communicative function of language and a problem of speech influence of the sermon

Human language as dynamic whole in L.V.ShCherby's theoretical model develops of three ipostasej - language system, speech activity and the speech treated as fixed projection of system of language and communications and a source of a language material by aspects of language as dynamic whole [compare: SHCHerba 1974: 24-38].

The orthodox sermon as a print of language system as the culture and communications phenomenon and fixed in this or that system of record the text can be considered in all three aspects of Shcherbovsky understanding of language as the triune dynamic whole. However the sermon as communicative event in sphere of interpersonal interaction and a genre of church dialogue is not a simple print of grammar and the dictionary of national language, but has the features and is characterised by a special spectrum interpretatsionnyh installations and communicative problems which can be solved to some extent. In the marked communication it is necessary to notice, that in a global context the traditional genre of the Christian sermon is even more often considered as problematic in difficult conditions of the present to what numerous publications of representatives of the western Christian thought and a note of domestic authors [Desnitsky 1998, 2017 testify also, Savin 2009, prohvatilova 1999, Kuzmin 2006]. Thus the considerable attention is given by authors to a language problem as key from the point of view of the decision of problems of communications.

The linguistics as a science about human language (F de Sossjur) acts today in a role of a key resource of a scientific explanation and applied
Decisions of actual problems of the present connected with the world of human communications. Not casually allocated with linguists on the basis of various methodological approaches predominating function of language is thought as "communicative" function, or even "superfunction" in R.O.Yakobson's terms. In the marked communication the multifunctional model of language can be put in a basis of the present research as the functional system, developed and presented by Yakobson on the basis of regular generalisation of world experience in the given area of scientific researches taking into account positions and results of researches Bjulera, Richards and many other things researchers and their predecessors.

In a summary the functional model of language of Yakobson leans against base concepts of the sender and the addressee, a context (vnejazykovoj the validity) and a code (language system), is direct messages, contact and a communication channel. The sender (addresser) sends the message to the addressee (addressee).chtoby the message could carry out the functions, are necessary: a context (context) about which there is a speech (to another, not quite unequivocal terminology, "reviewer" = referent); the context should be perceived by the addressee, and either to be verbal, or to suppose beliefs balizatsiju; a code (code), completely or at least partially the general for the sender and the addressee (or, in other words, for coding and decoding); and at last, contact (contact) - the physical channel and psychological communication between the sender and the addressee, causing possibility to establish and support communications [Yakobson 1975: 198]. To each of these six elements there corresponds special function of language (the expressional expresses private world speaking / the sender; faticheskaja is responsible for contact; referentsialnaja sends to elements verbal or vnejazykovoj to the validity, konativnaja it is directed on management of behaviour of the addressee; the meta-communicative is devoted criticism of a code - language or style of the message; the poetic transforms the message into a subject of the aesthetic

In one of possible treatments theological / theological function of language of all is closer to the poetic. The philosopher O.Rozenshtok-Hjussi specifies: «the theology should not begin neither with things, nor from ideas, and from words« Svjat, svjat, svjat »and from voices which judge, pray, sing, call, bless and damn» [Rozenshtok-Hjussi 2000: 499]. However, as it is easy to notice, and within the limits of such approach it is immediately designated abris internal poetics of theological communications which inevitably appeals to constants of functional model of language.

However hardly it is possible to find the speech messages which are carrying out only one of these functions. Distinctions between messages consist not in exclusive display of any one function, and in their various hierarchy. Presented to function R.Yakobson's models can be named by simple in the relation to more specialised functions of the sermon - such, as katehizatsionnaja or divine service. However the essence of these functions can be comprehended on the basis of designing at a support on concepts of base model of language of R.Yakobson. For example, probably to admit consideration of the God as the absolute sender of the sermon, and the preacher as the person speaking from His name to listeners for the purpose of the decision of a spectrum of communicative problems of the God and Church.

In understanding of Christian ancient church preachers - first of all people Bozhii which is carrying out katehizatorskuju mission of Evangelical annunciation to pagans to what sacred apostle Peter and the book of Acts of sacred apostles directly testifies: «After a long reasoning Peter, having risen, has told it: muzhi brotherhood! You know, that the God from days of the first has selected from us [me] that from my lips pagans have heard a word of the Gospel and have believed; and Serdtsevedets the God has given them the certificate, having granted to them of Spirit Svjatago, as well as to us; also has not put any distinction between us and them, veroju having cleared their hearts» (Деян.15:7-9). In the present research attempt of research orthodox gomileticheskoj is undertaken
Communications on the basis of methodology of a "secular" linguistic science taking into account features of Christian religious consciousness as the phenomena of language, culture and communications.

