Chronological frameworks of research.

in the dissertation all period of formation and development Soviet/Russian-Mongolian military-political is considered, The diplomatic, trade and economic and cultural relations, covering time with 1921 for 2005.
The big attention is given to the last pjatnadtsatiletiju which is characterised Attempts to balance a westernized list in foreign policy of the Russian Federation activization of contacts to the states of Asian-Pacific region. The basic general scientific principles, first of all principle of a historicism and a principle of scientific objectivity became a methodological basis of research. Application of istoriko-genetic, istoriko-comparative, istoriko-system methods has given the chance to estimate character of the Soviet/Russian-Mongolian relations at different stages of their development, to reveal continuity of motives of the cooperation existing during the former periods and shown at the present stage. Istochnikovaja base. Work leans against a wide range of sources. Acts of the Mongolian National Republic and modern Mongolia are the major documents on history of the Mongolian state as constitute its legal основу35. They regulate and direct all daily work of the state bodies and public organisations, enter relations between citizens and the organisations into the certain legal rule. Materials of archives of foreign policy of the Russian Federation (AVP the Russian Federation), the Russian centre of storage and studying of documents of the newest history (RTSHIDNI) where are presented documents on problems of the Soviet-Mongolian relations in 20 - 30th years of XX century, politicians of Komintern to Mongolia. Materials of National Archive of Republic Kalmykia (NARK) about activity in 1921 of participants of the forwarding case of 5th army on defeat Ungerna and clearing of Mongolia. Current archives of the Union of the Soviet societies of friendship and cultural communication with foreign countries and current archives of a society of friends Монголии36 give the chance to estimate objectively in a new fashion in many respects problems considered in work, to recreate more authentic historical cloth of the Soviet-Mongolian relations. Materials of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee of the Mongolian national-revolutionary Party, sessions of the Great National Hural Mongolian National Республики37 reflect the basic directions of a policy of the Mongolian state as the Mongolian national-revolutionary Party was party in power. Its supervising role was shown that directive decisions of its supreme bodies underlay legislative and practical activities of the state, Komsomol and other mass organisations. In party documents all questions of principle of development of a national economy, ideology, culture, social processes etc. Therefore any question from history internal are reflected and the foreign policy of the Mongolian government cannot be understood and studied without the analysis of documents MNRP. Texts of corresponding contracts and the agreements signed meiodu by the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and the Mongolian National Republic, me> meal the Russian Federation and Mongolia, Republic Kalmykia (Russian Federation) and Mongolia, between Mongolia and separate Russian regions, on the general questions of trade and economic and cultural building and cooperation, and also on its number concrete направлений38.
The visible place is occupied with materials and documents of the Russian-Mongolian Intergovernmental commission on trade and economic and scientific and technical сотрудничеству39. Good documentary base are collections ((Soviet - the Mongolian relations. 1921-1974)> in two volumes, published accordingly in 1975 and 1979 In collections are presented diplomas from archive of foreign policy Russian Federations (gross national product of the Russian Federation), archive of the Ministry of culture of the Russian Federation, the Russian state military-historical archive (RGVIA), the Russian centre of storage and studying of documents of the newest history (RTSHIDNI). In them, as well as in variety of other similar publications which have left recently, not studied material showing development of the Soviet/Russian-Mongolian relations as process far not the unequivocal, having periods of relative recession and lifting behind which arrangement of political forces in Mongolia disappeared contains huge, up to the end yet. Studying of these materials explains much from this, that has occurred in sphere of the Soviet/Russian-Mongolian relations in the early nineties Official statistical materials both nation-wide character, and departmental, allowing particularly to estimate a condition and dynamics of economic and trading contacts between Russia and Монголией40. Materials and documents of public organisations, including from archive of the Union of the Soviet societies of friendship and cultural communication with foreign countries and the Society of the Soviet-Mongolian friendship and the Society of the mongolo-Soviet friendship (OMSD), and also from current archive of the Society of friends Mongolia (Russia) 41. Memoirs of participants of revolution of 1921, operations on the river the Halhin-goal in 1939 and joint struggle against Japan in 1945, and also memoirs of builders of industrial targets in territory MNR allow us to specify official treatments of some events, to study opinions of people on other country, to track evolution of stereotypes восприятия42. Materials of