives», the author of some historical notes and poetic odes, the interlocutor of metropolitan Philaret, And. M.Snegireva, M.P.Pogodin.

In September, 1833 Peter Vasilevich married the daughter of Moscow petty bourgeois Alexey Petrovicha Smirnova Alexander (21). From this marriage five sons were born: Vladimir (1834), Alexey (1836), Feodor (1840), Vsevolod (1850) and Vasily (1856). In 1841 P.V.Sheremetevsky with the wife and three elder sons has been brought in 3rd part of the genealogical book of the Moscow province and in 1844 has been confirmed in rights Pravitelstvujushchim by the senate; in 1860 to nobility there were soprichisleny two younger sons.

The family owned own stone house in Moscow.

From P.V.Sheremetevskogo's five sons younger has died in 15

Summer age, Alexey became the teacher of history, Vsevolod - matema - 18

Tics. The greatest popularity have got Vladimir and Feodor. Last (18.01.1840, Москва-11.08.1891, with. Kulakovo the Serpukhov district of the Moscow province), having ended in 1861 with a gold medal the medical faculty of the Moscow university, became subsequently the visible doctor-physiologist, since 1865 worked in physiological laboratories of Germany, in 1869 g, has defended the dissertation on degree of the doctor of medicine and became the senior lecturer, in 1870 - extraordinary and in 1878 - the ordinary professor of the Moscow university on physiology chair, has served to general чина14.

Vladimir Petrovich Sheremetevsky (14.07.1834, Москва-15.06.1895, with. Pokrovsk on Filjah near Moscow), the father of the future composer of "Russian provincial necropolis», in 1857 has ended istoriko-philological faculty of the Moscow university and all life has spent on pedagogical on - prishche: was the teacher of Russian and literature (1858-1866) and the inspector (1866-1870) 2nd Moscow grammar schools; besides, taught Russian and literature in the Moscow teacher's seminary of military department (before its closing in 1885), 5th Moscow grammar school and Nikolaevsk female school, was the teacher of pedagogics, didactics and Russian technique in private female grammar school perepelkinoj (1884-1895), taught Russian technique on pedagogical courses at the Society of teachers and teachers in Moscow. One of its pupils so recollected the teacher: « The live, mobile, witty, studying native language with the passion, seeing in language its live essence and force, - it carried away us an art scent in analysis of literary works, the inexhaustible humour. Amazing riches of receptions, creativity of the teacher personally proving, that training - art («not craft-with, we not Germans-with»), - all it grasped us irresistibly. He had not time to have a good long talk in a class, him saw off on a corridor, surrounded in Swiss, on a porch, at gate, in the street, ho -

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dili to it on the house, called in the evenings ». V.P.Sheremetevsky was the author of several scientifically-methodical works on Russian and the literature. On a scale of ranks has reached a rank valid state sovetni -

His son, Vladimir Vladimirovich Sheremetevsky, was born on July, 4th, 1863 in Moscow, has ended 2nd Moscow grammar school with a gold medal (1882) and istoriko-philological faculty of the Moscow university with degree of the candidate (1886). As well as Gozdavo-Golombievsky, Sheremetevsky many years served in the Moscow archive of the Ministry of Justice: younger (since October, 1888) and the senior (since April, 1894) an associate editor of inventories and Archive editions, the editor of inventories and editions (since February, 1898) and, at last, the chief of branch of Archive (since September, 1911). During service has received (1905) and St. Anna's St. Stanislav's awards of 2nd degree of 2 degrees (1911), has been made in councillors of state (1906).

In business about service the avaricious office characteristic given by rather captious and mistrustful director of Archive D.J.Samokvasovym Sheremetev to whom shortly before the death has remained: « The skilled archivist, is well familiar with editorial business and structure of documents of the Moscow archive ». Under L.I.Shokhin's remark, Self-kvass considered, that« archival works Sheremetevsky differed erudition, talent and knowledge of structure and the maintenance of documents of archive. At outstanding abilities and an extensive knowledge Sheremetevsky it was allocated with diligence to any business charged to it ». Acting on its anniversary celebration twelve years later, in 1923, M.K.Lju-bavsky has underlined, that V.V. Throughout all life conducted, apparently, routine work of the description of archival documents« it is possible to tell, with religious samootverzheniem, being satisfied only consciousness that does nevi - given, but great and patriotic business ». It is important, as it seems to us, and that Sheremetevsky always remained indiffirenten to so-called"public work"- even in the conditions of active politicisation hundred -

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Personal society after 1905

Work on «Russian provincial necropolis» Sheremetevsky has started in February, 1910 and was engaged in it more than seven years - till summer of 1917 1910-1912 - years of gathering and ordering of materials, formidable, tiresome, sometimes fruitless correspondence with the parish authorities have appeared the Most intense. The basic difficulties which inspirers of the project have faced, were visually reflected in V.V. reports. Sheremetevsky about work on «Russian provincial necropolis».

The report for the first year of its activity was especially detailed, dated on January, 24th, 1911 It consisted of two parts. In the first data on receipt were resulted (or nepostuplenii) materials on all dioceses and confessions on the beginning of 1911 By this moment materials from dioceses Vladivostok, Vologda, Vjatsky, Georgian ekzarhata, Gurijsko-mingrelian, Don, Ekaterinburg, Transbaikalian, Imeretinsky, Irkutsk, Mogilyov, Orenburg, Polotsk, Riga, Saratov, Sukhumi, Tomsk, Turkestani, Chernigov and Yakut and from churches of court department have not been delivered. Sheremetevsky noticed, that «rather many materials are presented about cemeteries Catholic, Armenian - Gregorian and Judaic (though it is almost exclusive about cemeteries of the Western edge and caucasus) and very little about cemeteries Protestant and Mohammedan. About old believe cemeteries of data are not delivered at all».

Consequence of the data presented in the report was reskript grand duke Nikolay Mihajlovicha to the ober-public prosecutor of the St. Synod V.K.Sableru from November, 30th, 1911 in which the desperate request was expressed to make the dependent order about acceleration of representation of necessary data »as from specified above dioceses (except for Vologda, Ekaterinburg, Mogilyov, Tomsk and Yakut, reports from which have been received for the last time interval in 1911), and of the Nizhniy Novgorod diocese which in the report Sheremetevsky for 1910 was not mentioned; additional data from Vladimir, Moscow besides, were required, S. -

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The Petersburg and Yaroslavl dioceses.

On May, 12th, 1912 the official relation from grand duke M.N.Molodovskogo operating affairs to St. Synod S.P. operating office Grigorovsky with the request again has followed to hasten prisylku materials from the Saratov, Nizhniy Novgorod, Tver and Kazan dioceses. On May, 28th the order has been given, and by July, 1912 «lists buried on all dioceses» have been received.

