symbolical words

The capital letter carries out psychological function in so-called symbolical words.

Definition to symbolical words was given by A.K.Mihalsky. In its opinion, symbolical words absence exact predmetnoyoponjatijnoj otnesyonnosti and, as consequence, distinguishes the indistinct, not clear, dim conceptually-logic maintenance, and also strongly pronounced konnotatsija [Mihalsky 1996: 155].

To symbolical the researcher carries words: freedom, equality, beauty, the truth, the world, injustice, treachery, etc., but writes them from a lower case letter.

Let's illustrate features of symbolical words.

The first feature - absence of the accurate in detail-conceptual maintenance (differently: dim value, diffusion of semantics) in the presence of a dictionary definition.

For example, D.N.Ushakov's dictionary freedom results six leksikoyosemanticheskih variants of a word: 1) ‘ display possibility

The subject of the will ’, 2) ‘ position at which are absent

Restriction and the constraint, connecting a political life and activity of any class or all society ’, 3) ‘ the state independence, the sovereignty ’, 4) ‘ possibility free, without

Constraint and compulsion to operate in any area of a public life ’; 5) ‘ a condition of the one who is not in prison, in bondage who is not deprived possibility to move on own will ’, 6) ‘ ease, absence of difficulties ’ [Ushakov 2009: 938].

According to T.F.Efremovoj's dictionary, in modern Russian a word freedom can be used in twelve values: 1) ‘ absence of political and economic oppression, stesneny and restrictions in a public life ’, 2) ‘ the state independence, the sovereignty ’, 3)) absence of a serfdom, slavery ’,) ‘ clearing from

Serfdom, slavery ’, 4) ‘ a condition of the one who is not in prison, under arrest, in bondage ’, 5) ‘ absence of dependence on someone, possibility to have itself under own discretion, desire ’, 6) ‘ absence of interdictions, restrictions ’, 7) ‘ disposal of something constraining, connecting, hanging someone ’, 8)

‘ possibility of display by the subject of the will in the conditions of comprehension of laws of development of the nature and a society ’, 9)) ‘ ease, absence of difficulties,) ‘ naturalness, ease (in a pose, movements, etc.), 10) ‘ simplicity, ease, absence of stiffness (in

Behaviour, the reference, etc.),) ‘ excessive ease, forwardness, 11) razg. ‘ expanse, open space, will; 12) razg. ‘ blank by work, employment time; leisure [Efremova 2000: 337].

The founder of group «Philosophy. izoterika. Psychology» in a social network has suggested users to finish a phrase: «Freedom is...». Has responded about fifteen thousand persons, and everyone had a understanding of freedom.

For one freedom it is similar to Christian love:

Freedom is an ability to love without requirement to be favourite.

For others freedom consists in absence of any internal or external restrictions:

Freedom is possibility to do absolutely everything, that want.

Freedom is possibility samovyrazhatsja, to feel and think without intervention of associates.

Freedom is an independence of another's opinion.

Freedom is then when in your mind there is no restriction for consciousness.

Freedom is a high-grade life, without foundations etc.

Freedom is an independence of anybody and nor from what! A full autonomy...

For the third word freedom it is synonymous internal harmony which is reached by disposal of an excessive reflexion:

Freedom are acts according to the feelings, instead of mind.

Freedom is an acceptance of and the world without search prichinnoyosledstvennyh communications for this or that.

Freedom is the realised existence in a present situation, without a binding to the past and the future.

Freedom is to be oneself.

Someone identifies freedom with loneliness: Freedom is when at you anything and anybody is not present.

The understanding of freedom is available and for party «Freedom and Democracy». Freedom party members name a certain independence of will of officials: «Freedom — freedom from mullions-strong army of officials of all ranks which have appropriated the right with benefit for to regulate even our daily life is necessary to All of us, not bearing thus for what responsibility» [the Reference to the people http]. The word Freedom in party documents is allocated by a capital letter.

The party program «Fair Russia», on assurance of authors, is constructed with the account of base values of the socialism, one of which names Freedom.

