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1.3. Mutual relations between the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic and the Mongolian National Republic in 1920th years

the Analysis of any process in the international relations and economic is impossible without most general laws of the present stage of history of mankind. Development of the international relations in Eurasia occurs within the limits of universal tendencies, main of which, according to the majority of researchers, consists that «all in the today's world is closely interconnected» 120.
Really, in system of the international relations their types are observed some. These are relations between the great powers and other part of the world; between them and developing countries; between the great powers and slaborazvitymi, such type of relations which matters for our dissertational subjects Exists the small countries etc. also: Interrelations of geopolitical character in scales of this or that, separately taken region, or the relation of the countries having the general border (directly adjoining states). The question on relations small, slaborazvityh, on the one hand, and the big and strong states, with another, is developed in a historiography insufficiently. The majority of scientists worked mainly over history and problems of the great powers defining a course of world development. The small countries remained many centuries pawns in large game of the great powers. 120 See Friedman Th. Understanding Globalization. - New York: The Lexus and the Olive Tree, 2000. - P.3. Consideration of problems of foreign policy of the great powers concerning the colonial and dependent countries and the relation, in turn, the last to powers is undertaken by the author of dissertation with quite definite purpose - to make an attempt to open the reasons of success of emancipating movement one, and failure of others in the first decades of the last century. In our opinion, it should explain, why disintegration of colonial system has generated special mutual relations between the former dependent and colonial countries and the USSR, and with reference to a dissertation theme - between Soviet Union and the Mongolian National Republic. The maintenance and an orientation of these communications became the factor of the further evolution of the Russian-Mongolian relations. The author resorts to such approach also on purpose to reveal features of evolution of the international relations which stimulated revision of the Soviet-Mongolian relations towards their intensity in 1989-1990 Which has affected the further formation of the Russian-Mongolian relations in new quality. We will preliminary notice, that External Mongolia at the beginning of the century was in semicolonial dependence on China. It has created a certain historical phenomenon, having shown, however, possibility, podtverizdennuju the further course of world history, such hierarchy of the international relations in which small underdeveloped countries can get to dependence not only on powers, but also on much less powerful, but the large states. It is known, what huge influence on character and development of all countries and the world states render the international relations forming an environment for development of the states and the people. The history has the internal rhythm. How many-or considerable changes in an environment always attract for themselves certain motions as in their internal, and to foreign policy, especially it concerns the developing countries which have won the state independence as a result of disintegration of world colonial system.
It is a historical result in huge degree became result of wide development of processes raznomasshtabnoj to integration into the beginning of XX century. These processes have amplified with the introduction of human community into a new era of the globalisation especially accelerated after the termination of the Second World War. The new international order preceding it was characterised by existence of two opposite social and economic systems socialist and capitalist, in each of which there were also specific relations between their participants. In socialist system also there was an own hierarchy stranovyh the priorities, headed by Soviet Union. In capitalist system the United States of America were in the lead. The basis of socialist system has been put in pawn with formation of the union with External Mongolia (since 1924 - the Mongolian National Republic) which, by an example of the USSR, gradually began to move ahead on a way of building of bases of socialism. For the small countries with backward economy, namely Mongolia after independence finding was such, the decision of a question on preservation of the state sovereignty could take place only in the event that on its party there will be a big and strong state. Geopolitical position of Mongolia between China and Russia has given it a historical choice - to remain within China or to keep the independent status, having established the union with Soviet Union, rendering in exchange its help comprehensive support in region and on wider international scene. This choice was preceded by sharp struggle between Russia and China for influence on Mongolia. The culmination it has reached in the middle of the tenth years of the last century. Results of intergovernmental negotiations between China, Russia and Монголией110, opened in 1914 in Kyakhta, small town on border of Russia and