Part the second, entitled «Character of materials and the plan of the edition following from this character», represented the developed state-of-the-art review of a course of works on gathering and material ordering, the underground group of the basic difficulties meeting in mutual relations with the local spiritual authorities, and means of their overcoming, and also contained the prospectus of the future edition.

Under V.V. certificate. Sheremetevsky, the first lack of cooperation with local clergy consisted «in impossibility to check up conscientiousness of composers of reports. Cases of obvious negligence are frequent: before execution are written very illegibly, crookedly, on scraps, with errors in titles; in many reports considerably unfair aspiration otpisatsja by all means from the unpleasant commission. Especially often priests refer on" winter with its bitter cold, blizzards and blizzards ", not giving to possibility of detailed survey of cemeteries. Such references are especially strange, that become sometimes in February and even in March. One priest« has slowed down (sic) the answer, assuming, that snow », but on March, 2nd for some reason,« not having waited it soon will start to thaw, has informed only that had possibility »; Other priest on February, 14th «after a secondary request» «has been compelled to tell, that on stability kladbishchenskoj pictures of a deep snow cover under which in an extreme measure and need for the dead man it is necessary to work much to people, it is equally powerless at present and in forces will execute them (requirements decent) not earlier than periodic detection of tombs of the cemetery. Such statements arrive not from one zaholusty; pricht the Kharkov Vsesvjatsky cemetery" because of depth of snow "has made the list" on verbal data ", so poor, that 14 persons have got to the list only; under the secondary requirement which has coincided already with full ottajaniem of tombs, pricht has filled up the list, but not so, how much it was permitted quite by the changed atmospheric conditions».

«Besides obvious unconscientiousness, — marked Sheremetevsky, - collecting of materials is interfered sometimes by the conditions which are not dependent from church prichtov. Some priests fairly specify in the barbarous relation of inhabitants to cemeteries and on destruction of monuments: one priest informs, that" the old rural cemetery a part is hammered by cattle, by a part is taken under manors ", another not without irony specifies that" on two tombs of noble family two big monuments have been arranged, now one of them diligence of Christians - inhabitants with. An open space another is disassembled to the basis, and to half why also inscriptions do not appear any ". Deliver frequent also priests cannot data on persons, buried in crypts, for the lack of a special inscription over each of buried, and should be limited to the general instructions, that the crypt represents a tomb of such sort».

«The important stumbling-block for clergy even after all made explanations is the question on the one whom should enter in the list buried, - specified Sheremetevsky. - Many priests all search any for" large public figures "and, not finding them, do not send anything." From the died parishioners of local church, - one priest writes, for example, - more or less large public figures anybody itself either have not declared, or are noted neither a gravestone inscription, nor history ". More cautious even do not incur the decision of this question." Honour I have to inform the Consistory, - writes one decent (moreover the Moscow diocese), - that at tserkvah and cemeteries entrusted to me blagochinija among buried especially known and outstanding svoeju activity of persons is not present, however, from two priests data on this business with instructions of persons are delivered, but judge their popularity I cannot, and therefore and I represent in the original for the Consistory discretion ". Some guess, that inscriptions over tombs of peasants are not necessary, and inform only something like that on tombs of peasants" ordinary wooden crosses of simple simple work rise, on some of them hardly noticeable cuttings of year and number of death buried and only ". But some too diligent priors list all inscriptions on tombs of a rural cemetery: one priest, for example, has copied 120 inscriptions like the following:« the Christian X. » "Anna Pleshivaja", "Eudoxia Bezkrovnaja", «1902 deck. 27 days», «ashes Christian Andrey», etc. have died.

Not finding at themselves "large public figures", some priests replace with their persons, "worthy to kind memory" from the local parish point of view and honesty inform epitafii any bourgeois who have offered in church the hundred-ruble ticket, or the peasant who has given money for repair of a church roof, or, at last, the "mother" who have caused a stir during lifetime "kind and frank character". Finding hardly "public figures", ecclesiastics hardly probable in most cases in any way do not wish to recognise those persons of a female. Full ignoring of persons of a female represents a lack of rather considerable number of lists buried, capable to drive to despair everyone who is engaged in genealogy. "Other monuments, - one priest, - in detail having described two monuments informs, - neither architecture, nor inscriptions of a rarity do not represent; there are they over ashes of wives, children, near relations and even familiar owners".

Even more a disagreement and the most regrettable misunderstanding it is observed at the decision of a question on what data should inform on the buried. Some ecclesiastics have understood what enough to inform only names, patronymics and surnames buried without any chronological dates; so the clergy of the Warsaw diocese, cities of the Simbirsk diocese and many separate arrivals has arrived. Sometimes at viewing of the similar list it is possible to think, that dates actually on monuments are not present, but the composer of the list frequently destroys this soothing belief, informing there and then, that "inscriptions, except a designation of year of a birth and death, are not present". Some priests directly name inscriptions with chronological dates "ordinary" and on this basis sweep aside them. Many ecclesiastics are convinced, that for "Necropolis" one are necessary epitafii, i.e. Texts, sayings and verses. " Instructive interesting gravestone epitafii, - the prior of the Groznensky Kosmo-Damiansky cathedral an archpriest I. of priests writes, - followed publish osoboju the book. The idea to collect all inscriptions from all Russia in many respects the useful; an enormous historical material ". Thus one priests honesty write out infinitely repeating, sample inscriptions, like« Remember mja, My God, in tsarstvii Yours "," Upokoj, My God, to a shower of deceased Your slave », others choose inscriptions, by their estimation, interesting; but also those, and others it is very frequent, writing off epitafiju, chronological data ignore. There are also such priests (for example, the Kostroma new cemetery) which, not informing dates, epitafy, think to replace it with descriptions of appearance of monuments like the following:« Valuable monument from a wild stone "," an original monument vyshinoju arshin 8 with a figure of the Madonna », etc. Sometimes the priest replaces epitafiju with that informs the memoirs on the died parishioners." Marja Somova, - one priest writes, for example, was, as speak, stern temper, however it has not prevented it to be very devout "; landowner Kramarenko, on a response of the same priest," had a few peasants with whom finished severely as soon as its imagination prompted, and punished them severely. It is known also, that was devout and differed charity ". In the resulted example the statement form shows at once, that it not epitafija; but happened, that, having started to write off a similar tirade, I only on any feature of a syllable was convinced of the middle or even its end, that it not epitafija, and razglagolstvie the priest.