According to R.Yakobson's model, verbal structure of the message as the source of its true understanding the addressee depends on prevailing function [Yakobson 1975: 198]. Thus any speech behaviour is purposeful though the purposes can be rather various; conformity between used means and desirable effect, that is an object in view, is a problem which occupies the scientists investigating various types of speech communications [in the same place more and more: 195]. Public interest to the sermon is caused today by that circumstance, that the Christian sermon has the purpose transformation of the person and a society to the best. Thus the sermon is not once and for all fallen asleep museum form of speech and social influence and interaction, and represents developing genre in system of human dialogue and church building.

Let's notice, that the present in many academic and church sources is characterised as time of amplifying alienation of the person and crisis propovednicheskih genres of church dialogue [Language of Church 2002]. For this reason rather actual the reference to pervoistokam is represented to the sermon as in a special way organised communicative event ordering ensemble of key functions of language, its subordinates of the higher, or "super-function", on R.O.Yakobson's expression, - communicative.

Divine function of language acts as a call for human imagination and reason from the beginning of times. And in the modern academic literature and earlier in Christianity history there are attempts of allocation by the person - theological function of language. The foreign researcher of the Island

Rozenshtok-Hjussi directly writes about necessity of allocation of divine function for system of the main functions of language [Rozenshtok-Hjussi 1997: 119­133, 252]. It is possible to agree With this thesis, both from religious, and from especially pragmatical reasons in turn caused by public requirement for idea of the absolute standard of conscience and good.

In the end of 20th century in the Western Europe (for example, the J.-item van Noppen, etc.), and then in the beginning of 21 th centuries in space of the countries of the former Warsaw block tries to affirm as special area of scientific researches such direction of researches of "religious language» as "teolingvistika" as which active propagandist A.K.Gadomsky [Gadomsky 2004 in Russian acts; 2005; 2012 etc.]. (There is, however, as well such konstrukt as «orthodox linguistics», the mentioned A.K.Gadomsky referring to O.V.Chevely's publication in 2006). Object and an object of research of the given direction

It is characterised by the author in various publications about various image - from search of the answer to a question on that, «as the human word can be used in relation to the God» Gadomsky 2005:18] before studying vaguely defined «religious language» [Gadomsky 2012: 19-20], sometimes treated as a functional variant of human language [in the same place: 20]. Sometimes as object teolingvistiki language in general [in the same place is called: 22]. The subject is defined as «religious language, and also the phenomena of the religion which has found reflexion in a national language, influencing its development» [in the same place: 22]. Reasonings on necessity of introduction teolingvistiki as special discipline differ appreciable incoherence. The author that refers to some achievements of the Polish authors in working out of concept of the religious language which concrete results are not resulted in the publication [Gadomsky 2010: 364] addresses to the term "theology" which in its interpretation in an equal measure concerns the Western tradition of Christian divinity and it is extrapolated on
East, and also a Judaism and Islam [Gadomsky 2010: 363]. Thus sphere development teolingvisticheskih researches is carried out mainly extensive by (at the expense of multiplication taksonomicheskih terms). Last decade claims teolingvistiki on a special method and the academic status have not received broad support and a scientific community recognition. Thus expressed ekumenisticheskaja installation of the research project teolingvistiki erases lines konfessionalnyh cultures, opirajushchih on contrast philological techniques and approaches. For example, in Christianity interpretative receptions and gematrii occupy marginalnoe a place, and in the Judaism is considered as a part of respectable tradition.

German researcher Charles-Otto Apel (1922 — on May, 15th 2017) within the limits of the philosophical project of creation transtsendentalnoj pragmatists of language (and transtsendentalno-germenevticheskogo concepts of language as its component) underlines communication pragmatists of language with germenevtikoj. As the researcher of creativity K. marks. Aplelja E.I.Sitnikova, in philosophical concept Apelja language «represents system which exists exclusively in frameworks intersubektivnogo the uses» [Sitnikova 2008: 42]. The scientist comes to conclusion about necessity of philosophical synthesis «the interpretation mediated by language (which konstituiruet the importance of knowledge) as unities of mutual understanding concerning something in communicative community» [Apel 1977]. Thus, the decision of a problem of language as accumulator, conductor and the generator of senses leans against allocation of concepts of the certain communicative community acting in a role of the subject of dialogue and understanding, the carrier of senses and interpretation language.

