2.6. Figurative perception of geographical objects

the Figurative nomination has the direct relation to a figurative metaphorical nomination. Thereupon it is important to differentiate terms a figurative nomination and figurative thinking (metaphorical thinking).
Reflexion of the validity is meant figurative thinking in activity of consciousness us in the form of images, verbalizovannyh or neverbalizovannyh. The figurative (metaphorical) nomination is a version of the mediated nomination of the paradigmatic type, reflecting crossing relations between signifikatami, based on similarity relations [the Hook 1977: 269–283]; « … rather free use of various lexical units in secondary nominative function »[Golev 1980: 47]; when« … search of the identifying maintenance becomes free and the thought on identity of subjects, and sensation of adequacy of concrete is sensual-evident images-impressions from them »[Rut 1992: 26] becomes the identification reason any more.

Metaphorical figurativeness is not limited to poetic diction limits. D.Lakoff and M.Johnson assert, that «the metaphor penetrates all our daily life and is shown not only in language, but also in thinking and action. Our ordinary conceptual system in which frameworks we think and we operate, it is metaphoric on the most essence» [Lakoff, Johnson 1990: 387].

V.N.Toporov notices, that the mythological consciousness of the ancient person «is extremely focused on the constant decision of problems of identity» [Axes 1987, 29–30]. By means of mythological representations the person orders the world around still insufficiently understood and studied. The metaphorical KM does not supplement, as consider some, ‘ the kernel ’ conceptual system and does not serve ‘ as periphery ’ [Brutjan 1968, 1973; Vasilev 1974; Kolshansky 1975]. «That it is accepted to name a language picture of the world, is the information disseminated on all conceptual skeleton and connected with formation of concepts by means of a manipulation in this process by language values and their associative fields that enriches language forms and the maintenance conceptual system which carriers of the given language» [Telija 1988: 177] use as knowledge of the world.

According to interaktsionistskoj M.Bleka's concepts, metaforizatsija proceeds as process in which two objects co-operate, or two essences, and two operations by means of which interaction is carried out. One of these sushchnostej is that object which is designated metaphorically, the second essence – auxiliary object which we correlate with designated already ready language name. This essence also is used as the filter at representation formation about the first. Each of co-operating sushchnostej introduces in result of process the systems of associations, usual in case of the standard use of language, as provides speaking on the given language metaphorical sense.

Specified to essence (in concept Bleka – vnejazykovye objects, or reviewers), co-operating in kognitivnyh filtration and focusing processes, form the new system of signs making the new conceptual maintenance, embodied in new value of a name used in a metaphor which is perceived simultaneously and in its "literal" value – in the isolated presentation [Black, 1962, 1979; see about it: Telija 1988: 183].

I.Richards models metaphorical process as interaction «two thoughts on two various things.

And these thoughts, arising simultaneously, are expressed by means of one word or the expression which value is result of their interaction» [Richards 1936: 90].

According to V.N.Telija, the special attention addresses on presence in process metaforizatsii pragmatichekoj intentsii. The intended expense of speech efforts always is aimed at something. In a case metaforizatsii – on motive, the purpose and tactics, together preparing illokutivnyj effect of the statement containing a metaphor. For this reason as the basis for classification of metaphors can serve not only their communicatively-functional properties [Arutyunov 1978; 1979], but also itself intentsija the subject of a metaphor who uses different mechanisms metaforizatsii, various aspects antropometrichnosti, no less than various interpretation modusa fictitiousness [Telija 1988: 189].

Creation of figurative names is based on ability of human consciousness to make use of previous experience for an identification of various objects, more precisely, their images. In classifying and assimilating activity of language consciousness work the intersubject communications which have been made active of in one way or another "removed" objective validity: «the Figurative model is the intermediary between sensually perceived objects of the validity and sense, value, their understood essence» [Mihajlova 1972: 223].

