1.4. The author as the subject of the statement in memoirs

the Person of the author of memoirs is interesting in all variety of its displays. From the point of view of structure of product the memoirist appears at the reader in two ipostasjah: as object of the image, one of heroes of memoirs and - simultaneously - as the subject of the statement offering to the reader to look at an event by his eyes.
Thus subektivatsija a narration does not undermine reliability, truthfulness of memoirs. Memoirs - always demonstration of author's consciousness and author's self-creation. The central category of any memoirs text - author's "I". Stable submission of the memoirist about itself, about the physical, psychological, intellectual, emotional condition, about the mutual relations with heroes, about the place in the world and in the text of memoirs. Degree of aspiration of the author to self-expression, to self-knowledge, to self-comprehension - key zhanroobrazujushchy a sign memuaristiki. Any deviation from this principle, in this or that party conducts a deviation to washing out of genre borders, to smykaniju memoirs with others hudozhestvennopublitsisticheskimi genres, to transition in other literary forms. Size author's "I" - some kind of the indicator memuarnosti products. At a stage pramemuaristiki the personal and public merged together. Subsequently the right to the historical memory, considered first the privilege of the selected persons, began to be realised as the general right, as the right of each person. Thus, in history of development domestic memuaristiki size author's "I" evolved from a historical objectivism to that the figure of the storyteller became a character. Depending on degree of an involvement of the author in described events in memuaristike it is possible to allocate following forms of expression author's "I": the author-observer, the author-active the participant of events and the author-active 77 commentator of an event. Appearing in the memoirs text in a role of the observer, the author narrates about situations, the phenomena, events which he directly saw, but did not participate in them. On the foreground in products of a similar sort there is an image of the hero. The memoirist tries to remain «behind a shot», but does not disappear at all. Peering at the past, it only relays a chain of details, persons which independently act on light through limitation and subjectivity of human memory. « I write these lines with one only desire: to tell about Bunin the truth, that which I saw and knew, not adding anything from myself, not affording an estimation, These categories are allocated with L.E.Krojchik in the work «the Modern newspaper feuilleton», Voronezh, 1976. - 230 with. Positive or negative. The nobody's objections, any conjectures will not convince me, that the truth could appear sometimes and other », - writes G.V.Adamovich. The author-active the commentator of an event reproduces those episodes which he personally did not observe or observed partially. Not own memoirs, and certificates of eyewitnesses become a starting point for author's reflexions. Degree of reliability of such memoirs is lowered, but the importance or ekstraordinarnost an event is so great, that they have the right to a place in public memory. The Author-active the commentator, selecting such strategy of a narration, strengthens a subject component. The author-active the participant of events extremely staticizes the relation to the described. Aspiring impartially to reproduce events about which there is a speech, in a pointed manner underlines the right to the point of view («I so see»). Naturally on the foreground in such texts the certain image of the author incorporating both individually-unique lines of the concrete person, and signs of the certain concentrated author, that is a certain carrier of the sights which expression is all product (according to B.O.Kormana) is put forward not only the real biographic subject of the statement, but also. The item «I in history» is accurately enough expressed in Z.A.Shahovsky's memoirs: « The world around varied on eyes - I was to that the witness... Memory has saved up pictures and the sounds which reflexion henceforth can be only with my help. But to memory the imagination, after all it the painter, instead of the photographer is added, and without imagination it is equally impossible neither to create, nor to recollect. Memory is not objective, subject to everything, that it feeds: to a brain, 75 76 sight and hearing, maybe, to a shower. So, I have nothing to offer people, except 80 own my today's sights at the world... »Borders between forms of expression author's« I »are quite often mobile, changeable, washed away. L.K.Chukovsky in the memoirs of" Memory of the childhood »acts and as the active participant of events, and as the commentator. She admits:« I remember myself - obryvochno - since 1910, that is from three-year age; what the child from three to ten can remember? The little; not one after another; not clearly. Woken, my memory appears marvellously infantile »81. Therefore, recollecting the father, writer K.I.Chukovsky, memuaristka not only describes them kuokkalskie games at that how the father together with them« cheerfully skipped on one foot, built of fortress sand, threw stones - who further? », but also gives a word to the writer, resulting records from its diary:« Since I have got acquainted with these children. For me all adults have somehow grown dim. It is strange that have a rest I can only among children ». The important publicistic resource of memoirs - dialogichnost. It is possible to present any memoirs product in the form of several dialogical cuts. The author talks to characters about whom writes, with itself, with an audience. The hypothetical interlocutor is present at memoirs always. But main dialogue of the memoirist - in due course. With Eternity. Such is feature of any creative process. At each epoch the eyes, the hearing, the system of experiences. The memoirist keeps to descendants the text as an occasion for time and timeless with-reflexions.