Philosophical disclosing K. Apelem unities of contrasts pragmatists and germenevtiki in a context complete judgement of problems of communications serves as a philosophical substantiation for concept ritorikoyo
germenevticheskoj the program of the text directed on optimisation of activity of the recipient on development of pithiness of the text [Bogatyryov 2002: 50-52; 74]. Thus pithiness of the text is treated by us in tradition of the Tver school philological germenevtiki as harmonious ensemble of values, maintenances (predikatsy), senses and ideas. Corresponding intentsii speaking ritoriko-germenevticheskaja the program acts as a basis tekstoporozhdenija which rhetorical a component it is caused by a problem of maintenance of influence of the generated text on the addressee / the recipient and the organisation of communicative interaction with it. For the recipient of speech the system of rhetorical means and markers of the text speaking acts as an understanding basis opredmechennyh in the language form of intentions speaking, entering interaction with system of knowledge, intentions, installations and expectations of the addressee. The understanding of pithiness of the message answers actual level germenevticheskih gotovnostej to an audience.

The ritoriko-Germenevtichesky program of the sermon aspires to harmony of the form and sense, language and the statement, intention of speaking and its understanding by the recipient. The harmonious understanding of the plan of the ethical message of the sermon the recipient is based on a basis (reflektivnogo) development of the nominative in text nominative and figurative means of the language operating in the image of sense which is reconstructed in the field of perception of the text to a mutual consent establishment between whole and its parts [cf. Bogatyryov 2001:115]. As as a powerful source of influence of the sermon ethical ideas act, here it is necessary to underline art character tekstopostroenija and the general property of aesthetic ideas of the text to act as generators of senses. As one of ways of actualisation ethical / aksiologicheskoj ideas of the sermon the rhetorical technics of the semantic interval defined as the recipient subject to the discretion «can act at a support on uniform objective data of the text
Disputed contrast of nonidentical reference points smysloobrazovanija »[Bogatyryov 1998: 77].

The special question makes consideration of the God as the necessary participant of communicative event of the sermon. In the present dissertation the sermon is considered as event of interpersonal dialogue of the preacher with the listener in the conditions of the decision of a problem of the joint introduction into dialogical relations with the absolute beginning of life and comprehension of senses of the Divine Word. Binding function of language here does not cause doubts. As the philosopher, «marks Language - unique our reality, in itself bearing and« physics », and« metaphysics », and for this reason capable to provide an exit to« the absolute », and, hence, and to new knowledge» [Mamardashvili 1997: 301].

The theological and social problem of a temptation of the people idea exact, but poor language of Sacred books receives in JU.M.Lotman's work (1986) unexpected judgement in connection with a problem of creation of an artificial language as tool of preservation of senses of the message. We will note thereupon one circumstance. To a certain extent artificiality of medieval and latest Latin answers the marked sort to the approach, but does not maintain a competition with live energijami modern languages of the people of Europe. Other situation develops with tserkovno-slavic language in Slavia Orthodoxa where energy of language of the Scriptus is perceived as an obligatory component of reformative influence on language profannyj. At the same time JU.M.Lotman notices, that the great text demands from the recipient of development of a modern language who not only in itself is new, but also there is a language ad hoc [Lotman 1986], unique language, language of this unique text.

Let's notice, that in 20th century the problem of communications of the person was good luck mentioned not only seminary students and mystics, but also philosophers (M.Heidegger, M.M.Bakhtin, M.Buber, P.Tillih, E.Kassirer, H-river JAuss, the Island

Rozenshtok-Hjussi, Gadamer, etc.) which reasoning on the God and the relation of the person with it every time rested against a language problem as communication channel as means and communications forms, and also invariably contacted questions of linguistic poetics. In particular, H-R. JAuss (1994) specifies on following «a theological triad of actions of language: conversation as modus revelations moves in the centre between the story as modusom creations and a song or a hymn as modusom eulogy so I and You at the third step We are advanced by a liturgical paradigm, and conversation passes in the end in singing and silence of Saturday silence». Here we find an accurate explanation of a genre Christian gomilii, "conversation" taking a place between "story" of a bible narration and singing and reading of prays. We will note in the marked communication such allocated JAussom the important problem of a theological genre of conversation, as an eminence of the person to the interlocutor in the name of the God [JAuss 1994].


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A source: PETRUSHKO Ivan Alekseevich. INTEGRATIVNAJA MODEL of COMMUNICATIVE EVENT of the ORTHODOX SERMON. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2018. 2018

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