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a work General characteristic

The given work represents attempt to track transformation of an image which N.V.Gogol's all creativity, in our opinion, gets is an image of night. In gogolevedenii this theme was never considered as independent object of studying.

Night came into the view of researchers at their reference to more general categories forming artly - an expressive originality of creativity of Gogol, for example poetics [1] and consequently it is shined fragmentary or is absolutely disregarded. Though I.Zolotussky named Gogol «the poet of night» [2], meaning not only favourite the writer time for creativity, but also its art reflexion mirovidenija. Really, judging by that, how many attention Gogol gives to nuances of a night landscape, transfer of certain "mood" of night, she plays at it rather significant role. The art intuition of the writer creates its "shape" according to the general idea of product. Therefore in Gogol's creativity night has various images. In turn, these images were in a direct connection with spiritual evolution of the author and, as consequence, reflected this evolution. In this connection consideration of a theme of night in Gogol's creativity has not private, but much wider value.

If to address to art history it is possible to notice, that in it there were periods when this phenomenon drew especially steadfast attention and, first of all, during an epoch of formation of romantic culture. In the book «Art and beauty» writes V.V. Vanslov about night as extended and an integral part of the figurative world of romantic art [3]. Having continued traditions of "night" poetry the Ship's boy and Heating, romanticists have deepened this theme, have filled with the filosofsko-ontologic, aesthetic maintenance, have created unique artistic images on beauty. The reference to a phenomenon of night deduces on
Revealing of communications of Gogol with romanticism that is obviously important for the given work.

The problem «Gogol and romanticism» repeatedly rose a number of researchers. I.V.Kartashovoj's thesis for a doctor's degree «Gogol and romanticism» (Kalinin, 1982) where deep organic communications of creativity of Gogol with romanticism were proved, in particular with German has been specially devoted it. By present time in gogolevevedenii this question is widely enough shined. However night as a studying subject in the given context specially was not considered, though recently the "night" theme in romanticism starts to enter more and more into a circle of interests of modern literary criticism, both foreign, and domestic [4]. But the literary criticism costs at the beginning of its research. And meanwhile the reference to her helps to understand more deeply essence of attitude of Gogol, its romantic character (especially in first half of creativity), gives the chance to see, and diverse (contact and typological) its communications with the art world of romanticism were how much wide.

And the second important problem for the dissertation. Since last decade last century interest to the religious maintenance of products of Gogol has extremely increased. Interpretation of its literary heritage from the Christian point of view has given the chance to see Gogol's creativity in new light. Moreover, without the similar approach it is impossible to understand Gogol - the Christian both on spirit and on a life - in products of last decade its creative biography.

neyotrudno to notice, that in correspondence G ogolja 1840th years often there are mentions of darkness of soul, an antagonism of darkness light. It uses a lexeme "night" as a metaphor of a spiritual condition of the person. So its Gogol also interprets: «almost at everyone night and darkness around» [5]. Thereof studying of a phenomenon of night and its transformation
In creativity of the writer can, in our opinion, in many respects to deepen representations about religious sense of Gogol products.

Thus, studying of this phenomenon matters as for specification of contacts of Gogol with romantic art, and gives the chance to understand more deeply the important parties of its art consciousness, evolution of its world view to idea of religious transformation of the person and the world. It defines an urgency of dissertational research.

Object of our research - poetry and Gogol's prose, since early publications - a poem "Italy", idyll «Gants Kjuhelgarten», collections of first half 30th years, a poem «Dead souls», «the Chosen places from correspondence with friends», and also letters of the writer.

The dissertation purpose is consideration of a phenomenon of night, its transformation and dynamics in Gogol's creativity 1830 - 40th years. Thus the big attention is given to a context of the romantic literature, finding-out of relations Gogol «feelings of night» to attitude of Russian and foreign romanticists, and also (in late creativity) to svjatootecheskoj to thought.

The dissertation purpose assumes statement of following problems:

1. To consider an image of night in Gogol's early products - «Gants Kjuhelgarten» and «Evenings on farm bliz Dikanki», revealing thus both affinity of the writer to romanticists, and its originality in filosofsko-aesthetic and artistic realisation of this image.

2. Addressing to the collection "Mirgorod" to show deepening of tragical sense of an image of night in the story "Vy", on the one hand, and with another - filling of night subjects filosofsko - moral intentsijami.