periodicals of two countries. The basic Soviet, Russian both Mongolian magazines and a number of newspapers studied периода31 are analysed. This kind of sources has given a basis for studying of public opinion of two countries, and also has allowed to specify the information on a number of events. The author had been used materials of an official site the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Mongolia, a site of the Ministry of economic development and trade of the Russian Federation and др43. The positions which are put forward on protection: • The author has put the concept of mutual relations of neighbouring countries developed by it in a basis of the work - the great power and small underdeveloped country in different historical conditions, considering, that at the heart of these relations such factors are put in pawn: • First, as a generality of frontier and the general interest in its safety; • Secondly, a priority of a military direction of cooperation in the extreme international situation connected with military actions; • Thirdly, interest of the great power in stable political conditions and an economic situation in the next small country; • Fourthly, observance of the rights and interests of the small state should become one of priorities of foreign policy of power to prevent strengthening of influence on territories of last of other powers competing to it. Positions of the concept put forward by the author are observed in dissertational research with reference to studying of character and features of relations between Russia and Mongolia. • Orientation of Mongolia after a victory of National revolution on the union with the Soviet Russia, and then and with Soviet The union as a whole it was historically defensible, otherwise it would be comprehended by destiny of the small countries to be absorbed more powerful neighbours. The union with Russia has provided MNR a gain, and the main thing, preservation of the state sovereignty and independence, but at the same time has predetermined a close binding of Mongolia to the USSR, huge influence of the last on formation of model of development of this country according to the Soviet model of construction of socialism and communism. As well as Soviet Union, Mongolia in due time in the head of the internal policy has put the thesis according to which, development of relations of production advances creation of material base of socialism. schitapos an axiom, that the victory of socialist relations of production is adequate to a socialism victory. One-party popitichesky the mode in both countries has led to huge changes in character, as the CPSU, and MNRP, to totalitarian board and suppression of democracy, the initiative and creativity of broad masses. Following to such idea in practice privepo finally to fatal consequences - to deep social and economic crisis, mistrust to ruling circles and their policy. • In external sphere disintegration of Soviet Union has led to decomposition of its foreign economic relations with its former allies, including with MNR. It meant, that relations between Russia and Mongolia should be recreated on a new basis, taking into account mutual interests, that in due course has taken the form of new partnership. • Russia, as well as at Mongolia, does not have till now scientifically developed concept or the program of long-term bilateral cooperation, their relations are defined by general provisions of contracts and agreements without accurately certain prospect. • Priorities of frontier cooperation should not shade necessity of more accurate interaction of two countries at nation-wide level, in area of a policy and diplomacy. The author proves, that for strengthening of positions of the Russian Federation in Mongolia is admissible and use state rosijskih investments into the Mongolian economy is useful. • In the dissertation the author's forecast of the Russian - Mongolian cooperation in which basis principles of the account of mutual interests are put, and also advantages of geopolitical position of Mongolia and problems which are constituted for Russia by a competition to it from China, the USA, Japan and other developed states strengthening the economic and political positions in Mongolia contains. Scientific novelty of the dissertation consists in the following. Position that in the conditions of globalisation versatile cooperation between the big and small countries can is proved and should have the character equal in rights which are based on principles of good neighbourhood and mutual respect and trust. Preconditions are formulated and factors necessary for it are defined. So, in long-term historical prospect Russia and Mongolia should remain the major constituting elements of geopolitical structure of Northeast Asia on which stability and safety of the given region will depend in many respects. For this purpose the parties should put certain political will and diplomatic efforts. The periodization of development of mutual relations of Soviet Union with the Mongolian National Republic and the Russian Federation with new Mongolia in 1921-2005 is offered, namely: 1921-1946 - from revolution of 1921 before plenary confession of independence of the Mongolian National Republic China; 1946 - the middle of 1985 - expansion of international contacts of the Mongolian National Republic, the further strengthening of Soviet-Mongolian political, military, trading - economic and cultural cooperation; 1985 - the beginning of 1990th - the crisis phenomena in mutual relations