As the basic components of a nomination serve the subject, object, the addressee, language. We will consider a role of these elements in a figurative nomination. M.E.Rut marks various level of abilities of nominators to creation of figurative nominative units which depends on level of the organisation of thinking and volume of individual experience of nominators. It is possible to speak about identical requirement for figurative nominative units and about various individual possibilities of its realisation. « Sharp associative "jump" for kategorialnye frameworks – always a find, always the big rarity, and to occurrence of figurative nominative unit always accompanies splash in positive emotions »[Rut 1992: 35]. In the concept about specificity of figurative thinking it is marked:) existence of is evident-shaped thinking which« possesses relative independence of material objects, cash practice and an empirical material »[Brewers 1986: 116; tsit on: Rut 1992: 38]; conditionality of this form of thinking thinking verbal; independent informative value of is evident-shaped thinking that is reached at the expense of certain discharge from material objects. M.E.Rut interprets this concept with reference to a figurative nomination so:« Facing objects of the validity which knowledge at level of is abstract-logic thinking is impossible, the nominator is switched to sphere of the sensual experience and, leaning against abilities of is evident-shaped thinking, the nominator allocates for a figurative nomination or one sign, or a complex of signs (more often – the second finds an authentic way of expression of knowledge of object in the form of a concrete image of the subject already mastered by verbal thinking »[Rut 1992: 38]. As to objects of a figurative toponymic nomination, it, as a rule, the small, foreseeable, sensually apprehended objects, in which). Creation of new nominative unit meaningly or is unconsciously estimated by the nominator from the point of view of its perception the addressee. In a figurative national nomination viability of figurative nominative units is caused by a generality of vital and language experience of collective. Essence of a direct nomination is the embodiment of own sign of object in the name, and essence mediated (including figurative) – an embodiment of the same sign in other subject [Golev 1976: 93; Rut 1992: 23]. Figurative nominations in toponymy, as a rule, are rare. So, in toponymy of their Russian North no more than 0,5 % [Rut 1992: 74], in mansijskoj toponymy of a mountain part of Northern Urals Mountains – 3 % from the general number fixed [Glinskys, Matveev 1975]. Figurative names nevertheless take place in any type onimov (in blshej or мeньшей degrees), reflecting distinctions in perception of subjects and aspiration to a variety of a language designation.

At the heart of our classification the anthopometrical principle, according to which ‘ the person – a measure of all things ’ lays. According to it it is allocated following spheres of the subject world of the person, used for a figurative identification: anatomic parts of a body of the person, a part of a trunk of an animal, ware, products, flavouring sensations, money, settlement type, fauna.

2.6.1. antropomorfnaja figurativeness. Body parts

antropomorfizm – one of the first ways of comprehension of world around. About it myths testify to an origin of parts space or more often) terrestrial space from «members of a body pervocheloveka» [Axes 1988: 341]. Representations of the person about themselves and the body appear that sphere which is learnt better others and can become a basis for a figurative identification. On this basis there was variety of language figurative metaphors in geographical terminology.

As motivating bases for toponominatsii in Prienisejsky Siberia following appellatives have served: a foot, a navel, language, an edge, cheeks, a throat, a bone, a scalp (bald), a mane, a wart, a side, guzno. The given appellatives or their derivatives (except guzno) are formed as a result of a transfer of meaning of sphere a body in sphere a landscape and are extended in geographical terminology. In our materials those metaphorical terms and their derivatives which are used for toponominatsii are considered only.

Otnozhka, kl. (A little) (SH). Otnoga – branch of a mountain ridge, its spur; valley branch; a river sleeve, its inflow; a narrow gulf of lake; the beginning, a river source. On Carpathians mainly orographical term, in mountains of Southern Siberia – hydrographic. According to E.M.Pospelov, names of mountains in East Carpathians of One-hectares, Obnoga [Murzaev 1984: 422] here enter. E.M.Murzaev results also in this value terms otvetok, a spur. All three appellatives with motivating bases the foot, a branch, a horn have the general to this «lateral branch», containing in roots and strengthened by a prefix. In a case with otnozhkoj in the initial image there was a body of the person, similar images in terms otvetok, a spur are connected, accordingly, with a tree and an animal [Murzaev 1984: 421, 423]. In dialects of Prienisejsky Siberia in the same value: ottochek – small small river. – here if taka nebolsha the small river from Angara runs, ottochkom call (Mattocks.) (SS). The nominative model based on metaphorical carrying over – branch from the basic channel, – is used for a designation of small streams, the small rivers, following (not running) of the basic stream.