At analysis of materials that circumstance pays attention, that in general reports rural prichtov comprise more reliable and detailed data, than reports prichtov city churches. City cemeteries make really a sore point of all enterprise. There is no doubt, that to the rural priest having in arrival any ten of tombs with monuments, it is not necessary to inform the big work the necessary data; thousand are based upon city cemeteries died under monuments with epitafijami. The Kladbishchensky clergy behind few exceptions undertakes drawing up of the list of the dead men with obvious desire somehow to get off more cheaply the tiresome requirement of the spiritual heads. However, in all Russia there was only one archpriest (in Simbirsk) which has directly declared, that «now cannot execute the commission given to its about drawing up of the list of the buried..., as on a cemetery it is buried to 50 thousand, if no more, the person»; But also other priors kladbishchenskih churches select a way, though and not so direct, but leading to the same undesirable results, informing data on several tens at random snatched out dead men and holding back about hundreds. In Kharkov, for example, with 200-thousand nase - leniem on the Useknovensky cemetery it appears to 200 buried, on All svjatskom — 14, on Kirillo-Mefodievskom - 7; in Odessa with the semimillion population on the Old cemetery it appears 79 buried, on New - only 6, on Sredne-Fontansky - too 6, and on last cemetery there is no of buried there in big enough number of princes Gagari - nyh-Sturdza. Hardly probable it is possible to recognise thorough references kladbishchenskogo clergy on large number buried. First, from numerous buried the majority belongs to the lowest classes which do not mean decrees of the St. Synod 1908 and 1910; Secondly, drawing up of the list of other buried cannot be burdensome for kladbishchenskogo the clergy constantly going with litijami on a cemetery and knowing each and all all a little remarkable tombs; thirdly, drawing up of church annals, etc. Works of historical character it is made a duty to clergy, and kladbishchenskie prichty do not leave a circle of the activity, delivering materials for the edition which are of great importance for history of Russian cemeteries ».

«Requirements of additional data, - the author of the report marked, - not always crown success: kladbishchensky pricht in reply to the requirement will throw ten two dead men and considers itself quite free from priraziv - shegosja from the outside of a temptation; the further correspondence is already useless; one party will assert, that there should be still dead men, another - that is not present dead men» more.

«At incompleteness and relative unreliability of data delivered by clergy, - concluded V.V. Sheremetevsky, - the great value is received by printing sources. First of all, it is necessary to use agiologiche - skoj the literature as the clergy everywhere for some reason does not recognise sacred as subject to entering into lists buried, and in some dioceses, for example, Olonetsky, Kostroma, Pskov and Yaroslavl, sacred occupy one of the most visible places in necropolises of these dioceses. It is necessary to look through also printing descriptions of monasteries and churches, at least, what possess more or less considerable cemeteries. It is necessary to be surprised, that monks and prichty instead of working on drawing up or perepiskoju the list buried, do not guess to send printing descriptions available for them. Material calculation here cannot be any as the description price ordinary fluctuates menadu 40 copecks and rouble. Meanwhile, experience shows, it is how much important to use printing descriptions for correction and addition of hand-written data ».

«For the newest time local newspapers matter, - wrote Sheremetevsky. - It is possible to object, that in newspapers bolsheju data only about time of death of those persons about which in them publications are located are available a part. But for more outstanding figures this lack is filled with obituaries placed in the same newspapers. Besides, if not to address to the description of cemeteries on places, only newspaper publications can give more or less exact concept about the population of city cemeteries for last decades. This viewing in the form of experience has been made for cemeteries of Kharkov and Odessa and has given the chance to bring in"Necropolis"thousand three died, passed kladbishchenskimi prichtami in their lists. In view of impossibility to see periodicals of all (even one provincial) cities, followed anyway see newspapers on the most occupied (especially university) cities, at least, across Warsaw, Vilne, Kazan, Kiev, Riga, Saratov, Tiflisu and, perhaps, to Yaroslavl, Voronezh and N.Novgorodu. Besides, for replenishment of data viewing of all pivotal historical magazines, biographic dictionaries, histories of separate sorts, etc. is required. (Viewing only two editions «the Collection of biographies kavalergardov"and"Russian Historical Portraits» delivered many additional data). This big work can be made or gradually, in parallel with analysis of hand-written materials, or upon termination of this analysis. Before the termination of this viewing hardly probable it is possible to let out lists buried on separate dioceses ».

«In general, against the edition of lists buried on separate dioceses, - concluded Sheremetevsky, - except specified, speak two more following circumstances. First, the list buried on any diocese, made not on a place, and only on the basis of reports of clergy and literary grants, will not be useful to local residents as concluding in itself inevitable considerable blanks, and will cause the fierce criticism from local archeologists and genealogov {even simple"old residents"), having in the hands richer materials. Secondly, such lists will be excessively inconvenient for using to the people who are engaged in the general genealogy for to find the person whom the burial place is not known, it is necessary, except Moscow and S.Peterburgskogo"Necropolises"to see more than 60 lists on separate dioceses. The researcher who is engaged in history of any sort, should collect data on members of this sort under more than 60 alphabets in stolkih separate books. All these inconveniences will be eliminated, if after analysis of all materials one list buried across all Russia is made. This list, not applying for the completeness necessary for local "Necropolises", will comprise set of genealogical data valuable and unknown till now and will be rather convenient for using because surnames of all buried will be located under one general alphabet ».

The author of the report believed «expedient to allocate especially lists buried on provinces of the Western Russia with prevalence of the Polish or German element in the higher classes of a society, what provinces Polotsk, Minsk, Mogilyov, Vilensky, Kovensky, Grodno, Volynsk, Podolsk, provinces of the Kingdom Polish and Finnish (except monasteries Valaam and Konevetsky), provinces Estljandsky, Lifljandsky and Kurljandsky. It would be possible to attach To them, perhaps, and the Asian areas, caucasus, Siberia and Turkestan as the material on these areas will appear insufficient for drawing up of special"Necropolis"across Russian Asia. Thus," the All-Russia Necropolis "would consist of two parts: I. Provinces (or epar - hii) northern, central, east and southern; II. Provinces western. The Asian areas could be attached either to the first, or to the second part.

At such distribution of a material it would be rather convenient to use "Necropolises" as at genealogical researches 4 general would be necessary to pass only the alphabet, in "Necropolises" Moscow and With, -

in

Petersburg and two parts "All-Russia Necropolis" »,

In the short extract enclosed to the entire account from it, besides repetition of the basic supervision and ideas, Sheremetevsky specified, that for the first year of work it «had been wrote out on cards data on dioceses Astrakhan, Vladikavkaz, Kostroma, Olonetsky, Penza, Pskov, Samara, Simbirsk, Kharkov, Kherson and Yaroslavl».

