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2.4.2. Makar Fishermen: from glory to oblivion

M.A.Rybakov has lived the life most part in Kimry, one of the first in Kalininsky area has entered the Union of writers of the USSR, has written some plays and novels. Its trilogy ("Awakening", "Liholete", "Windbreak") — original provincial imitation of the trilogy of A.M.bitter, which

The writer considered as the teacher.

In texts — a life kimrskogo edges since imperial times (since a birth of the author) to 1930th Certainly, a political background of novels of M.A.Rybakova was quite defined, nevertheless, first of all it is possible to name them autobiographical (1), of scenes of everyday life (2) and — novels about shoemakers-handicraftsmen (3). During Soviet time prose Rybakova was called (obobshchyonno) «istorikoyorevoljutsionnoj as the autobiography». It also is fair. And, in many respects, it its value for Kimr speaks; it — some kind of the historical document, art judgement of an event, an autostereotype on edge. The text — intentionally simplified, with set of the interspersed jokes and vital situations that is completely justified by words of the writer: «When wrote, always thought: to read them (books. — Century K) Will be after day of work, and to write it is necessary so that the person who has got tired on work had a rest behind reading »[436]. We will notice, that Fishermen planned to tell and about a life of a province in days of the Great Patriotic War and directly war, in particular — in the novel« Uneasy time ":" In new product which I write, I enter them (heroes. — Century K) In extreme circumstances of premilitary men and military years. If will suffice gunpowder I will tell how national tragedy of thirty seventh severely auknulas in fight with fascism. Words are not present, we have overcome the enemy, but have overcome great blood. About a fiery hell I know not by hearsay — itself has walked through it in soldier's overcoats »[437]. (Attracts attention a word-combination« national tragedy of thirty seventh », testifying, that for Rybakova the policy remained faster a background; it is difficult to name its novels sotsrealisticheskimi or proletarian though the separate politized episodes are allocated). However to finish the given book it was not in time.

M.A.Rybakov was born on June, 8th, 1891 in d. Markushi Kaljazinsky district of the Tver province (now — Kimrsky area of the Tver area) in a family of the farm laborer-shoemaker. In seven years remained without the father, some time studied at tserkovno-parish school, worked as the shepherd, studied handicraft craft, served the home-worker. In 1915 has been called in army and it is directed to 149 infantry regiment located at Great Novgorod on the bank of the river Volkhov. In 1917 private soldier M.A.Rybakov comes back from army and becomes the revolutionary. In the autumn of 1917 participated in Provisional government overthrow in Kaljazine, and on December, 22nd the same year at I congress of Councils in Kaljazine has been selected by the commissioner of agriculture. In a year of Fishermen — the head of a neogenic agricultural commune [438] (many of these facts acquire details in novels of the writer). However, during this period revolutionary aspirations Rybakova have ceased. In the novel "Pervoputok" (was published after the trilogy, in "thaw"), describing this time, hero Rybakova is full of doubts. He does not trust the power which has abolished a commune, runs into depression and will run in village. There (as well as the writer) studies accounting business and, having moved to Kimry in 1921, becomes the teacher (and then the head) accounting courses. He will be engaged in teaching of accounting business to in parallel literary craft more than 30 years [439].

In the same 1921 M.A.Rybakov marries E.N.Golovinoj, and within six years at them three children are born: Andrey (1922), Henry (1925) and Margarita (1927). Then Fishermen are built by the house (that also is reflected in novels) and is installed in it with members of household (1924 [440].

Literary debut Rybakova has taken place in the late twenties During this period it short time of veins in Kalinin where worked as the teacher in high school, and at leisure was engaged in self-education, read much and tried to write itself. In archive of Kimrsky museum of local lore we have found M.A.Rybakova's memoirs on those days: «Has laid down on a bed, has opened (A.M.bitter's book. — Century K) and on page I have read about such lines:“ Many, laying on a bed with knigoju in hands, think — to write not difficultly, only it is necessary to undertake ”. And there and then Alexey Maksimovich has added:“ But these people are similar to bugs, they bite others, and never undertake also will create nothing ”.