Dunkin a navel, vozv. (nesk.) (Ball.). A navel – a raised place; the same on the average the Volga region; wood island in Leningrad region; a navel, pupysh – "hummock", "bugorok". A navel in Gorki area; Pupozero in Leningrad region. [Murzaev 1984: 466]. The image is accompanied emotivnoj konnotatsiej on the verge with pejorativnoj. The anatomic detail a navel is available on a body as men, and women, but in the name is staticized in connection with image of the woman that assumes authorship of the man [see about it: Berezovich 1998: 47]. Thus in the nomination certificate any certain woman, does not mean more likely, it is the generalised image (compare: start up Dunku to Europe).

Mother-in-law's language, abrupt, dangerous turn of road (a little). Mother-in-law's language – a loop on mountain roads of the North Caucasus. E.M.Murzaev considers as the anatomic term in geographical terminology [Murzaev 1984: 646]. The name meets often enough, but it, more likely, not the term, and lingvokulturema, symbolising the insidiousness generated by character of relations in a family between its not blood members, sproetsirovannoe on sensation of danger on road. The image is supported by similarity under the form.

Kostovataja, mountain (Ber.) – with firm breeds, stony. A bone – a reef on the sea; kostlivo – kamenisto; kostlivyj coast – rocky coast. The anatomic term [Murzaev 1984: 294]. A bone and a stone – likening on the basis of hardness, an image of a basis, a skeleton, probably, antropomorfnyj a macroimage: stones – earth bones. It is related Latin costa "edge", Serbo-Croatian кōст "edge" [Fasmer 1967 II: 349].

Edges, island on Yenisei, the rocky area reminding edges (Beat.). An edge – ridge sides of a range where the stone left crests, edges [the Distance 1955 IV: 87]. The image is based not only on visual similarity. There is an associative basis of its development: «stones – earth bones». The Reference value i. * rebh – «to cover with the arch, a roof», to "cover" (about the arch, a roof, a thorax) [Black 1993: 102].

Cheeks, rocky coast in the bottom current of Stony Tunguska (Baj.). Cheeks – the rocky steep high coast of the river narrowing a valley where speed of a current of water sharply increases; usually form gorges, the canyons compressing the river from two parties; the rocks located against each other on either side of the river (Siberia). The anatomic term in geography. The big and Small Cheeks on the river to Kamchatka [Murzaev 1984: 633]. The complex image causes associations with a mouth arrangement between cheeks on the person.

Lysanka, mountain (Ber.). Bald – the mountain, which top is deprived wood or kustarnikovogo a cover. Are numerous toponimy in territory of Russia: Bald Mountain, Lysogory [Murzaev 1984: 353]. Metaphorical carrying over on similarity: the head deprived of a scalp – the mountain deprived of vegetation.

Mavrina the Mane, a mowing (Ball.). The mane in all slavic languages matters the geographical term, in other-ind. grĩv ǎ – «a nape, a nape», avest. – grīvā "nape" [Fasmer 1964: 458]. In modern terminological value a mane – the low rather sloping extended ridge; the set of Manes and Grivok in toponymy of Russia [Murzaev 1984: 158] is noted. Grivel – a ridge, a height. – Has risen on grivel (En.); Grivina – the same, that grivel. – Grivina above the earth (En.) (SS). The image which is taken as a principle terminological geographical value, is connected with a neck of an animal, «long hair on a neck of some animals» [Black 1993: 217]. However in i. And other-ind. praformah, noted

M.Fasmerom, value «the nape, a neck» designates anatomic details of a body of the person. This value is supported in southern dialects of Prienisejsky Siberia: From a collar the seam is grivenka (SHush.) (SJU).

Borodavkino, a rough field (the God.). A wart – the small cone on a body, nakozhnyj an outgrowth, usually rogovatoj exteriors; the similar cone on plants [the Distance I 1955]. The Semantic link with a field ‘ flora'vyrazhena in dialects of Prienisejsky Siberia: borodavochnik – chistotel. – Borodavochnik from shipichek helps – you will spread with juice, and will pass (Boguch.) (SS). In the field name a figurative sense is realised. Except carrying over on sense, in the name it is transferred negative konnotatsija motivating sphere ‘ illness ’.