Among official correspondence about a course of works on «Russian provincial necropolis» the fragment of the letter of V.V. has remained. Sheremetevsky to A.A.Gozdavo-Golombievskomu for the 1911 which have reflected and one more problem which composers - a competition have unexpectedly faced, and not always diligent, from the historian of the Tula nobility, genealoga V.I.Chernopja-tova. Sheremetevsky wrote, that last «has elicited at Parfenija the permission to select at the Tula priests the same data what have been delivered the Grand duke. Now starts the Necropolis of the Moscow province and wishes to ask through Samarin the same from Vladimir. I am am surprised with this naive impudence: data time are collected for In To, means, they and make its property. I thought, as Steam feny is cleverer. Has surprised me and CHulkov; has come and asks for CHernopjatova, such Tula districts have sent data or not. I have sent it to hell. Certainly, it will not overtake us with nekr Mosk lips but if each diocese gives out copies a miscellaneous prazdnoshatajam at what it will appear then the Grand duke with originals? It is necessary to hurry up now with the Necropolis, and I and without that am a lot of time to it devoted. There's nothing to be done. You will not believe, what is laborious, tiresome work. From 60 o'clock in a month here much you will not make. In the summer of 1912 Sheremetevsky complained and CHulkovu; «I Drive both the Necropolis, and the Dictionary. Where to have a rest? All is opposite»; in some weeks: «Instead of rest the terrible scolding of nerves, and rest cannot be. Have overcome me the Necropolis and the Dictionary. Yes still besides it is not glued».

On February, 12th, 1912 V.V. Sheremetevsky has presented the report for the second year of work on «the Provincial necropolis». For this time by it «have been taken and written out on cards of data about buried on dioceses Vladimir, Moscow, Novgorod and Tver. As the same data on dioceses Kostroma, Yaroslavl, Pskov and Olonetsky it is necessary to use materials on S.Peterburgskoj's dioceses, Vologda and Arkhangelsk to have"Necropolis"of all northern part of own Russia earlier have already been taken. Processing of materials on dioceses S - Petersburg, Vologda and Arkhangelsk, especially in view of the small sizes of"Necropolises"of last two dioceses, will occupy not enough time, anyway, hardly probable there will be an obstacle to that autumn of 1912 to start printing of the first department comprising"Necropolises"specified above northern-Russian dioceses, located on the general alphabet.

The second department could include "Necropolises" of dioceses east (Volga region and priuralskih), Nizhniy Novgorod, Kazan, Simbirsk, Samara, Saratov, Penza, Astrakhan, Stavropol, Vladikavkaz, Vjatsky, Perm, Ekaterinburg, Orenburg, Ufa, dioceses Siberian, Turkestani and Caucasian. All dioceses of own Russia can be carried to the third department, except northern, Malorossija and Novorossija with Bessarabia and Crimea. All dioceses with prevalence inorodcheskogo (Polish, German and shvedo-Finnish) an element in the higher classes of the population would be expedient to include in the fourth department into which dioceses Polotsk in this case would enter, Mogilyov, Minsk, Lithuanian, Grodno, Holmsky, Warsaw, Volynsk, Podolsk, Riga and Finland. Whereas data about inovercheskih cemeteries are delivered almost exclusively on this western area and are not available almost across own Russia, and will be hardly probable delivered in due time for entering into first department "Necropolis", it would be possible without damage to business all data about inovertsah to attach to it substantially inovercheskomu, to the fourth department. Hardly probable should not make an exception for Moslems across Turkestan and for Moslems and Armenians across caucasus as these areas do not belong to the first turn, and it is possible to hope, that the necessary data about inovertsah will be delivered during that period which will be devoted drawing up of "Necropolis" of east area.

By approximate calculation on each department "All-Russia Necropolis" it is required on one volume, and, if to add still volume on a case of surplus of a material on any department, it is possible to think, that all edition will occupy 4-5 volumes, being is divided into departments: Northern-Russian, east - Russian, South Russian and West Russian ». Offered Sheremetevsky breakdown of" Russian provincial necropolis »on a part and has been accepted subsequently by the publisher.

B.L.Modzalevsky and V.I.Sajtov, interested in success of a course of works on «Russian provincial necropolis», repeatedly transferred Sheremetevsky "provincial" materials available at their order. In one of the letters of this time Modzalevsky offered And. V.Smirnovu, if that does not expect to publish «the Vladimir necropolis» separately so - to transfer the materials Sheremetevsky. «I have already sent it that at me has been collected across Russia (enough much)», - informed further Modzalevsky. V.I.Sajtov sent to Moscow materials of other researchers (for example, the historian of music I.I.Lobov); Sheremetevsky, in turn, has sent it all delivered materials across Petersburg and its vicinities for «the Petersburg necropolis».

As it was already mentioned, developed Modzalevsky and Saitovym principles of the publication of gravestone inscriptions have been accepted by V.V. Sheremetevsky and by preparation of "Russian provincial necropolis» to what his letters of that time testify. «Very much to you it is grateful for efforts on transfer of materials, - he wrote Saitovu on April, 22nd, 1914 - I hope, that you and henceforth not potjagotites these efforts, and as required will not give up to me in your assistance. To whom as not you," to confirm the brotherhood "to which needs to be supervised only by the samples published by you and developed by you for -

37

mami ».

Work on drawing up of "Russian provincial necropolis» has drawn attention of collectors of necropolises from various regions of Russia, and they have started to deliver the materials for it. A.N.Ilyin has sent collected by it

38

Data about buried on Verejsky district of the Moscow province. In May, 1912 regional specialist P.A.Rossiev delivered the necropolis of Taurian province made by it. He also informed: «In the close future I will dare to send still addition and I will have in general honour to supplement a necropolis as far as possible». In the same month podatnoj the inspector from Nikolsk -

Ussuriisk P.I.Krechetov has sent the manuscript «Forgotten tombs», prepared by it during service in Riga. The letter has been enclosed to the manuscript from magazine «Historical bulletin» where at first has addressed Krechetov. Separate remarks and amendments were made Sheremetevsky Ministr N.P.'s by colleagues on Moscow archive CHulkov and N.N.Markov.

In the report for 1912 V.V. Sheremetevsky informed, that for a year by it «have been written out on cards of data about buried of materials on dioceses S - Petersburg, Vologda and Arkhangelsk, and also from the materials sent in addition to received earlier and already processed, on dioceses Vladimir, Kostroma, Moscow, Novgorod, Tver and Yaroslavl. After all made cards (to 30 Open Companies) have been picked up in alphabetic order, on December, 1st, 1912 has been started printing of the first department" Russian Provincial Necropolis ". Now 10 sheets are passed for the press and is available 6—7 more sheets imposed and in proofs». He informed also, that «for second department" Necropolis "have been written out on cards of data about buried of materials on a diocese Kaluga and parts Oryol».