Mongolia, and lasting 9 months, have defined destiny of Mongolia in the XX-th century. Till now results of triple negotiations remain a subject of scientific discussions. As the known historian of the Russian-Mongolian relations of that period, the big expert on the Mongolian archival materials of the Island writes Batsajhan, «in mankind history the longest process of negotiations name the Viennese conference. But it is almost equal in century tripartite negotiations in Kyakhta have shown the Asian variant of the Viennese conference. If at conference in Vienna Russia, Austria. Germany, England and France expressed interests of the great powers at Kjahtinsky conference two great powers - Russia and China discussed a policy in the relation chingisovskoj Mongolia struggling for revival of national independence» 111. O.Batsajhanom, certainly, has been made a step forward in studying of the Russian-Mongolian relations - by it for the first time has been published full zastenografirovannyj the Report of Kjahtinsky conference (in Russian and Mongolian languages). However hardly it is possible to agree with author, and with some other Mongolian historians actually convicting Russia in treachery of interests of Mongolia, refusing to recognise an originality of political conditions that time on the Far East. O.Batsajhan fairly places emphasis on a fact of common knowledge - to achieve not only recognitions on international scene of Mongolia, and to revive and keep its independence, the Mongolian politicians made in Kyakhta huge efforts within almost year. But thus it identifies the Chinese and Russian positions which were at negotiations far not equivalent, approving, that at the same time governors of China and Russia led almost equal unfair struggle (shudarga a beads temtsel) and have brought the corresponding contribution to history of national - emancipating movement of the Mongolian people. In such approach - «almost equal unfair struggle», ironical «the corresponding contribution» - sees clear enough hint reproach to Russia for its insufficiently consecutive upholding of the Mongolian interests. In opinion of the author of dissertation, at negotiations each of the participating parties should defend own interests. At such approach the lack of the account of a world and regional situation of the international affairs is obviously felt. External Mongolia which was a part of Tsinsky empire, was gradually involved in world market structures. Under the influence of Russian revolution of 1905 and Sinhajsky revolution in China, begun in 1911, for a gain favorable international conditions have arisen Mongolia the state independence. On November, 3rd, 1912 imperial Russia and independent Mongolia have signed among themselves the agreement which has become by the first international legal certificate urginskogo of the government after declaration of an autonomy. Under the document (article 1st) Russia took up obligations to help Mongolia in support of the system established in it. Not to suppose on territory of Mongolia the Chinese armies and to prevent basically it колонизации112 However hopes of the consent of China to recognise Mongolia the independent state, were not justified. Shortly after the elite on February, 15th, 1912 the time president of the Chinese Republic the general Yuan SHikaj has officially entered on March, 10th this post, China, according to the time Constitution, declared Mongolia component Китая113. The great powers, supporting the reactionary policy of China concerning Mongolia, entered among themselves contradictions for the sake of strengthening of the positions in Mongolia and a northeast part of China. A position of Russia concerning independence of Mongolia it has been expressed in a communique about events in external Mongolia still on December, 29th, 1911 as follows: «not wishing to interfere with struggle occurring in China and not feeding aggressive plans in Mongolia, Russia, however, should be interested in an establishment of a strong order in this area next to Siberia where there are large Russian trading interests» 114. The Mongolian government has refused to recognise the requirement of the Peking government which in reply to this beginning to pull together armies to borders of external Mongolia. At a sight of the author of dissertation, the impartial assessment of the developed situation and a position of Russia on the Mongolian question belongs to the known Mongolian historian to academician B.Shirendybu. He wrote: «Russia has led such policy that External Mongolia, reserving formal dependence on China, at the same time was enough isolated that was in interests of ruling classes of imperial Russia» 115. Russia and China have signed on October, 23rd, 1913 the declaration on a recognition of an autonomy of External Mongolia. In it the Russian government recognised, that External Mongolia is under sovereignty of China, and the Chinese government recognised autonomy Монголии116. The government of Mongolia has directed in this connection notes to departments of foreign affairs of England. France, Germany, Austria, Holland. Denmark, Belgium. Japan and the USA. But these countries connected by the mutual colonizer purposes, or for any diplomatic reasons from the answer have evaded. It was silent, but quite expressive refusal of a recognition of the state sovereignty of Mongolia. The Mongolian government with it was not agree. It was necessary to sit down only for a negotiating table which have begun on