Lateral, a meadow (Bir.); Lateral, d. (Bir.); Zaboka, a place (the God.) ; Distant zaboka. A side – the subject party, a side; each thing has top and a bottom, other external planes are called as sides; if to exclude back and before will be two sides, right and left [the Distance I 1955]. In terminological value: a side – river coast, the party (Central r-n) [SRNG 1968: 2]; the same on Altai. Compare: ukr. бiк – "coast", «the party of the river, lake» [Grinchenko 1958: 1]; the Byelorussian. A side – «coast of the river, lake», "party", "edge", "suburb", «a mountain slope» [Yashkin 1971]. Bokovik – «the lateral, cross-section wind blowing perpendicularly to a watercourse» (the Volga region, the Novgorod, Pskov, Vologda areas) [Murzaev 1984: 88]. Zaboka – a mountain slope; lesok, a grove on coast of the rivers, lakes; a wood edge; woody pojma the rivers; a wood part, a wedge pressing in the field; the small valley surrounded with mountains; a meadow on a river bend; cape on the river with meadow vegetation; a gulf; a river sleeve; The islet separated from the big island protowhich; separately standing hill, if it away from the big mountain [SRNG 1972: 9]. Also – coast, a roadside, edge, the party [Murzaev 1984: 210]. In dialects of Prienisejsky Siberia: zaboka – 1) lesok, more often on the bank of the river or island. – Zaboka grows, kliushaet where the river, where the rivers viljuchie (SH); 2) river cape or island with meadow vegetation. – in zabokah mow, the corner, hummocks, seldom birch forest stands out in small river, but to mow it is possible (SH); 3) pojma. – in the Spring in that zaboku we stick rafts (SH); 4) a mountain slope. – Zavetyorna zaboka or solnopyochna zaboka, any cape, can, wood. (Hens.); 5) lesok in the field, steppes or an islet of dense vegetation. – Zabokam, kolkam (name), where the bird cherry costs (SH) (SJU). The internal form of names from a root a side – «being aside, far from the centre».

Throat, bottleneck (Ball.). The metaphorical geographical term a throat in values «gorge on which the road to mountains», «mountain pass», "channel", «a river mouth», «sea passage», «a narrow part of the sea», "prowounds" is laid, "abyss", "channel", etc. is in slavic languages; in the Turki. bogaz – "throat" and "pass", "passage", "pass". The universal image is widely realised in toponymy: the Throat of the White sea, Georgievsky, Sulinsky, Kilijsky girla in delta of Danube, etc. [Murzaev 1984: 153]. In this case – onimizatsija the term. In same value Bezguzov the bridge, trudnoproezzhaemoe a place (Ball.) . Гyзно – back and a bottom of that-l., a bum of the person and an animal; a stomach [the Distance 1955 I: 406]. Not Figurative name, motivirovannoe an appellative with value «a body part». At the heart of the name the situation which sense consists that it is possible to remain without guzna lays, passing on this bridge (in dialects of Prienisejsky Siberia there is also other value: гyзно – a stomach. – we will go to have dinner, and that guzno absolutely empty (Kezhem.) (SS)).

2.6.2. zoomorfnaja figurativeness

In the resulted number of names the figurative identification occurs to fauna sphere: a bear, a ram, a hedgehog, a bull.

The bear mountain – on appearance; YOzhikovaja a taiga – a prickly fir grove. The figurative nomination of the resulted names is caused by knowledge of the person of appearance of animals (a bear, a hedgehog) and their basic external signs: the bear – big and shaggy, the hedgehog – prickly as fur-tree branches, as a result big, porosshaja vegetation mountain reminds a bear (it is not excluded, that a bear the-inhabitant of this place), and a prickly fir grove is similar to a hedgehog. Thus, in a nomination it is realised saved up by the person (the hunter, tayozhnikom) life experience. The name the Bear mountain has arisen on the basis of complex figurativeness, i.e. the general similarity, name YOzhikovaja a taiga – on the basis only one property – prickly. Under the remark of N. Skljarevsky, «in itself existence in language of this or that of HOLES indirectly testifies to semantic structure of a reference value – about presence in it semy, the metaphor which have entered into a symbol even if this sema is not found out at a superficial sight and it is represented contradicting not only LZ, but also to psychologically real word meaning» [Skljarevsky 2004: 147].