For printing of the first volume-department I.N.Kush-'s printing house nereva in Moscow in which «the Russian biographic dictionary» was printed and rukovodimyj by the grand duke has been selected; has directly put with printing house it was entrusted to conduct Sheremetevsky. In November, 1912 the estimate of prospective expenses has been presented to the Administrative office of grand duke Nikolay Mihajlovicha, then to them confirmed. Begun in December of the same year book printing was braked by summer of 1913 owing to lasted till October a printer - skoj strikes; the basic part of the text was ready only to the middle of November of the same year. In process of reception of blank leaves, they were sent on viewing and vising to grand duke Nikolay Mihajlovichu. In the middle of November by grand duke Nikolay Mihajlovichem has been confirmed presented Shereme - tevskim a foreword variant, in the end of the same month - the project of the title page of the book, and by December, 20th «Russian provincial necropolis» at last was published. On January, 18th, 1914 advertisements on the edition have been published on the first pages of newspapers «New time», "Speech", «the Moscow sheets» and «Russian word».

The volume V.V. foreword opened. Sheremetevsky which complained about "defeat" of provincial cemeteries, first of all, rural in view of what «only the edition" Russian Provincial Necropolis "can keep data on the numerous noblemen-landowners who are based upon the patrimonial cemeteries in tombs on which the cattle and from which muzhiks take away monuments on a brick walks about, destroying quite often important for genealogy epitafii». After a summary of history of the edition and its basic substantial features, Sheremetevsky resulted the plan of all four volumes, listing to the province, forced to enter into each of them. In the published contained over 15 Open Companies of names.

In January, 1914 the first volume of "Russian provincial necropolis» has gone on sale under the price making about 60 % from its cost price.

Its editor and composer V.V. Sheremetevsky has received in the personal order 50 copies of the edition. Complimentary copies have been sent to Imperial Public library (two), libraries of the Winter palace and Central administrative board of destinies, the State archive, archives the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministries of Justice in Moscow, the Armory Museum and the Museum of 1812 at it, libraries of the Petersburg, Kharkov and Kazan universities, the Pushkin house, Russian historical society, the Society of adherents of history, the Public university to them. A. L.Shanjavskogo, Female pedagogical institute, the Kiev higher female courses, the Ohtinsky sobriety society, the Perm branch of Petrograd university, the Nizhniy Novgorod and Saratov scientific archival commissions, the Pskov library of And. And. Uspensky, Kharkov public and Turkestani public libraries, the Rostov museum of the Yaroslavl province, edition of magazines «Bulletin of Europe», «the Historical bulletin», «Russian olden time», and also the French academy and Institute of the French Slavic philology in Sorbonne. Besides, the book have gratuitously received over thirty private persons - historians, regional specialists and personal friends to grand duke Nikolay Mihajlovicha.

As the first volume of "Russian provincial necropolis» was considered by contemporaries as the next step on a realisation way for a long time already developed and discussed All-Russia program of the description of cemeteries also interest of reviewers to the edition was smaller, rather than earlier. Only B.L.Modzalevsky in «the Historical bulletin» has responded to its occurrence. «It is not necessary, of course, - he wrote, - to explain all importance detailed (so in the text, on sense is more true"similar"-D. SH) the edition rescuing from  destruction of ten, hundred thousand sometimes directly not estimated instructions of historical, biographic, genealogical and household value and taking away at vseraz - rushajushchego time and at sometimes ignorant our managers a treasure -

Had the cost price 4,8 rbl. But in view of obvious commercial failure of the previous editions the grand duke has personally appointed a cost price only in 3 rbl. (RGIA. F. 549. On. 1. D. 1103. L. 71, 72, 81). However on the beginning of 1918 all the same remains in a warehouse 113 more copy, thus, that 69 has been dispatched free of charge to establishments and private persons (In the same place. D. И18).

bishch frequently so eloquent gravestones in the silence from tombs of a long line of the generations which have departed already in eternity of Russian figures - large and a little appreciable ». Modzalevsky especially underlined, that« Russian provincial necropolis »« rescues and starts up such data which before the occurrence in the press could be considered as though not existing in a scientific turn; mislaid on silent cemeteries of thousand cities and villages gravestone inscriptions of Russian province were, in the enormous majority, are absolutely unknown to researchers, - now, collected and published under skilled supervision of the expert, they will bring a lot of new, will give thousand and thousand dates, instructions on related, property, office relations, will disseminate many bewilderment, will destroy many legends and will correct many oshib -

4S

ki ».

As unique weakness of the edition Modzalevsky, as well as Sheremetevsky, considered «the way of collecting of gravestones - not directly composer of the book, and at means of clergy, parish and monastic». As a result, the reviewer, «marked at all carefulness of the editor, in the book there were both errors, and discrepancies, and admissions of very annoying property, by no means, however, not falling on the editor, and resulting as it has been told above, from the way of collecting of a material». Further he marked some similar cases concerning persons, whose tombs in due time saw personally (And. P.Kern, F.I.Woolf, Item P and R.P.Heraskovy). About the same lack "competitor" of "Russian provincial necropolis» V.I.Chernopjatov wrote also: « I managed to track this work and should confess frankly, that on state inquiry answers were far not full, made not produmanno persons a little intelligent and, thus, it is possible to tell with confidence, that the big half deceased, worthy to be brought in these works,

50

Has not got ».

Except told Modzalevsky, it would be desirable to note and one important lack arheograficheskoj V.V. works. Sheremetevsky. Filling cards, last did not adhere to uniform system of reductions and not always observed the data card of record established by him. The first circumstance creates difficulties at processing of its card file in modern conditions (about it see in chapter 3 more in detail); the second has led to the admission of names of districts in separate records including when at other persons, buried in the same settlement, this name is present. Besides, we reveal some records about burials in general without place instructions.

The exit of the first volume of "Russian provincial necropolis» had also other, more important consequence — interest activization to nekropolnoj to subjects on places. So, for example, in 1916 the member of the Pskov scientific archival commission of I.N.Shemjakinym had been published «the Pskov necropolis». The composer wrote about «Russian provincial necropolis:« Clearly, that this edition undertaken on a large scale in the details requires additions and amendments. Historical societies and the Archival commissions, it seems to me, and should incur works on collecting of the gravestones which have not entered into "Necropolis", and this work, undoubtedly, does not suffer the slightest delay in view of directly spontaneous destruction in Russia not only separate tombs, but also the whole cemeteries ». Thus, SHemjakin considered the edition as addition and specification to let out to that, the corrections made it especially were allocated in the text. The part published in« the Pskov necropolis »gravestone inscriptions has been transferred composer B.L.Modzalevskim, written off them during the trip to Pskov to 1908

In the report for 1913 V.V. Sheremetevsky, except the fact of an exit of the first volume, noticed, that for the specified period it «had been processed materials for the second volume on dioceses Oryol, Kursk, Tula, Ryazan and Don». Next year its assumptions concerning the further course of the edition have changed, and on October, 7th, 1914 he has addressed to M.N.Molodovskomu with the new idea. « Now - wrote Sheremetevsky - I process 9 provinces (Voronezh, Kaluga, Kursk, Oryol, Ryazan, Smolensk, Tambov, Tula and Kharkov) and area of the Army Don, representing absolutely independent geographical area of southern Russia without own Malorossii and Novorossii. I would assume to divide the second volume on two parts and printing of the first, already ready part to start in the end of this year. I dare to pay attention yours that in practice appears absolutely impossible to place in one volume all planned in the foreword to the first volume a material. And the first volume left rather bulky, and the second would have time volume in ones and a half bolshy. It, apparently, surpasses all typographical possibilities. It is necessary to mean, as the ready material is impressive enough on volume. If to attach to it, I do not speak already necropolises of all seven other provinces, but even only the big necropolises of Kiev and Odessa, and then all this material could not be located in one volume ».