August, 26th, 1914 in Kyakhta and which results have appeared not in favour of Mongolia. Under Triple (Kjahtinsky) agreement 1915 Russia has agreed to recognise Mongolia the independent state under the power of the Chinese emperor, border of independent Mongolia have been limited by four halhaskimi ajmakami and Kobdosky boundary district. Nevertheless, Russia anxious by intense relations with China, all the same has achieved inclusion in the Agreement of article approving the exclusive right of Mongolia to know by all affairs of internal management and to conclude with foreign powers international agreements on all questions of trade and the industry. Under the triple agreement China was obliged not to enter an army into External Mongolia, not to colonize its earth and not uchre> kdat there the management. At the same time the Mongolian government recognised sovereignty of China which was carried out by the Peking deputy (resident) in Urge and its assistants in the cities of Uliassutais, Majmachene (the Mongolian Kyakhta) and Kobdo. In their order there were small armed escorts. The history of an establishment of the independent status of External Mongolia is one of evidences of that the small and oppressed people in the conditions of colonial domination never could count on finding of original freedom and independence. It became possible only after a victory in Russia October revolution and transformation of Russia into the powerful state, made huge impact on acceleration of process of disintegration of colonial system. We will remind, that in 1918 revolutionary events in Finland and Baltic have begun, in Avstro - Hungary dynasty Gabsburgov has failed. In Germany revolutionary movement has amplified, in Japan the wave so-called «rice revolts» has swept. At support of Russia Turkey has achieved the state independence. The Great Britain has been forced to recognise independence of Egypt. In 1921 in China the communist party has been created. Because the autonomy of Mongolia has been liquidated on request of China, the Triple agreement was automatically cancelled: on November, 10th in Beijing the decree of the president of the Chinese Republic about cancellation of the international treaties concluded between China, Russia and External Монголией12® has been promulgated. Thus, there was a situation at which China began to insist on liquidation of the status of an autonomy which External Mongolia has found during national-liberation movement of Mongols in 1911-1915 with the political, financial and military help of Russia. Beijing, certainly, has not been satisfied by this agreement as at its signing Russia has put pressure upon China. However in existence imperial and Provisional government in Russia China did not dare to cancel unilaterally an autonomy of Mongolia - Strong and uniform at that time Russia acted as the guarantor of firmness of the Kjahtinsky agreement. The world situation of External Mongolia began to vary after October revolution and the civil war beginning in Russia. Influence of last in Mongolia has sharply fallen, and China has amplified. The summer of 1918, under the decision of the Peking government, had been entered armies into capital of External Mongolia. In Urge the Chinese battalion has been deployed on the ground that China considers External Mongolia as a part of the territory and the parcel there the Chinese armies is "a rational measure" from the Peking government. So it has been broken Kjahtinsky соглашение120. It is necessary to notice, that the question on liquidation of an autonomy of External Mongolia is insufficiently investigated both in Russian, and in the Mongolian literature. Nevertheless, the general outline of this event is looked through accurately enough. In the autumn of 1919 the Chinese armies under command of general Sjuj Shuchzhena occupied Urgu. «In Mongolia have been established a military occupational mode », and the ultimatum« about voluntary refusal of an autonomy »117 has been shown the Mongolian government. On September, 17th, 1919 such document has been handed over the Chinese general, the Mongolian army has been dismissed, all state office-work has passed to Chineses. The forced ceremony of worship of the bogdo-khan to a portrait Chinese президента118 on September, 19th, 1919 has taken place. Vynuedennyj refusal of an autonomy in China has been named by"self-liquidation". Power pressing of China, and also split in a ruling clique of the Mongolian political elite, heavy international and a domestic situation of Russia as a whole, including in Siberia and in the Far East became the main reasons of liquidation of the independent status of External Mongolia in September, 1919 In 1919 the question on the state status of the country has been temporarily solved in favour of China. However the history on it has not ended. Mongols continued to lead national - emancipating struggle. The further destiny of External Mongolia as independent state began to dare it in the union with Russia. With its military and economic help in 1921 External Mongolia has won the state independence. In it a main role following factors have played: - Revolutionary movement lifting in the country, resistance to its Chinese policy which has passed from diplomatic methods of business management with External Mongolia to military methods, having sent on its territory the armed armies; creation of people party and formation of the guerrilla groups transformed to regular Mongolian national army in