Freedom is expressed: in the power of the person over circumstances, in absence of operation and oppression of one people by others, in choice possibility in the widest sense of this word [the Party program «Fair Russia» 2016: 5].

Judging by the text of the Party program "Apple" on elections of deputies of the State Duma of the Russian Federation of the seventh convocation [http], Freedom is understood as
The certain absolute comprising of some "freedom": a freedom of speech, information and communications freedom, a freedom of worship, etc.

As has shown the analysis of examples, symbolical words can change the value even within the same text. For example, S.P.Kurdyumov names internal requirement for the Truth sense of existence of the person. Allocating a word the Truth a capital letter, it puts it in one number yours faithfully traditions and opinions of a society, aspiration «to live ‘ on conscience ’ and legally, but also ‘ the mind ’» [Kurdyumov http]. In such understanding it is possible to name the Truth idea of construction of a lawful state. And there and then the author puts in concept the Truth aesthetic value, naming service to the Truth, Good and Beauty mission of the person. Thus, with each new occurrence a word the Truth gets new values and gives rise to new associations. In it, as well as that in speech everyone puts the sense in symbolical words, diffusion of semantics is shown. It is possible thanking abstraktnosti values of symbolical words to which it is not fixed more or less concrete part of the validity.

Symbolical words have the various maintenance in different ideologies and in general are understood by everyone in own way. Because stands up for this word so often said with political tribunes, in each case, to understand it is impossible.

The second feature of symbolical words - positive or negative konnotatsija. Each addressee fills a symbolical word with the sense, «the estimated component will be for all identical» [Vlasova 2011: 125] - hardly someone will doubt, that freedom it is good, and lie and a shame - it is bad.

Symbolical words meet in propaganda materials and are quite often written from the big letter.

As we mentioned above, authors of programs of parties "Apple" and «Freedom and Democracy» wrote a word Freedom from a capital letter. It
The writing speaks that parties have proclaimed Freedom the basic ideal and promised to electorate to struggle for it.

The author of national strategy of Russia often uses a word the Truth. One of problems of a way of development of the state offered it - «a life under the truth» is explained as follows: «the Truth Kingdom as a centuries-old ideal of the people for a state system, i.e. an order zhizneustrojstva, based on justice, honesty and conformity of the validity» [Kurdyumov http]. Thus, "truth" in the given concept is synonymous social justice. The word is written only from a capital letter as it designates, according to the author, one of the main universal values.

N.S.Mikhalkov in the manifesto of the educated conservatism too often operates with concepts the Truth and the Right, including when writes about requirement of the country for the government, capable to unite round itself people. To reach rallyings, according to the author, it is possible «not administrative compulsion, and civil and church obedience, the following to rules of behaviour containing in norms of the RIGHT and precepts of the TRUTH» [Mikhalkov http].

As we see, the author excludes from concept the RIGHT to this «administrative compulsion as one of regulators of public relations». Understanding a word in such sense, it marks its capital letter, attributing a word special high sense.

The author surveying Internet materials about political position in Syria, writes a word lie from a capital letter: «This Lie urged« to cover »that the decision on necessity of change of the power in Syria was accepted at all yesterday, and at least in 2003» [Live magazine http], but thus precisely does not specify, what exactly he names lie. It is possible to assume, that, allocating a word lie a capital letter, the observer underlines the contempt for the doubtful facts published in a global network.

Authors of the political brochure «That to us to do today?» Consider the nomenclature (in value «nomenclature shots») as harm. Both words in the text are allocated by the big letter: «Then, at a communistic mode, and today, at pseudo-democracy, was, is and there is one dictatorship. It is Nomenclature dictatorship. The nomenclature for Russia as a whole is the most terrible, most important and dangerous Harm» [That to us today to do? http]. Thus intolerance to people whom the party which has won elections has appointed to the state posts for a political management of a society is shown.

Sometimes authors in addition draw attention of the reader to not standard allocation by a common noun capital letter, accompanying graphic expression by the verbal description, for example:

...- Revival begins with Russia... Revival of all mankind (J.Nikitin "Fury") is possible even from a capital letter.

