2.7. Perception of time

Expression of time representations in toponymy has rather limited character are names from the appellatives designating seasons and time of days, and also opposition old – new.

Old – new. Assignment to geographical objects of time definitions – one more certificate of interaction of categories of time and space. The category of time designating in this case the bytijno-time characteristic, appears in a toponymic picture of the world as dvuchlennaja, it is expressed by a designation last – the present through nominations old – new. The opposition old – new reflects a relativity of existence of object in time. The name Old poskotina cannot arise, will not appear yet New poskotina, at the same time New poskotina cannot be so is named, if to it did not exist poskotina or Old poskotina. More often in microspace there are binary correlations of type: poskotina – Old poskotina "or" Old poskotina – New poskotina "or" poskotina – New poskotina . Sometimes old objects worry new and remain out of correlation in designations, but more often the new live to extreme old age, holding in remembrance that once they have replaced with themselves old objects, therefore the quantity of new names exceeds quantity old in our lists four times.

Sometimes this opposition is expressed in names tryohchlennoj by opposition: poskotina – Old poskotina – New poskotina, a place where there was a fence (Bir.); Staritsa – Old Staritsa – New Staritsa, a reservoir (Bir.). Last example shows a case of loss of the internal form a word staritsa in terminological, and then in onimicheskom the use that leads to occurrence of toponymic paradoxes: Old Staritsa, New Staritsa (see: Staritsk).

In nominations with korreljatami old – new orientation to the readout of time concerning rural events, existence of rural objects is reflected. It corresponds to representations about the empirical time reflected in languages: Time not the aprioristic form which we impose to the phenomena, and set of relations which experience establishes between them [Gjujo 1899: 79].

Time of day. In toponymy have found reflexion following time pieces of days: midday, evening, rising, a decline.

Midday raspadok (Ab.); a field the Decline (Ab.); state farm "Rising"; Night-school students, d. (I eat.). First two names have bright spatial konnotatsiju: midday – the south, a decline – the West (see gl. Space). It is very well looked through in dialects: Four parties, and call them: rising, a decline, siver, midday (Item.) (SJU). Ojkonim Night-school students, d. (I eat.) it is not realised by inhabitants as connected with a direction. But in dialects there is a set of designations of household realities and the actions connected with this time of days: Milk is a morning performance, and in the evening which nadaivaem – the night-school student (vchyoroshnik) (Item in the morning.); to be had supper – to be on friendly terms. – again my daughter is had supper with Styopkoj (Ir.); vecherenki (vechyorka, a party) – an evening sit-round gathering of girls with work. – in the winter in the evenings maids gathered on vecherenki and took with itself work (Kezh.); There songs sang, in games played (Kezh.) (SS). In state farm "Rising" name the internal form is connected with the beginning of day, however in ergonimicheskom value the sense is translated in area symbolical – the beginning of a new life.

Season. In toponymy have found expression of the name of seasons: winter, summer, spring. As a rule, the designation of geographical objects has been connected with seasonal changes in a condition and use of the rivers and roads, with agricultural and cattle-breeding works, crafts: Zimnik, the lake; Zimnik, d. (Ab.); Letnik, d. (Beat.); summer, the river; Wet Summer, the river; the Summer Stone, a height; Vesnovka, the river (the God.); Vesnjanka, road (Man.); Big Vesnina, the river (Round.). It is significant spatial konnotatsija at some temporalnyh names (see more in detail about it gl. Space).

The opposition concerns a kernel of a semantic field ‘ time ’ old – new; on periphery weeding a designation through time designations of time of day (midday, evening, rising, a decline), a season (winter, summer, spring).

Within a field ‘ time ’ the nominative model is realised kvantitativnaja.

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A source: Vasileva Svetlana Petrovna. Russian toponymy Prieniseyskoy Siberia: a picture of the world. Thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philology. Krasnoyarsk - 2006. 2006

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