February-March, 1921 119; New foreign policy of Russia after an establishment of the Soviet power, its reference to the government of External Mongolia with refusal of all contracts with Japanese and Chinese the governments concerning Mongolia, the reference to Russia behind the help in defeat of the Chinese militarists and White Guard groups in country territory. Such help of Mongolia has been rendered. It is necessary to notice, that a considerable role in leaving of Mongolia from under the power of China between Japan, the Great Britain and the USA of support of the Chinese militarists and in the organisation of next military intrusion planned by them disagreements have played Mongolia heavy internal conditions in the China. In 1924 Mongolia has proclaimed itself the new state - the Mongolian National Republic. By then Soviet Union has reached large successes in national economy restoration, has established diplomatic relations with variety of the countries of the West - the Great Britain. France, Italy and others. Business with normalisation of relations of Russia with China a little bit more difficult was. In the Far East settlement of relations with China has come to the end with agreement signing «About the general principles for settlement between the USSR and the Chinese Republic» from May, 31st, 1924 Under the insisting of Beijing, the Soviet government this agreement recognised Mongolia as a part of China. This forced and at the same time is unique expedient in the conditions of that time a recognition has played the big role in prevention of aggressive plans of the Chinese militarists in the relation Mongolia with the subsequent decision of a question on independence of it государства120. «At first sight, the Soviet Russia has conceded to China sjuzerennye the rights on External Mongopiju. And in practice External Mongolia continued to remain under the power of Russia», - so consider now Chinese историки121. Really, reproaches of some modern historians and political scientists of Mongolia that in May, 1924 Soviet Union has gone ostensibly on arrangement to China to deprive Mongolia independence, are insolvent. The further course of history has confirmed, that, Soviet-Chinese agreement 1924 actually has not changed independent position Mongolia. In November of the same year, that is already after signing of the Soviet-Chinese agreement, in Mongolia the republican system has been proclaimed, its first constitution which has declared Mongolia by the independent state is accepted. The constitution of the USSR was the sample of the project of constitution MNR. The Soviet Russia, the USSR as a whole, have rendered Mongolia the necessary help in fastening of successes revopjutsii 1921 So, in November of the same year depegatsija the National government has arrived to Moscow for carrying out of negotiations with the government of RSFSR about an establishment of friendly relations. On November, 5th, 1921 the agreement menadu by the Government of the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic and the National government of Mongolia about an establishment of friendship between Russia and Mongolia has been signed. According to this agreement, the Government of RSFSR recognised the National government as the only thing lawful pravitepstvom Mongolia. In turn the National government Mongolia were confirmed with a recognition of RSFSR. In this document the principles of equality, full mutual respect and friendship between the people, foreign policy of the Soviet state recognising the right of the Mongolian people on freedom, the state independence and the sovereignty have been reflected also. The parties were mutually obliged not to suppose stay and formation in the territory fupp, hostile to each party. They have agreed about an order of appointment of diplomatic and consular representatives and about frontier definition between Russia and Монголией122. In article of 8th given agreement (we will note it especially), it was specified, that the judicial authority of each of the parties «will extend both in civil cases, and in criminal, on being on its territory fazhdan other contracting party» 123. This article, as well as all contract as a whole, specified in occurrence of absolutely new relations between the big and small people and brought new nuance in exterritoriality international law. It is necessary as to draw a conclusion that historical value of the contract of 1921 consists not only in declaration of the general principles of a good-neighbourhood of two countries, but also that it became the first serious guarantee of independence of Mongolia, has hardened positions of the national government of this state. For RSFSR the given Agreement was as important as it opened possibility to approach with the border state, to create on the Russian-Mongolian border peace conditions, and also to use Mongolia for influence on the Chinese Republic. Subsequently the Soviet government had to make constantly considerable efforts to help Mongolia in protection of its sovereignty against China. Such Soviet policy on the Mongolian direction, spent after declaration of the independence as External Mongolia, become possible thanks to the direct military help of the young Soviet state, has caused at gomindanovskogo the governments sharply negative reaction. The Gomindanovsky government has regarded actions of Russia as «inconsiderate direct intervention» in affairs of China for preservation on its part of the former geopolitical