The text of memoirs is invariable - the audience, their perceiving varies. The first cut of memoirs product - information (« Here is how it was »), the second analytical (« Why all occurred so »), the third - metaphysical (« And what exactly behind such memoirs costs »). Time - a dominating image of all memoirs. Only in one texts it appears obviously and openly: the circulation to the conditional or nominal addressee, to contemporaries - in travelling paragraphs. And in other texts it is necessary to speak about the internal dialogue, which author conducts with itself - in diaries, confessions, with the past and the heroes - in actually memoirs, memoirs, memoirs portrait sketches. V.S.Golubtsov allocates the following, the most typical forms memuaristiki: Diaries, notes, notebooks, memoirs of eyewitnesses on separate events, on people, on an epoch as a whole, memoirs-questionnaires, memoirs-obituaries, the memoirs written under oral stories of eyewitnesses and participants of historical events, collective (complex) thematic memoirs, biographies, autobiographies, biographies, the memoirs created in the co-authorship of participants of historical events with writers, at last, actually memoirs - the significant products covering, as a rule, the big period of time, important historical ńîáűňč˙77. So detailed classification allows to speak about a variety of forms of dialogue of the memoirist with an audience, as at each genre the possibilities of the organisation of effective effect on an audience. The greatest possibilities of such effect travelling notes, diaries, confessions, autobiographies, memoirs, memoirs portrait sketches have. The activity rate of the author defines all scale of versions of a memoirs genre, since a confession, the autobiography, a diary and finishing actually memoirs and memoirs. On the basis of time relations it is possible to allocate two groups of forms of a memoirs genre. In diaries, travelling notes - time synchronous. In memoirs, memoirs portraits - time retrospective. Reading memoirs and diaries, the audience perceives, acquires, realises not simply the facts or the events, taking place to be, but also comprehends the communications established between them by the author. With V.V. Uchyonova and S.A.Shomova allocate such kind of texts as autobiographical notes. Researchers consider, that autobiographical notes adjoin the memoirs literature. « Unlike classical memoirs similar texts at their creation do not assume the publication, - authors write, - and thereof do not apply for a rigid literary canon. Like authors of household letters, founders of such products follow on advantage to direct movements of soul though express the thoughts and feelings in the epistolary forms inherent in this or that time, this or that national tradition ». What is essentially important in similar sorts texts? Researchers pay attention that autobiographical notes« radiate aura of authenticity nepridumannosti described events »78 79. The important property of the autobiographical literature is noted: the author of such texts acts first of all as the person confirming reliability of an event though scales of this reliability are limited by level of its perception of a reality, as features of its individually unique sight at world around, its gone through experience, its formation etc. In the set of the such note create the original encyclopaedia of a life of the private person. What is interestingly: formally household texts acquire lines bytijnosti - through a daily occurrence fabric the eternity silhouette appears. By the way, the same force of historical generalisation the so-called everyday diaries not intended for another's eyes and having introspectively-ispovedalnyj character have also. Among authors of Russian abroad of memoirs in the form of diaries have kept Z.N.Gippius «the Petersburg diary», «the Warsaw diary»; B.K.hare «the Diary of the writer», "Days"; G.N.Kuznetsova «a Grassky diary»; A.M.Remizov «Vzvihryonnaja Russia» and others. Texts of diary character can be divided on faktograficheskie (describing mainly external events), introspective (reproducing exclusively internal experiences of the author) and it is introspective-faktograficheskie (external events srashchivajutsja with author's comments, associations, hints). « The diary of the writer as I understand him, - marked M.M.Prishvin, - begins a measure of things on itself and moves on a way to the law. Davnym I for a long time write the diaries, measuring in all of them on myself. When then in a year, through two, through ten I look through the turned yellow pages, in them "law" and then, having removed «» aside and at the same time, having felt it 87 pressure, I write suddenly opens, being given to "law". L.JA.Ginzburg fairly writes, that diaries - reflexion «yet not predetermined process of a life with even unknown outcome». Hronotop a diary it is simple: really current time in really fixed space. Time of a writing will not defend from event time. « The diary - a current of a life », - was noticed somehow by Z.N.Gippius80 81 82. Sketchy supervision over a vital stream and self in a unit are fastened on the basis of an author's purpose. It influences selection of the facts, style and a manner of an exposition of records. Certainly, at each author the purpose. Someone undertakes a writing of memoirs only for itself(himself), someone thus aspires to devote in gone through only junior generation of a family, and someone initially is guided by their further publication for a wide reader's audience. So, that such memoirs - on the one hand, the epoch document: any memoirs text reflects a sight of the concrete subject of history at an event and enters the reader into more or less authentic world of that reality about which the memoirist writes. On the other hand - memoirs are imidzhevyj the text giving submission about the person writing, of largely documentary reflecting private world. But after all the person is too the original document of an epoch in which he lives.
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