between Soviet Union and Mongolia in the conditions of disintegration of the USSR and the world socialist system, a new democratic revolution in Mongolian National Respubpike; The beginning 1990 - 2005 - creation of a new legal basis of cooperation, overcoming of some intensity in sphere of actual mutual relations and transition to qualitatively new partner relations. The offered periodization has the important methodological value as at definition of stages were considered not only ideological principles and results of their embodiment in foreign policy of two co-operating states, but also the most significant real facts. It has allowed to depart from the standard old tradition of an identification of history of the Russian-Mongolian relations with history of Mongolia. Such tradition has settled itself, it should cease to cover that fact, that the developing countries rationally using international contacts, are really capable to independent historical creativity, to realised use of the advantages. The conclusion of the Report on mutual aid between the USSR became a turning-point in history of the Soviet-Mongolian relations and MNR from March, 12th, 1936 the Analysis of this document and its influence on the international situation in Far East region has led to the conclusion that Soviet Union in 1936 has in practice ignored absence of a recognition China independence of Mongolia. Differently, for the first time in researches of history of the Soviet-Mongolian relations the factor of the contract of 1936 as the proof testifying to the relation of the USSR to MNR not as to a part of China, and as to the independent state independent of it is used. The thesis that transition of Russia and Mongolia to market economy and democracy owing to specificity of starting conditions has appeared interfaced to additional difficulties is offered for scientific discussion. This process is carried out by slower rates in comparison with other countries, first of all, owing to absence of traditions of modern political and economic democracy at both parties. The difficult economic conditions of the development which has arisen under the influence of crisis in both countries, have complicated adjustment effective trading - economic relations and cultural cooperation, but have appeared surmountable. Prospects are revealed and the forecast of development of the Russian-Mongolian cooperation with the account of character of mutual relations between the Russian Federation and the Chinese National Republic is proved. Cooperation prospects between the Russian Federation and Mongolia depend also on escalating of export potentials, creation of more favorable tariff and not tariff conditions of mutual trade, and also strengthening of cooperation within the limits of the international organisations. The forthcoming introduction of the Russian Federation into the World Trade Organization (Mongolia already is a member of the WTO) should simplify rules of movement of commodity and human streams through border, make their more transparent. The scientific and practical importance of the dissertation consists in synthesis of its theoretical and applied aspects. The maintenance of dissertational work promotes completion of obvious blanks in research of essence, character and the basic directions of the Russian-Mongolian relations in their evolutionary development according to internal changes in Russia and Mongolia and geopolitical conditions in region and in the world as a whole. Restoration of relations on new principles important not only as creation of preconditions for cooling overcoming between the Russian Federation and Mongolia, but also for all system of political, economic and cultural cooperation in region of Northeast Asia, consolidation of the international stability and safety. Results of the carried out research can become base for the further studying of problems of interaction of the great powers and the small countries, a substantiation of the importance of more active participation of the small countries in the decision of the international problems. They can be useful to practical activities the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation on a Far East direction of the Russian foreign policy. Dissertation materials are offered to use in lecture courses of historical faculties of higher educational institutions of the Russian Federation on studying of history of foreign policy of the USSR and Mongolia in the XX-th century. They can become also a part of wider historical research on problems of mutual relations meedu developed and developing countries now, for forecasting of directions of development of integration processes in Northeast Asia. Approbation of results of dissertational research. Substantive provisions and work conclusions are stated in monographies and articles published in the central publishing houses and leading scientific magazines of Russia and Mongolia, in scientific reports at the international, All-Russia and regional conferences. The dissertation maintenance is reflected in publications in total amount more than 50 items of l. Dissertation structure. The dissertation consists of the introduction, five heads, the conclusion, the list of sources and the literature, the appendix.
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A source: Dzhagneva O. A.. DEVELOPMENT of the Russian-MONGOLIAN RELATIONS: the BASIC DIRECTIONS, PROBLEMS And PROSPECTS (1921-2005) / the Dissertation / Elista. 2006

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