interests which are «the concentrated expression of an imperial politics of tsarism» 124. It testifies that Russia, recognising independence of Mongolia, openly risked deterioration of relations with gomindanovskim China that was rather dangerous to both countries and could lead to unpredictable consequences. The Soviet Russia from the very beginning of an establishment of friendship with Mongolia began to render it the economic help, to develop with it trading and a cultural contact, to finance almost all a little considerable economic projects, to accept on training in the high schools the Mongolian shots. Hence, political, and also military and trading - economic cooperation between the USSR and MNR became the major factor not only maintenance of the statehood by Mongolia, but also survivals in the most complicated international situation of that time. However value of this factor leaves for these frameworks. The union of two states has played the big role in reflexion of military danger from imperialistic Japan in days of the Second World War, preservation of the world and stability in the Far East in "cold" war. It testifies that the countries small and insufficiently developed economically can play the important role in system of modern international relations. The external factor for the Mongolian National Republic, presented by the union and cooperation with its strong the neighbour - Soviet Union - became a guarantee of its national safety Development of close connections of Soviet Union with Mongolia cleared road for ideological influence of the country of Councils on Mongolia through Komintern which was a conductor of ideas and a policy of the Soviet state, both in the West, and in the east. At the same time, the Komintern promoted modernisation of the Mongolian society, political activity of the population, familiarising MNR with world revolutionary process. The external factor and makes now huge impact on internal dynamics of developing countries, on their place in economic integration, the international division of labour and, at last, on their role in world history. Development of the international relations it was considerably accelerated with disintegration of world colonial system that promoted occurrence of new tendencies in the international life. Strengthening of the international economic integration with development into globalisation of all spheres of the international life of the world community became tendencies. New high rate globalizatsionnyh processes and scale of distribution of the general international legal norms of the international relations became the main difference of globalisation from internationalisation. But globalisation process, no less than regionalizatsii, especially in the field of economy and a political system, it is not necessary to idealise. • The world which has been created to the beginning of new, current century, differs that the West not only has kept own power leadership, especially strongly pronounced in the name of the United States of America, but also prodopzhaet the expansion on world economic and political space. • However the phenomenon of the present stage of globalisation still far is not full studied in all its variety of influence on world community ability to live as a whole, on development of the countries of "the third world» in particular. The interrelation of global processes and varying relations meedu is insufficiently deeply characterised by the developed and developing small countries. This circumstance is marked by many interested international organisations. The population of the Earth globalizing ability to live mechanisms, naturally, influence development of its each part, and obshche regional processes gradually deduce regions on bopee wide, global level. However it is a question only of tendencies, at definition and which characteristics the role of theories of social development acts on the foreground owing to what these tendencies appear in the abstracted kind. In the real validity has put is much more difficult as behind all processes, the vital interests, the purposes and problems of each separate country or group of the countries stand wider (globalisation) or narrower (regionalizatsija). • Developing countries under the influence of developing circumstances choose, whether it is necessary to them to become isolated in sphere of the region, being isolated from connection to economic and losing possibility of active participation in world politics or to see in globalisation danger of loss of the sovereignty.? It is required not to lose sight of that fact, that studying of a phenomenon of globalisation is complicated by many circumstances among which research of its political aspect lags behind especially. Many researchers are limited to simple ascertaining of that fact, that in political sphere globalisation processes are expressed in formation of a new world order. Meanwhile, only the few underline, that «political bases of a new world order are built on the basis of the formed interconnected global economic and political system, its internal hierarchy, structure of relations of management and submission between subjects, their formal and informal regulation» 125. Practically now both the Russian Federation, and Mongolia are already involved in globalisation process. Therefore before them it is necessary - to participate or to participate a question in this process. Business here consists in other problem - how to develop mutual