I have postponed the book, some minutes have thought and, at last, felt a bug. Has risen from a bed and, looking at a portrait hanging on a wall, has told, how live:

— Alexey Maksimovich, I — a dreaming bug, but will begin to write from now on. Let it will not be published at least lines, I will write all the same to the death ». Probably, it was art exaggeration because in September, 1928 in« the Tver truth »under pseudonym Makar the Shoemaker has been published M.A.Rybakova's story« in a bath »[441 [442] [443]. Speech in it went« about the rural

442 boy who has got because of indifference of owners severe burns ». M.A.Rybakova's first creative searches have attracted B.N.field's attention. He has invited the debutant in rukovodimuju it Tver 443

The organisation of proletarian writers.

In Kimry M.A.Rybakov as the writer debuted in 1929 when in the regional newspaper its story "India" has been published. The page of the newspaper darned by threads with publication Rybakova is stored in the house
Archive of the author of research. Later "India" some times republikovalas [444]. In an initial stage of creativity and to a meeting with A.M.bitter of Fishermen the Shoemaker continues to be printed under pseudonym Makar. Under this name there were its first three books.

On a boundary of 1930th of Fishermen-shoemakers tests in dramatic art. Its drama experiences were put by amateur collectives — them showed from club scenes of collective farms and factories (they have not received the further recognition). In 1931 M.A.Rybakova has a first book — the play "Kostoed" (M: Federation, 1931). After the publication of the second play "Export" (1932) Rybakova accept in the All-Russia society of playwrights and composers.

During the same period "Vserosskomdrama" sends M.A.Rybakova in promkolhoz with the task to write the play about a collective life. Fishermen goes to the Ivanovo area, in promkolhoz furriers, rukovodimyj A.A.Furmanovym, the brother of the author "CHapaeva" D.A.Furmanova (about last fact of Fishermen repeatedly told to journalists): «I wrote the play behind that table where the Dmitry Furmanov“ CHapaja ”created. And it to much obliged» [445].

The play "Zajchina" became result of work. (As playwright Rybakov has not taken place — its further dramaturgic experiences were not published, only were occasionally played at level of local amateur performance.) "Zajchina" has received the award at the Moscow competition of playwrights and it has been published "OGIZ-GIHL" th (goslitizdatom) in 1933 Competition passed under A.M.bitter's home nursing, the meeting of winners with which has taken place in September, 1933 of Fishermen recollected this meeting repeatedly, in particular, in conversation with J.F.pomozovym in the late fifties: «Was bad
Weather, Bitter nezdorovilos. He has called and has told, that will receive authors on apartment, on Small Nikitsky. We have gone. Worried all road. And Alexey Maksimovich simply, as the father native has met us: has congratulated, to everyone has talked »[446]. During a meeting Bitter it has advised Rybakovu to be published under the present name. Council of an idol of Fishermen, certainly, has apprehended unequivocally — pseudonym Makar the Shoemaker was not used by it any more. The latest memoirs of Fishermen admitted, that the meeting with Bitter became for it a rebirth — spiritual,« from which Makar Andreevich has passed the firm decision — all indefatigable further literary work to justify a parting word Bitter »[447].

In words kimrskogo the prose writer provinciality and installation on the limited, local character of own texts is distinctly looked through; the realised secondariness is shown in aspiration to copy a literary canon (we mean M.A.Rybakova and A.M.bitter's trilogies). In this aspect an image M.A.Rybakova is represented as talented, but: an imitator.

And nevertheless we once again underline value of texts Rybakova for Kimr: both in chronicles, and in transfer of a special "shoe" life kimrjakov. Outside of Kimr interest to M.A.Rybakova's prose is represented to us doubtful.

In 1935 M.A.Rybakov has been accepted in the Union of the Soviet writers — one of the first in Kalininsky area [448]. Then years of correspondence study at literary-creative institute of the Union of writers of the USSR followed (nowadays the Literary institute of a name of A.M.bitter) which Fishermen is ended in 1940 At this time by it lives in Moscow and teaches Russian in high school.