Among symbolical words there are words both mass, and the limited distribution.

Such words, as Justice, Freedom, Love, However, kindly, Beauty, etc. have mass distribution, for example,

For the hero of the fantastic story K.Grema the word the River is symbolical. Besides, this symbolical word of the limited distribution:

- I am sorry, - zardelsja the Mole. - and so it what - the river!

- It is the River, - has corrected Rats.

- And you really live on This River?. As well you live!

- I live both on the river, and at the river, and in the river, and the river, - have answered Rats. - it for me both the brother, and sister, both the aunt, and the society, and meal with drink and, is natural with washing. It is my world, and I do not search for another (K.Grem «the Wind in willows»).

Here pertinently to make morphological deviation. We have got used to that the capital letter differentiates proper names in a writing and
The nominal. And also to that nouns can be own and nominal names only.

Meanwhile among the symbolical words written from a capital letter, meet:

• the nouns which are not own, for example, «And

Here when not imaginary, but true Freedom, Unity, Advantage indeed become our national ideals, believe, the first to you the Russophile will tell about it the Rod or deputy Bortko »[Kommersant, on February, 23rd 2018] such here"rusofob", as Serebryakov, instead of;« Saving

Development will not take place »[Prokhanov 2014: 381];

• adjectives, for example, from the program of Liberalnoyodemokratichesky party of Russia: «Aim LDPR - restoration of the status of Russia as Great Power!» [The LDPR will show road http];

•, for example, «Together we Will win verbs!» [The proletarian truth, June 2011],

• adverbs, from announcement Видео@Маі1.ги - «the Best journalists of our country will fairly tell that they managed to learn».

Given above a word in symbolical value do not cease to be nominal, despite capital letters.

From the point of view of influence on the person symbolical words are exclusively convenient, as:

1) positive konnotatsii extend on speaking, providing it liking of addressees;

2) symbolical words allow to avoid, if it is necessary, definitions of concepts with which the author operates.

In ideological texts, on A.K.Mihalsky's supervision, symbolical words «intentionally are not defined: as though it is supposed, that they do not require definition» [Mihalsky 1996: 155]. In

The validity, this dodge is used to allow
To everyone to understand a word in own way, and then to arrive according to this understanding, but in interests of the author of the influencing text.

So S.P.Kurdyumov considers, that viability of Russian civilisation consists in «primary ability to comprehension and Good and Harm distinction» [Kurdyumov http]. The author of national strategy does not open Any of concepts. But for everyone its appeal is close and clear, therefore hardly someone will refuse to struggle together with Kurdyumov for ideas of Good, knowing besides, that they are resisted by Harm. A question only what is understood by Kurdyumov as kindly. That the reader considers as harm can just.

Authors of the program of the All-Russia political party «Truth and Unification Course» [http] have never made a reservation, that they name a word the Truth and concept "Just cause". Very few people from voters will refuse to go a course of the Truth and to struggle for the Just cause. However, as is known, the truth at everyone the, and not the fact, that we should struggle for another's truth.

The capital letter strengthens the influencing potential, in addition drawing of attention by the way, transferring to emotion of the author, hinting on its sincerity and unindifference.

So, the capital letter carries out psychological function in symbolical words. To the symbolical words allocated with a capital letter: 1) the special high sense is attributed, 2) with their help admiration, awe, respect, honouring is expressed and thus the system of social values is fixed and carried out aksiologicheskoe influence.

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A source: VASILEVA MARGARITA IGOREVNA. NEW FUNCTIONS of the CAPITAL LETTER In MODERN RUSSIAN. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2018. 2018

More on topic symbolical words:

  1. ZAHAROVA Tatyana Vadimovna. FOLKLORNO-SYMBOLICAL MENTAL FORMATIONS In RUSSIAN And GERMAN LANGUAGES (on an example of words the moon and Mond). The dissertation AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2017, 2017
  2. Zaharova Tatyana Vadimovna. Folklorno-symbolical mental formations in Russian and German languages (on an example of words ‘ the moon ’ and ‘ Mond ’). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Novokuznetsk - 2016, 2016
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