relations that they promoted extraction of benefits from globalisation. Speech should go about a raising of level of trading - economic relations to level ordered by the international norms and WTO requirements. Non-uniform components of global processes of circumstance and the reason have caused new wide ideologizatsiju the international relations. In activity of international subjects propensity to following to a paradigm - «economic liberalisation - political democracy - military-political compulsion to democratisation of authoritative political modes» is even more often traced. Its realisation in practice have shown the United States, resorting to methods violently establishments of democratic modes in Yugoslavia, Iraq and a number of other countries. Relations meedu the Soviet Socialist Republic and MNR during the period prior to the beginning of disintegration of world colonial system were formed under the influence of wide komppeksa the interconnected circumstances, the main things from which was the following: Difficult political conditions in the world in whole, in region of Northeast Asia in particular, increase of national - emancipating movement, aspiration of the colonial and dependent countries to the state independence and the national sovereignty; The requirement of Mongolia as the countries slaborazvitoj in political and economic relations to secure with the help and support of any strong and large state for a gain and the statement of the statehood; Readiness of the next Russia, especially after October revolution to render Mongolia assistance in achievement of objects in view by it; Interest of Russia in use of specific political position of Mongolia in own geopolitical interests. This moment is very important, as escalating of level of military cooperation of two countries coincides, apparently from history of the Soviet-Mongolian relations, with international situation change in the Far East towards complication. But anyhow, Soviet Union remained the major factor of safety of Mongolia, its statehood and the sovereignty. Experience of mutual relations of two countries has shown, that it had during this period certain specificity which consisted that it there were relations of the great power and the small country only still undertaking the first attempts to start modernisation of the political system and economic structure in the conditions of the sharpest deficiency of resources and experience. From here there was a high dependence of Mongolia on foreign policy of Russia. That fact, that Russia never aspired to attach to itself Mongolia, to enter it into structure of the state just as China tried to make it, in huge degree has caused orientation of Mongolia to northern neighbour. This fact should be meant not only Russian, but to the Mongolian politicians and diplomats. The Mongolian National Republic from the moment of the formation began to depend not only on relations from the USSR, but also from relations of Soviet Union with China, Japan and other countries of East Asia. Hence, influence of Soviet Union on internal political, economic and cultural processes in MNR has got character of a historical regularity. It is necessary to specify by all means and in that circumstance, that the aspiration of the USSR to keep MNR in sphere of the influence was dictated not only geopolitical and military interests of its management. It became possible, first of all, owing to that External Mongolia was the small country with a small population (to the beginning of revolution of 1921 there was the little more than 600 thousand inhabitants), with huge it razrezhennostju on huge territory, with a low level of development of the productive forces, the extremely limited military possibilities to show essential resistance to the Russian (Soviet) and Chinese influence. Introduction MNR on a noncapitalistic way of development to socialism, creation of social and economic and political system of the country on the Soviet sample, education of citizens in the spirit of Marxist outlook became its major result. Mongolia has found historical chance to start economy modernisation, creating the enterprises of the modern industry, transport and communication to combine advantages and traditions of a nomadic civilisation with advantages of the western model of a civilisation, first of all, in a sphere of education and public health services, literatures, sciences and arts. For many Mongolian leaders Russian was not foreign, and is simple the second language, a conductor of new ideas, the technologies necessary in the course of modernisation of the Mongolian society. Thanks to it there was a formation of a certain spiritual generality of the people of Soviet Union and the Mongolian National Republic. The role of the external factor in a life of the developing countries which have recently started democratisation of public relations and market transformations is especially great. Mongolia has to the full tested on itself influence of more powerful state - Soviet Union in a kind of that both these states have been closely connected not only the general protjazhennoj by border, historical and cultural contacts, but also long political and economic interaction.
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A source: Dzhagneva O. A.. DEVELOPMENT of the Russian-MONGOLIAN RELATIONS: the BASIC DIRECTIONS, PROBLEMS And PROSPECTS (1921-2005) / the Dissertation / Elista. 2006

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