The letter from October, 20th Molodovsky informed Sheremetevsky, that the grand duke approves its assumptions on division of the second volume into two parts. At the same time, operating affairs wrote (stating opinion of the cartridge), «that printing of the first part could be postponed for some time in view of worried events». The delay has appeared fatal - more has not been published any volume.

In February, 1915 V.V. Sheremetevsky has informed, that for the last year it «had been wrote out data about buried of materials on dioceses Smolensk, Tambov and Voronezh and are added under literary grants and on the materials delivered by E.N.Kletnovoj, P.S.Tsvetkovym, I.I.Lobovym's island and And. M.Kartavtsevym. Now all material is prepared and disassembled under letters, having to enter into the first part of the second volume" Russian Provincial Necropolis "then it will be started analysis of this material on syllables». Working with printing sources, Sheremetevsky has received from Saitova the offer to use funds of Public library. As the first lived and worked in Moscow, apparently, meant prisylka books by mail in time using. It was most easier it to make official by - of Imperial Public library in the Moscow archive of the Ministry of Justice. However work Sheremetevsky over a necropolis was though also "grand-ducal", but, nevertheless, "off-schedule" owing to what he answered on January, 27th, 1915 Saitovu: «very much to you it is grateful for your offer to use books from Public Library, but, unfortunately, in this business it is impossible to operate through our Archive. At us at all too approvingly look at any literary activity on the party, and I will not find support in this business at the heads wishing though and it is vain that subordinates devoted the forces to exclusively archival business».

For 1915 Sheremetevsky «1) parts Poltava and on the city of Kiev (on the city of Kiev, mainly, from printing sources) have been written out on cards of data about buried of materials on provinces Chernigov, Kiev; 2) have been added data on the provinces, having to enter in per -

57

vuju a part of the second volume "Russian Provincial Necropolis" ». In letter Saitovu from May, 19th, 1915 he informed:« Concerning "Necropolis" issue across Kiev I can inform only, that works on processing of materials proceed, and now I am just occupied by the Kiev diocese representing the big difficulties owing to an extreme antiquity of many local burials and necessities of data on them to take from annals and other numerous printing sources. The second volume "Rus About - in the Necropolis" in view of extensiveness of a material it decided to divide on two parts from which the second should conclude provinces actually malorossijskie, and also Novorossisk and Bessarabia. The first part has been prepared by me even in the autumn of last year, but printing in view of military actions has temporarily been postponed. To you I will be extremely grateful, if will find possible in something to help me with this work ». At last, since February 1916 till February, 1917 Sheremetevsky« data about buried in dioceses Poltava, Taurian, Ekaterinoslavsky and Kishinev »have been written out on cards.

February revolution of 1917 has put an end to hopes of continuation of "Russian provincial necropolis». V.V. letter has remained. Sheremetevsky to V.I.Saitovu from May, 11th, 1917 in which he, in particular, was interested: «At personal appointment I have received instructions to address to you for explanations and concerning destiny" R Pr the Necropolis ". What it is supposed to do with this edition? If work on material processing is suspended, I would ask to suspend and dispatch to me of the monthly fee which in March and April was sent to me under not used hitherto and a cart - buzhdavshim in me some doubt the name to" pension "». Rukoju Saitova on the letter it is marked: to "Detain".

October revolution and Civil war have definitively stopped all scientific projects of grand duke Nikolay Mihajlovicha. In January, 1919 it has been shot. V.V. Sheremetevsky till the end of a life remained on service in the former Moscow archive of the Ministry of Justice, managed descriptive department Drevlehranilishcha, was a member of the Academic council of archive, together with other regional specialists participated in creation of the commission on protection of the Moscow necropolis. In 1929 the qualifying commission has awarded to it a rank of the science officer of the highest category. In August, 1941 Sheremetevsky has been evacuated to Sverdlovsk, in the spring of 1943 has come back to Moscow, in November of the same year has died and has been buried on the Vagankovsky cemetery. It is how much possible to judge, to work on «Russian provincial necropolis» after 1917 Sheremetevsky did not come back. In the mid-thirties the card file to the unfulfilled edition was, together with its other manuscripts, apparently, is transferred them N. The Item CHulkovu for storage in the State Literary museum. Reports from dioceses which have not been processed to 1917 g, remained stored in the former Archive of the Ministry of Justice and have been transferred in TSGIAL already after the Great Patriotic War.

In 1915 there was 1st release «Russian necropolis in another's edges», posvja -

62

shchennyj to cemeteries of Paris and its vicinities. Apparently, experience of cooperation with provincial clergy has been found by grand duke Nikolay Mihajlovichem unsuccessful, and he has again decided to charge the description of gravestones to the expert. For this work, according to the advice of V.I.Saitova, it had been involved the young employee of Imperial Public library Vladimir Maksimillianovich Anderson (1880-1931). The student of philosophical faculty the Gay - delbergskogo university (1899-1901), the erudite and the expert on the European languages, the Anderson since 1902 and before the death served in Public library; occupied posts of the assistant (with 1909) and the senior assistant (with 1912) the librarian in rukovodimom Saitovym Russian branch, in 1910-1918 managed its regular catalogue. In 1914 it has been specially sent to Paris at the expense of the grand duke for the description of Russian and Polish burial places.

The Anderson has told about the basic marks of history of this part of the project and feature of the new edition in the foreword to it. He wrote: «Its Imperial Highness to Grand duke Nikolay Mihajlovichu needed to charge me performance of the fourth, zavershitelnoj to a part of the edition undertaken by it« Russian Necropolis », forced, according to the Most august head, to capture, except limits of Russian empire, and the various points of the Western Europe long since known for colonies of our compatriots, often finding there and last terrestrial rest.