To 1941 of Fishermen goes on front and in 1942 will get demobilise on age. Having returned to Kimry, works as the auditor on collective farms, teaches Russian and the literature at Evening school, whence it, however, dismiss. The certificate according to which Fishermen it is released from teaching of Russian and the literature because of discrepancy of qualifying level is stored in isolated records of a city board of education of that period. We will notice, that E.K.Peshehonov is appointed to its place (the first kimrsky the critic, subsequently — the critic of novels Rybakova). M.A.Rybakov comes back to teaching of accounting business.

During quarter of the century of book Rybakova were not printed, despite dispatch of manuscripts in publishing houses. Here what it was embodied by P.P.Dudochkin working in Kimry in 1930-1940: «I have made friends with it to a Patriotic War when worked in the Kimrsky regional newspaper“ Collective life ”. It came To edition almost always sad, something reminding the offended epic hero — sedovlas, in boots, in the linen, white shirt embroidered by cornflowers navypusk, with a wattled silk belt. Somebody will ask:“ As is? ”Will wave a hand:“ Also do not ask. Again from gate turn ”. It meant, that again — again — manuscripts are returned from publishing house with the negative answer. I do not know, it would be possible to it to print sometime the novels in capital if they at first have not been published in the regional publishing house, the created ambassador of war» [449]. Words Dudochkina do not disperse from our conclusions about «local limitation» and secondariness — probably, that exclusively by a lucky chance was the trilogy (and then the fourth novel) is published rybakovskaja.

Thus it is necessary to notice, that books Rybakova were quite comprehensible quality and corresponded to author's installation — for
The workers who have come back home after change. In their this aspect, undoubtedly, it is possible to name author's good luck.

After the edition of books on them exclusively positive reviews (it is believed, that described in them, including defensible doubts, does not disperse from dominating ideology) began to appear. We will result two examples.

"Neva": «Also are completely not frequent original good luck of the writer when it is possible to observe the most necessary proportions between art fiction and the image of historically authentic material» [450 [451].

«Literary Russia»: «the Autobiography has, of course, gone in within the limits of books, but scales of novels are wider than the autobiography. This most important thing. That writes Makar Andreevich Fishermen, — almost art in habitual understanding of this word: here not the author is embodied in the hero, and, on the contrary, the hero is embodied in the author, absorbing in itself its lines of 451 individualities».

Subsequently, when M.A.Rybakova's name has got the big popularity (for rather short period — till the moment of death of the writer), in its literary debut two employees of Kalininsky book publishing house have been named by involved. Dudochkin believes, that the decision to publish novel Rybakova was accepted by the director of publishing house A.V. Parfyonov: «“ Read? ”— he has asked (Parfyonov. — Century K) me. “ At all once. In prewar time together read-discussed ”. I admitted, that such sincere narration about shoemakers yet was not in the Russian literature. It is necessary to give due to the director, it has put aside all affairs and for some days while the author lived at me, itself has read all three novels and has encouraged:“ we Will edit and publish ”» [452]. A little differently the situation is presented by N.I.Mazurin in article devoted to century of M. And.
Rybakova, «Heart volgarja»: «Long time of the manuscript laid without movement and in book publishing house existing in those years. Probably, on that all also has come to an end. Do not get works kimrjaka on eyes to the younger editor Elena Kovalyovoj, possessing an unusual scent to an art word. She has read the trilogy from cover to cover and has admired with originality of the written. It also has solved a fate postponed was in the deaf box, gained then and blood of products Makara Andreevicha» [453]. We believe, a role many have played — beginning from A.M.bitter (with whose name of Fishermen associated in калининских circle of writers), P.P.Dudochkina, employees of Kalininsky book publishing house and others, unknown to us, people.

M.A.Rybakova's first novel "awakening" has been published in 1958 (it is republished in 1962). We will add, that arhitektonicheski novels (anyway, the first) Rybakova are constructed as collections of set of the small stories united by chronological and subject principles — novels included also the stories published about 1920th when, we believe, the writer did not reflect yet on the novelistic form.

Time of action of the book — the end of 1890th — the XX-th century beginning. At the heart of a plot: a growing of the child, not capable to go to the first years of a life, comprehension of necessity of transformations by it in the country, participation in strikes of workers of 1905 etc.