Parts of a trunk of an animal: the Bear head, mountain (Ball.); the mutton forehead (Bir.) – a hill on which the village is located. The carrying over based on associations with appearance of animals. Both names designate a height, the images embodied in given names, allow to present brightly differences nominated oronimicheskih objects without the long description of their external signs. Advantages of a figurative nomination also consist in it. To carry out a nomination, it is necessary to see oronimichesky object from the party and on distance not to distract on other signs, maybe, less significant in this case (soil, the size, a vegetative cover, etc.). If the image finds support of other members of collective, the name gets accustomed, i.e. the image should not be too subjective that the nomination was carried out.

Slanting Bull, shivera (Kezh.). SHivera – «a long sloping threshold» [Murzaev 1984: 628]; a bull – «rocky coast», «stony rock about which vessels by the sea or the river» can break, «a small threshold on Angara», «rocky islands», «a stone in water», etc. [Murzaev 1984: 106]. The powerful stone ledge on the river creates an obstacle for navigation and represents danger, as well as the large horned animal known for the aggression.

2.6.3. Subjects of a life at the heart of figurativeness

The sense of creation of figurative nominations consists that images not learnt or not enough the learnt objects on the basis of previous experience correspond with images of well-known subjects on the basis of the associative communications sometimes enough far to destination and a scope of subjects.

Research of a language metaphor of nominal lexicon shows, that process metaforizatsii in a direction a subject → a subject – 21,7 % of all metaphors in language [Skljarevsky 2004: 104] most intensively proceeds. In our materials this area of an identification makes more than half of considered figurative names, and the subject world of an identification is presented by household sphere of the house and housekeeping.

Tools: the Scissors, three huge stones on the river in the form of the scissors, a dangerous place (Beat.). Sharp stones on the river, representing danger to swimming, remind under the form scissors, but, possibly, not only visually, but also intuitively associate with scissors as a subject which can represent danger at casual handling. For members of language collective on the first place figurativeness of the name, and konnotatsija dangers which bears the given comparison underlying the figurative name acts not.

Harness: Homutina, a mowing surrounded with lake Igyr, as a collar (Ball.) . A collar, homutina – roundish lake, erik, staritsa; the channel of the river bent by a horseshoe. In the Ryazan region – «a bend of the river or lake coast», in Tomsk – «round lake with an islet in the middle», in Arkhangelsk – «the sandy eminence put by a current and waves round the sunk vessel». A metaphor in place names in Tomsk, Zhitomir, Poltava, Omsk, Belgorod areas [Murzaev 1984: 596]. Homutina – «the lake bent by a horseshoe» [Vorobeva 1973]. I.A.Vorobeva there and then, in interpretation, gives one more image – a horseshoe. It is remarkable, as interpretation of an image is taken from sphere of horse equipment. Etymologically presumably *chom - goes back to i. * (s) kem-: * (s) kom - – to "press,"press, "torment" [Black 1993: 349–350]. The metaphorical name of a mowing has occurred on the basis of perception of the form of the lake Igyr reminding a collar. Igyr in Khakass toponymy designates "curve" [Butanaev 1995: 35]. In this case coincidence of a nominative motivating sign of object at two people, but distinction in nominative result is observed: in Khakass language – on denotativnomu to a sign, in Russian – on the basis of figurative association. It is remarkable, that the lake has the collar form, but it carries other name speaking another language then the name is appropriated to a mowing surrounded with this lake and in a complex image replacing, more likely, a horse under a collar. The lake and a mowing are perceived by nominating consciousness in a complex.

Furniture: the Chest, mountain on the lake Dog, looks like ravnobokoj a trapeze, from the observer reminding a chest. The visual image is put in a basis of the metaphorical name.

Сусeчек, the lake (Bir.). In dialects of Prienisejsky Siberia: сусeк – 1) "granary". – Fell asleep all suseki. (Kezh.; mattocks.); 2) ustar. «A corf in which stored live red fish». – Earlier for the winter will extract, did here such suseki long, big, and in suseki them put and closed for the winter. Here so in water she also lives all the winter long, till the spring at them fresh fish. Red fish in the winter in susekah stored, I have well remembered. (Kezh.) (SS); «the fenced off chest in a barn» [the Distance 1955, IV, 364]. The adaptation susechek has been built in lake, the lake name – result metonimicheskogo carrying over.

Road bag: Kotomochka, the mountain, is named so on appearance (Ball.). The same, that a purse, umensh. To koshel (ustar. «A bag, a bag with which beggars» went). – the Bag big – koshel, is less – the purse was, kotomka. (Hens., SH) (SJU). The figurative associations which have arisen on the basis of economic experience are embodied In names.