3. In stories «Petersburg cycle» to allocate «the Neva prospectus» as the culmination of tragical judgement with Gogol of an image of night.

4. In «Dead souls» to consider an image of night in a symbolical context of all poem.

5. To analyse transformation of an image of night in late Gogol's consciousness (widely using thus letters of the writer 1840 - nach.

50th) and to show its movement to opposition "darkness" - "light" in relation to a spiritual structure of the person.

Scientific novelty of the dissertation sees in for the first time undertaken attempt to present special and complete consideration of a phenomenon of night in Gogol's creativity and to show interrelation of this phenomenon with spiritual evolution of the writer.

The theoretical base of the dissertation is made by works of the Russian and foreign researchers mentioning in the works questions, connected with kontseptom nights and its reflexion in consciousness of the person: E.N.Trubetsky, P.A.Florenskogo, A.F.Losev, V.N.Lossky, K.G. The ship's boy, G.Bashljara, Roger A.Ekercha, etc.; researches under the theory and romanticism history, comparative literary criticism, and also Gogol's creativity: V.M.Zhirmunskogo, N.JA.Berkovsky,

A. S.Dmitriev, A.V.Karelian, F.P.Fedorova, V.V. Vanslova, N.A.Guljaev, JU.V.god-send, E.A.Majmina, JU.M.Lotman, I.P.Zolotussky, I.M.Semenko, A.S.Janushkevicha, A.B.Botnikovoj,

B. N.Anoshkinoj, I.V.Kartashovoj, F.Z.Kanunovoj, V.I.Saharova, E.E.Dmitrievoj, E.V.Grekovoj, S.I.Mashinsky, J.J.Barabasha, I.A.Esaulova, V.A.Voropayev, etc. very important for the given work were and judgements of fathers of Church were widely used: prep. Makariy Egipetskogo, prep. Nikodima Svjatogortsa, svt. Ignatija Bryanchaninov, svt. Innokentija Borisov, Russian religious thinkers and philosophers: P.A.Florenskogo, V.V. Zenkovsky, E.N.Trubetsky, ep. I.Shahovskogo, N.A.Berdjaeva, A.F.Losev, etc.

Methodological basis of the dissertation is connection of historico-literary and typological approaches with principles of comparative-historical and phenomenological research.

The positions which are taken out on protection:

1. The phenomenon of night in Gogol's creativity is in a direct connection with spiritual evolution of the author and, as consequence, reflects this evolution.

2. In an image of "divine" nights of early creativity of Gogol «the romantic feeling of a life» writer is expressed.

3. The image of dark "demonic" nights is other party romantic mirovidenija Gogol, expressing more and more becoming aggravated sensation disgarmonichnosti lives.

4. Awful in "demonic" nights consists not only in terrible images and situations, but also in the image of temptation and sweet of a sin.

5. The city night genetically connected with image of Petersburg, with its chaotic life and artificial illumination, gets grotesque character and bears in itself konnotatsii a deceit, a temptation, devil delusion, becoming a source of spiritual deadlock and  destruction of heroes.

6. The aspiration to find a way out from this deadlock is reflected by the interconnected images of road, night and a beginning dawn in XI head «Dead souls».

7. In Gogol's late creativity night gets the metaphorical sense symbolising spiritual darkness of the person, which overcoming Gogol sees in trues of Christianity.

Scientifically-practical value of the dissertation is defined by that the supervision made in it and conclusions help to deepen representations about Gogol's creative communications with romanticism, about its world outlook and art evolution. Dissertation materials can be used at the further studying of a theme, and also in practice of high school teaching at reading of the general courses on history of the Russian literature and special courses on Gogol's creativity.

Work approbation. Dissertation substantive provisions were stated in reports and discussed at theoretical seminars NOTS Cyprus and

Conferences «the romanticism World» Tver state university, and also at the All-Russia Internet conference «the Russian classical literature in philosophical contexts» the Stavropol state university (2009).

On a dissertation theme 6 scientific articles, including 2 articles in editions recommended VAK (third article is in the press) are published.

Work structure. The dissertation consists of introduction, 4 heads divided into paragraphs, the conclusion and the list of the used literature containing 250 names.

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A source: Stanichuk Igor Anatolevich. the Phenomenon of night in N.V.Gogol's creativity. The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2014. 2014

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