In 1960 second novel Rybakova "Liholete" is published. «Time described in the novel, — the period of the gloomy reaction which have come after revolution of 1905 (from here the name —« Liholete »), and also years of imperialistic war and two revolutions — February and October» [454], — was summarised in "Neva". The growing of the hero accompanied by development of an active vital position — in particular is obvious, it stands up for the war termination. The hero of the novel is dipped into a working environment,
Finds common language with workers, is engaged in self-education. Sjuzhetno and chronologically the novel passes in the third book "Windbreak" (1961) — revolutionary character.

By 1961 of Fishermen has achieved the object — creations (and editions), secondary as a matter of fact, but essential to local consciousness, the trilogy. It has occurred, when to the author 70 years were executed.

On it of Fishermen does not stop and writes the fourth novel "Pervoputok" (M: «the Moscow worker», 1966). Sjuzhetno the writer concentrates on years nepa and leads up a narration till 1933 — meetings with Bitter. The basic marks of the biography correspond to heads - to novel stories. Magazine "Banner" named novel Rybakova the book getting «force of the document» [455].

In a year of an exit "Pervoputka" M.A.Rybakovu executed 75 years. Anniversary of the writer was widely marked in a city and area. In Kimry for celebrations the hall of drama theatre (accepting city actions for unusual cases) has been allocated. On June, 18th, 1966 anniversary evening Rybakova has taken place in Kalinin, in library of A.M.bitter.

To it B.N.field's letter of congratulations accompanied, to one of the first noticed talent of the prose writer: «Dear Makar Andreevich! I do not know, whether this letter will keep up in time, but, is remembered, you said to me, that in the beginning of June to you 75 years are executed. With all the heart I congratulate you, dear Makar Andreevich, with such solid date, I congratulate both as the fellow countryman, and as a colleague by a trade, and as old, very old admirer of your sound realistic creativity. 75 years — not a joke, but you have approached to date of this in the prime of life, during a creative time and if you will build your books it seems to me, that"Windbreak"— last book of the trilogy — not more low"Awakenings". It is healthy, very healthy, Makar Andreevich!

So, I congratulate, I embrace, I drink to your health. Boris Polevoj »[456].

In 1967 M.A.Rybakov is awarded by an award of the Labour Red Banner [457 [458], and year after, in 1968, in publishing house «Soviet writer» the 75-thousand circulation republishes its trilogy. In summary Rybakova 458 name «one of the oldest Russian writers».

By this time at M.A.Rybakova long illness becomes aggravated. It is difficult to it to go, however during the moments of easing of symptoms of illness it assiduously works over the new novel «Uneasy time», devoted to the Great Patriotic War. The manuscript of the fifth novel has been finished by then — in 1962 the publication of its heads in magazine "Neva" was planned, but it has not occurred.

In 1969, despite deterioration of health, Fishermen finds forces not only to meet, but also personally to visit delegation kalininskih writers and the journalists arranging in Kimry creative evening. Knowing about its bad state of health, they have decided not to disturb the writer and were limited to phone call. Fishermen, having specified, in what number of hotel have stopped arrived, has quickly finished conversation and, after half an hour (according to memoirs) has reached hotel. «The door has swung open, and in its aperture has seemed Fishermen. Languished from the hasty walking, smiling, in eyes the pleasure shone brightly.

— See as. Wished to get off the old man, and the old man — here it I. Hello, kind mine drugi! »[459]

On July, 1st, 1970 M.A.Rybakov has died. The body of the writer for farewell ceremony has been exposed at drama theatre; he has been buried on kimrskom a cemetery near to the wife, E.N.Rybakovoj. Same year in memory
About the fellow countryman the city authorities have renamed 1st Country lane into street Rybakova.

Any of remained neopublished texts has not been published since then; the previous novels were not republished.

Century of M.A.Rybakova was marked within the precincts of Kimrsky museum of local lore. The evening which has received the name «Heart volgarja», was conducted by colleagues of the writer, tverichi Parfyonov and Mazurin. In 2001, also in a museum, have noted M.A.Rybakova's 110 anniversary. The son of the writer, G.M.Rybakov told about the father, memory about which ran low even among kimrjakov.