Planning me before my departure in the first trip abroad connected with this task the general plan «Russian Necropolis in another's edges», Its Imperial Highness recognised as necessary to begin inspection from Paris, including here and districts adjoining to it, in line of department Seny.

Marking substantial features of the first release «Russian necropolis in another's edges», the composer specified, that the edition «can cause, perhaps, some bewilderment by weakness of historical interest to the majority of Russian names informed it among which the visible place is far not is occupied with representatives, for example, well-born and stately circles of our society though those, as is known, always formed strong, traditional group of Russian colony in Paris. The reason of such"absenteeism"lays that mortal remains of our compatriots who had sufficient means, pretty often, whether in force of last will of the deads, whether at will their relatives, were transported home, osoblivo if they were expected there by a family or family tomb. Records of metric books of orthodox Russian church in Paris in department« about died »positively dazzle with marks:« the body is sent to Russia ».

Purely Russian part written down by me on the Parisian cemeteries of gravestones positively sinks in weight of resulted names of the Polish element of the Russian state. It is necessary to remember always in the explanatory of this fact, that France in general and its capital in particular know three dates mass, it is possible to tell, regularly organised inflow of the Polish immigration caused by known historical events 1794, 1831 and 1863 ».

Further in the foreword to the edition the review of the Parisian cemeteries, with the short characteristic of history and a modern condition of each of them followed, the basic works of the French researchers on epigrafike, some from used were specified at drawing up of a necropolis of printing editions (for example, «the Gothic almanac»),

Concerning the organisation of work of V.M.Anderson noticed, that its work «has leaked in the most favorable external conditions. The Russian Embassy in Paris where I was declared after arrival, has immediately undertaken in a due order corresponding steps for reception of the permission by me on kladbishchenskie the searches often interfaced to necessity to resort to the help of office of a cemetery, having registratsieju tombs». In the list of the French and Russian figures helping the composer in work, there were officials, officers, diplomats, professional historians (including. K.Vali-shevsky, A.Mazon, N.D.Ignatyev).

At material ordering as the Anderson specified, he «tried to follow a general plan for a similar sort of the works, established nachinate - lem in area of" Russian Necropolis »V.I.Saitovym in every possible way patronising» it. Except printing, for edition addition have been used and the neopublished sources; affairs of the State archive and archive of the Petrograd spiritual consistory. As the comment to the text of inscriptions the composer specified, that «in all those cases when language on which it is made nadmogilnaja an inscription is not specified, it is necessary to understand the French language». He Besides, underlined, «Russian transcription of names speaking another language suffers, as is known, polnoju neustanovlennostju and absence of the rules defined in this respect. I had to manoeuvre in a kind of it between requirements of phonetics of this or that language and conditions of habitualness for Russian ear and

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Eyes ».

In the foreword some other features of the edition (that has generated, apparently from below-mentioned, separate bewilderment at readers) have not been noted: it is not told, that asterisks note the data taken from printing sources (the newspaper «New time», archival affairs, «the Collection of biographies kavalergardov» etc.), the principle of a premise of biographic summaries to a number of records is not explained.

«Russian necropolis» was published in another's edges on May, 1st, 1915 in circulation 600 copies the Composer, V.M.Anderson, has received in the order of I copy of the book. Except it, free of charge new edition of the grand duke have received: V.A.Alekseev, K.A.Voensky, kn. P.P.Vjazemsky, B.B.Glinsky, I.A.Kubasov, M.N.Molodovsky, And. P.Saburov, V.I.Sajtov, V.K.Trutovsky, N. P.Chulkov, kn. G.D.Shervashidze, V.V. Sheremetevsky; from establishments - the Moscow city public university it. Shanjavsky, the Pushkin House, Imp. The Kharkov university, the Rostov museum, Imp. Russian historical society, the Museum of 1812, the Perm branch of Petrograd university, the Moscow library of A.D.Uspenskogo.

Other copies arrived in bookshops of "New time», SHilova, Mitjurnikova, Rippera, TSukermana, Lebedev, Volf, Karbas - nikova, etc. at the price of 1 rbl. 50 copeck with the commission discount of 20 %. By the end of 1915 in a warehouse there were 379 more copies «Russian necropolis in strangers kra -

65

jah ».

We were possible manage two reviews of the edition, the 1915 written in the summer the First of them again belonged to feather B J1. Modzalevsky. «Grandiose and extremely important work under the edition of gravestone inscriptions of the Russian necropolis, undertaken by the most august historian, grand duke Nikolay Mihajlovichem, - was written by the historian, - has nowadays reached already the beginnings of last, zavershitelnoj parts. It was quite natural to begin inspection of such points with Paris to which long since, from the very beginning of the intercourses of Russia with the West, Russian people» especially gravitated.

The reviewer is short stated the basic features of the maintenance the editions noted by V.M.Andersonom in the foreword. Besides, Modzalevsky fairly specified in almost full absence in a necropolis «gravestones is more senior the first quarter of XIX century», that explained «orders of the end of XVIII century, destroyed all old Parisian cemeteries which have appeared by then in city centre».

According to B JI. Modzalevsky, V.M.Anderson has executed the work «with doubtless knowledge of business and so neobhodimoju in similar sorts directories shchepetilnoju accuracy». Further, however, in some contradiction with the stated praise, the reviewer marked variety of errors and incongruities which suggested the composer to stipulate «in last release of the edition»: wrong perusals of surnames, double instructions of the same persons, nonexistent titles. «At last, - wrote Modzalevsky, - not inclusion in Russian necropolis of some names - for example, de - Mont baron d'Eaux, duke Morni, etc.» is absolutely clear.

In end, expressing hope of continuation of work upon termination of world war, the reviewer assumed: «It is necessary to think, that in the nearest turn inspection of other cities of France (V.I.Cher-'s attempts nopjatova cannot be taken into account and check demand), and also nowadays allied will be put us to Italy».

The second review obviously written for any edition, but us in the printed kind yet not found out, belonged gr. K.A.Hreptovichu-Butenevu also has remained in the form of the manuscript-autograph and proofs in K.A.Vo-'s fund

/p

enskogo. The author, the son of the known diplomat and a member of State council,

The successor of numerous estates of counts Hreptovichej, inveterate puteshest -

68

vennik, the historian-fan and publikator, often happened in Paris, on one of which cemeteries his father and consequently could estimate V.M.Andersona's work under primary sources has been buried.

«It is necessary to render a due praise and to the composer of release g, Vl. To the Anderson operating on the instructions of the Grand duke, - wrote gr. Hrepto - vich-Butenev. - Having informed in the foreword many curious historical and other data about cemeteries in Paris and its vicinities, the Anderson gives the detailed list found it on these cemeteries of Russian and Polish people, there the buried. But it even was not limited to it, and to the list has added a number of names of persons about which on resulted by inquiries it is known, that they have died in Paris, but their tombs is not found. Such persons I have counted in the list 124 persons».