Clothes: Trousers, a road fork (Ball.); trousers, a field (Ball.); Гyбаровы trousers, a field (two broad gulls) (Ball.); trousers, an arable land (Bir.); Trousers, a field (the God.) the steady image often meeting in toponymy having semantic spatial konnotatsiju of division. Pants and trousers are used in a figurative nomination severnorusskih toponimov [Rut 1992: 79–80].

Ware: Saucers, ur. (Ab.) Three round weeding, similar to saucers. In reality subjects the field and a saucer are not connected in any way. The association arises under the form. Signifikat words the saucer contains concept about properties of a subject: round, with small deepening. The field as real object can be any form. Denotat the given object – the field – includes the same properties which are staticized in an individualization and this field nomination. The name Round could be result of activity of nominating consciousness in this case, but there was a result of complex comparison of subjects. There was an abstraction from all other properties assotsiiruemyh subjects: a material, function, use by the person etc. In a national nomination the subjective image underlying a figurative nomination, should be approved collective. Judging by that that names of fields the Saucer arise in different territories at various times, this image takes place in a toponymic picture of the world of the Russian person.

Similarly there are nominations of other fields comparable under the form with ware and other subjects. The nominative model of carrying over under the form is most productive: the Bowl, a place in 3 km from d. JAstrebovo, reminds a bowl under the form (Ab.; Boguch.); CHashino, a field surrounded with hills (the God.); a pile, a field (Boguch.) – it is named under the form, a configuration.

Bulochkino, a mowing (Bir.) – reminds a roll under the form. Sphere of a figurative identification – a foodstuff.

Money: Pjatachok, the place in the end of sidewalk where stop to talk (Bir.). The image is based on associations under the form and the size.

Settlement type: Stone village (Beat.) – a place where huge boulders on Yenisei remind roofs of houses. A volume complex image on which basis there is a portable mediated nomination.

Flavouring sensations: Bitter road (Ach.) – on it carried bread in war to Achinsk, in hunger and a cold. Figurativeness of the name is based on carrying over concrete pertseptivnyh sensations in area of spiritual experiences.

So, in a metaphorical toponymic nomination to the nuclear images antropomorfnogo character (a part of a body of the person) concern. On periphery – images zoomorfnogo character: a bear, a ram, a bull, a hedgehog; the spatial images expressed by household subjects: a saucer, a bowl, a pile, a roll, trousers; images from sphere of economic experience: scissors, a collar, susek, on the basis of complex representations: Stone village; on the basis of carrying over to area of spiritual experiences: Bitter road.

The figurative nomination in national toponymy is limited by frameworks of a country life and practical experience of the person.

<< | >>
A source: Vasileva Svetlana Petrovna. Russian toponymy Prieniseyskoy Siberia: a picture of the world. Thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philology. Krasnoyarsk - 2006. 2006

More on topic 2.6. Figurative perception of geographical objects:

  2. Chapter 1. The name of a place of an origin of the goods and geographical instructions as intellectual property legal objects
  3. studying of diffusion of cholera vibrioes О1 and 0139 serogrupp in superficial reservoirs and other objects of environment in administrative terrains of Russia, various for phylums of epidemic exhibitings of a cholera, klimato-geographical ranges and federal districts
  4. Subject factors of perception of the political leader Influence of the subject factor on process of political perception
  5. 1.2.3 Communicative and temporalnye perception factors Communicative factors of perception of the political leader
  6. 2.2.1. Figurative signs kontsepta the house
  7. geographical instructions abroad
  8. it is artificial the created natural objects as objects of ecological legal relations
  9. §4. Geographical sociology of the right
  10. figurative signs kontseptov the moon and Mond
  11. Figurative signs kontsepta the house on questioning materials
  12. Paragraph 4. Objects and subjects of procurator's supervision behind execution of laws in sphere of antiterrorist security of objects of a railway transportation
  13. 2.7. Perception of time
  14. Kognitivnoe modelling of figurative influence imidzhevoj advertising
  15. 2.4.2. Figurative signs of modern soldiers
  16. Geographical structure invazionnoj flora fractions
  17. 3.4. Figurative signs kontsepta the soldier according to questioning
  18. 2.4.1. Figurative signs of soldiers-athletes