Certainly, M.A.Rybakova's creative heritage is not settled by seven books. Manuscripts of not published plays and the stories are stored in Kimrsky museum of local lore, not added novel. In particular, it worked over a fairy tale in verses «Three neighbours», however already in 2000th this manuscript has appeared lost — according to G.M.Rybakova it took on acquaintance one of visitors of journalists — and has not returned. Probably, it to the best as M.A.Rybakova's poetic experiences are insolvent.

Example Rybakova keeps within frameworks of the concept described by V.A.Koshelev "About" literary ”provinces and literary“ provincialities ”new time»: «Provincial culture, unlike farmstead (in its Kimry« the representative »— A.A.Golenitsev-Kutuzov. — Century K), always was under construction with indispensable ogljadkoj on capital (in a case« provincial »Rybakova — with caution on« capital »Bitter. — Century K) — and, accordingly, had, first of all, criterion of" correlation »to capital level.» [460] last also is essential. Comparing Kimry with Kalininym and Moscow, — a city in which lives protagonist, the minimum does not concede to regional and capital examples. Correlation is made. Own "innovation" thanking
"ogljadke" it is practically levelled. Concerning Rybakova one more stereotype noted by Koshelev operates: "Presence" small "," ”accounts to the concrete art worker — too necessary“ provincial ”a detail of a literary life. On the one hand it depends from“ big, Russian ”accounts, co-ordinating it and prisposobljaja to concrete conditions. With another — depends on a principle:“ Plohonky, but the ”— and in the relation to“ the ”reduces qualitative“ a lath ”» [461]. In relation to Rybakovu both "accounts" operate: otmechennost at all-Union level it is correlated with lath fall «for the». From here a myth about the shoemaker-writer. (In this aspect fairly following: «under a crape epigonstva local lines» [462] are distinguished — to the same conclusion we have come also during research.) Let's add, that in case of S.I.Petrov the estimation from an "account" position is not absolutely effective. It is faster an exception — in connection with the obvious talent, not had time to obtain an objective recognition behind borders Kimr. Concerning the majority of other local authors the stereotype is represented to us fair.

In January, 2009 the author of research has met G.M.Rybakovym living in the fatherlike house to the address: Kimry, street Ordzhonikidze, d. 28. We have examined an office of the writer, have familiarised with set of photos, the books presented by M.A.Rybakovu by colleagues and friends. Among them — P.P.Dudochkina, J.Z.Shvedova's editions, etc. autographs — the diversified, at times unusual: «to Kind, wise, wonderful grandfather Makaru Rybakovu, the athlete of Russian prose» (poet A.Chistjakov).

G.M.Rybakov has told about a family of the father (these data are used by us in the section beginning), about a literary life, creative (including house) meetings: «Now writers live not so amicably. Earlier, happened, constantly came, there passed warm friendly meetings. And now in the literary
To the environment such already is not present ». Towards the end of a meeting G.M.Rybakov has suggested to familiarise with a selection of publications about the father and invitations to anniversary and creative evenings M.A.Rybakova in Kalinin and Kimry.

Now M.A.Rybakove in a press recollect all less often. Even in Kimry where of the writer, by and large, remind the street named his name, and a portrait in the Central regional library. Unfortunately, M.A.Rybakova's novels kimrjakami practically are not claimed. Publications about M.A.Rybakove in Kimry are rare and are not systematic. Name Rybakova is forgotten. Regional specialists, but also critics pay attention to it from the regional centre not only kimrskie. So, in A.M.Bojnikova's article «white stains of the Tver study of local lore», the reproach to regional specialists that they give not enough attention to literary figures of the Tver earth is made. In the list of the resulted names there was also M.A.Rybakov [463].

The present research — attempt to return from oblivion a name of the writer. At least in kimrskom (it is possible — in Tver) a context.

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A source: KORKUNOV Vladimir Vladimirovich. the KIMRSKY LOCAL TEXT In the RUSSIAN LITERATURE. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2015. 2015

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