The reviewer noticed, that «in the general list of dead men the Polish element prevails in huge degree: from 1579 resulted persons on a share of Russian, considering and ofrantsuzhennyh Russian and Baltic Germans, it is necessary no more than 474 persons - the others 1105 persons Poles, or foreigners». As on doubtless advantage it specified in presence of cross sendings on maiden or pervobrachnye surnames of buried women.

The stated general positive estimation of the edition has not prevented, however, gr. Hreptovichu-Butenevu to make variety of the important remarks and specifications. «I will begin with that, - he wrote, - that anywhere in the book value of the asterisks put before many surnames is not explained, value of the brackets bordering patronymics of many dead men is not explained also. Besides, it is not known with accuracy what exactly is borrowed from the gravestone inscriptions resulted, obviously, in a short form. It is told in the foreword (p. XXIII), that when inscription language is not specified, it is necessary to understand the French language. However on a tomb of my father it is in French cut out only: M-r Bouteneff, ministre de Russe a Constantinopole et a Rome, the given words are taken from Russian inscription on its tomb. Concerning many inscriptions with not specified language is - taki doubt, that they are made in French, for example Beetroots, Ekaterinas oslavsky the landowner, p. 10».

«In the list buried on cemetery Ryoge Lachaise on p. 93, - the reviewer specified further, - I to great surprise have found the native uncle ober - the chamberlain of the Highest Court yard of count Michael Irineevicha Hreptovicha who has really died in Paris on February, 2/14nd, 1892, but uniform minute not prolee/savshego in the Parisian earth as we with the late brother immediately after burial service in parish church St.-Pierre de Chaillot (my uncle was the Catholic) have transported its body, agree to an ox of the dead, to Baden-Baden where on an old Lihtentalsky cemetery have buried him in one tomb with his wife who has died in 1875, countess Elena Karlovnoj Nesselrode».

Further gr. Hreptovich-Butenev assorted variety of discrepancies and the errors admitted by the composer at writing off or commenting of gravestone inscriptions. In summary it once again summarised the basic claim to V.M.Andersona's work: «It is a pity, that the known Russian people which tombs in Paris were not found have been included in lists of the Parisian Necropolis. Probably, that like Michael Vasilevichu Pashkov (p. 67), laying on a cemetery Moscow Novodevichego the Monastery, bodies of many of them will appear transported in Russia».

Summing up to consideration of history of work on «Russian provincial necropolis» and «Russian necropolis in another's edges», it is necessary to underline once again defining role of grand duke Nikolay Mihajlovicha in the general success of all enterprise. Its ability to select executors for the projects, multiplied by a high social status and wide financial possibilities, has given the chance to collect a material large quantity about burial places across all Russia and abroad. Cooperation with clergy in which organizers of gathering of inscriptions first not so trusted, nevertheless has born the notable fruits.

The second component of the achieved success is a high professionalism of the basic participants of work on necropolises. A.A.Gozdavo-Golombievsky, V.V. Sheremetevsky, it have appeared to V.M.Anderson at height of the problems put before them: source study and arheograficheskaja their qualification, certainly, was extremely high. The methodological bases of selection used by them and the publications of gravestone inscriptions offered B JI. Modzalevsky and Century And, Saitovym, were at that time, certainly, the optimal. To follow them to the full today or not - a question another.

In our opinion, the unique essential error in the enterprise organisation consisted in insufficient reasonableness of ways of cooperation with the provincial clergy which intellectual outlook has been non-comparable to knowledge and professionalism of composers of "Russian provincial necropolis». In our opinion, to the last at the composition of instructions on gathering of inscriptions followed express easier and more unequivocally. As on an example, we will specify in the complexities arising round revealing «large public figures merchant and other estates». To demand from prichtov the rural churches which members sometimes hardly signed the name, the decision of questions on the historical importance of this or that person, - a problem unrealizable basically. Besides, as correspondence (that is noted and Shereme - tevskim in its report for 1910) has shown The part of clergy has approached to search of the persons having «the historical importance» with extremely overestimated measures, searched for the well-known figures in history and, certainly, did not find. So, the prior of the Orshansky Uspensky female monastery of the Mogilyov diocese igumenja Maksimilla in the official report informed: «I understood, that the decree of a spiritual consistory requires to deliver data on persons, buried in tserkvah and on the cemeteries which were in due time large public figures and something especially remarkable, and as persons, buried in the monastery entrusted to me I do not consider for those has not presented sleep -

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Juice ». ponuzhdennaja a repeated reminder, igumenja has sent data on the buried. Among them there were generalsha Vatatsi, local archpriests, officials and their wives - that is just those persons who by the social and office position certainly joined in« Russian provincial necropolis ».

Followed as it seems to us, more rigidly to specify in necessity of representation of lists with instructions of exact dates. Quantity of persons, their not having, in the sent materials so considerably what to explain this fact only carelessness of clergy to us it is represented exaggeration - misunderstanding by a part of clerics of the problem put before them is available also. The admitted miscalculations were, basically, are revealed Sheremetevsky and corrected at drawing up of the second instruction to clergy in March, 1910 As a result, it was possible to fill a part of blanks by prisylki originals or repeated reports, another and has not been eliminated.

As a whole, however, it is necessary to ascertain, that the purpose planned by organizers has been reached. On an example of 1st volume of "Russian provincial necropolis» it is visible, that at all existing blanks, heterogeneity and considerable distinction in information volumes on different regions (so, ska - zhem, the quantity of names on the Tver province in it more than twice exceeds their number on any other province of volume), the edition has quite complete character. It is necessary to regret about the decision (certainly, quite natural) grand duke Nikolay Mihajlovicha to interrupt the publication for the period of war; nevertheless, as shows studying of archival documents, the basic case of materials for all subsequent volumes of "Russian provincial necropolis» has remained and expects processing and the edition.

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A source: Shilov Denis Nikolaevich. "Russian necropolis" Grand duke Nikolay Mihajlovicha: the creation History, the neopublished materials and problems of their studying and the edition. 2004

More on topic CHAPTER 2. «RUSSIAN PROVINCIAL NECROPOLIS»: HISTORY, THE TECHNIQUE AND CREATION PROBLEMS. THE WORK BEGINNING UNDER THE DESCRIPTION OF FOREIGN CEMETERIES:

  1. CHAPTER 3. THE NEOPUBLISHED MATERIALS TO «RUSSIAN PROVINCIAL NECROPOLIS»: STUDYING AND EDITION PROBLEMS
  2. Shilov Denis Nikolaevich. "Russian necropolis" Grand duke Nikolay Mihajlovicha: the creation History, the neopublished materials and problems of their studying and the edition, 2004
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