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THE BASIC MAINTENANCE OF THE DISSERTATION

In Introduction the theme urgency is proved, are formulated the purpose and problems, the object and an object of research are defined, scientific novelty of work, its theoretical and practical importance reveals, research methods are specified, the research material is characterised, the dissertation structure is described, the positions which are taken out on protection are formulated.

In chapter 1 «Functions of capital letters in Russian and their reflexion in spelling norms» are analyzed traditions of use of capital letters in Russian written speech and the functional bases of spelling rationing of the use of capital letters are considered.

Because actually linguistic specificity capital and lower case letters for today is investigated insufficiently, in paragraph 1.1. «Traditions of use of capital letters in Russian written speech» the author addresses to history of a question and establishes, that: 1) historically at the heart of division of letters on the size the functional reasons laid: capital letters allocated proper names and the first word of the offer; 2) in XVII century
Capital letters oformlis in the separate alphabet, but their use remains casual and disorder, even despite entered Meletiem Smotritsky corrected; 3) in XVIII - the beginning of XX centuries numerous attempts to order the use of capital letters were undertaken: jazykovedy and public figures (O.I.Senkovsky, I.I.Davidov, JA.K the Grotto, S.V.Bezobrazov, A.I.Sobolevsky, R.F.Brandt, A.A.Reformatsky) supported reduction of quantity of their quantity in the text; 4) by 30th years of XX century in specialised editions for typographical workers there were the paragraphs devoted to the use of a capital letter; 5) the time calm in discussion about a capital letter has come after issue in 1956 «Rules of Russian spelling and a punctuation», the USSR confirmed by Academy of sciences, the Ministry of Public Education of RSFSR and the Ministry of higher education of the USSR.

In paragraph 1.2. «Spelling rationing of the use of capital letters in Russian written speech» on the basis of detailed consideration of the examples containing in standard spelling checkers, ustanavleno, that spelling rules and recommendations up to present time is fixed by two traditional functions of a capital letter: nominative - the big letter urged to distinguish proper names and common nouns on the letter; syntactic - consisting in a designation of new syntactic pieces.

Besides, in examples of linguistic directories the tradition is distinctly traced to mark a capital letter a place occupied with object in hierarchy of the power (hierarchical function), and to allocate with a capital letter common nouns by which in the text the special high sense (psychological function) is attributed.

In paragraph 1.3. Conclusions on chapter 1 are drawn.

In the second chapter «Evolution of traditions of use of capital letters in modern Russian written speech» the analysis of changes which have undergone, according to modern officially-business and publicistic written speech, hierarchical and psychological functions of a capital letter is presented.

In paragraph 2.1. «Hierarchical function of a capital letter» is characterised evolution of traditions of use of a graphic sign in names of authorities, social associations of people, posts, documents. Because the capital letter use in hierarchical function falls outside the limits linguistics - in sphere of the state political system varying in time and office hierarchical relations corresponding to these system, - realisation of hierarchical function is considered on materials of linguistic Soviet and Post-Soviet editions.

«Rules of Russian spelling and a punctuation» 1956 and made on their basis «the Directory on spelling and literary editing: for workers of the press» D.E.Rosental have is standard-reflective character
Also are focused on a political system of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics.

Directories fix three-stage hierarchy of the power existing in the USSR and accordingly three variants of a writing of names of the organisations: 1) from a capital letter all words (except office) in names of the higher party, governmental and trade-union establishments and the organisations, for example are written: the Communist party of Soviet Union, the Political bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU, All-Union Main board of Trade unions, 2) from a capital letter is written only the first word (and a part proper names) names of the Soviet central establishments and establishments of local value, for example: the Ministry internal and foreign trade of the USSR, Executive committee of the Volgograd country council of People's Deputies, 3) all words are written from a lower case letter in names of ordinary establishments and the organisations, for example, the trade-union organisation of factory "Торгмаш".

In names of posts and documents the two-level hierarchy assuming two variants of a writing is built: 1) from a capital letter the first word (and a part proper names) names of posts of heads of the authorities which are carrying out directly function of government, and the major state documents, for example is written: the Chairman of Communist party of Soviet Union, the Secretary general of the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Program of Communist party of Soviet Union, 2) all words (except a part proper names) are written from a lower case letter in names of posts of heads of the central establishments, establishments of local value, the documents published by these establishments, for example: the minister internal and foreign trade of the USSR, the order of the minister internal and foreign trade of the USSR.

After disintegration of the USSR ofitsionimy, specified in operating «Rules of Russian spelling and a punctuation» 1956, became an anachronism: they described a political system of the country which did not exist any more.

In 2006 linguists had been undertook attempt to let out new edition «Rules of Russian spelling and a punctuation» which, despite approval of the Spelling commission of the Russian Academy of Sciences, has not received till now the official status that is why has otrazhatelno-recommendatory character.

Regarding spelling of the big letter in names of the organisations, posts, ranks and recommendation documents reflect, but it is not always exact, a political system of the new state - the Russian Federation.

The spelling of words fixed in the Directory from a capital letter reflects two-level hierarchy of authorities and accordingly two variants of a writing: 1) from a capital letter the first word (and a part proper names) in names of authorities, the organisations, establishments, in names of the higher posts, ranks is written only and
The major documents, for example: the Federal meeting of the Russian Federation, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, the Chairman of the State Duma of the Russian Federation, the Constitution of the Russian Federation, 2) all words are written from a lower case letter (except the proper names which are a part of the name) in names of the organisations and their structural divisions, not being proper names, in names of posts, ranks and documents of local value, for example: a city post office, the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, the order of the rector.

Own supervision over a language situation have shown, that the long absence of professional linguistic reaction to a new political reality has caused, on the one hand, spelling raznoboj in a writing of the same names different printing sources: Security council - Security council, the Central Bank - the Central bank, the State Duma - the State Duma, the Federal Law - the federal law, on the other hand, - administrative attempts to eliminate lacks of system of spelling by means of the edition of lingvo-legal and specialised directories.

Terms «basic lingvo-legal directories» and «specialised directories» are entered into research for imenovanija the editions prepared by authorities, not concerning linguistics. These editions have otrazhatelno-corporate character, their action is limited by document circulation of certain department.

The author it is revealed three lingvo-legal editions: 1) «the Short directory on registration of certificates of federal public authorities (as of July, 1997)», 2) «the Short directory on registration of standard legal certificates in Administration of the President of the Russian Federation (as of July, 2001)», 3) «the Directory on registration of certificates in the Federation Council of Federal Meeting of the Russian Federation» (as of February, 1st, 2009).

It is necessary to notice, that in the listed directories there are no references to primary sources, that is they act in a role of "legislators" and form a basis for specialised editions of federal and regional bodies of the legislative, executive and judicial power.

As a result of the analysis of the materials placed on official sites of authorities, it is established, that specialised editions are at the Ministry of Internal Affairs, at Federal arbitration court SeveroYoZapadnogo of district, at administration of the President and the Government Republics Sakhas (Yakutia), at administration of the Ivanovo area. «The culture of judicial speech» is addressed judges and practising legal advisers.

In lingvo-legal and specialised directories accurate dependence of quantity of capital letters on an object place in power structure is traced. It is offered three variants of the use of a capital letter in official compound names of authorities,
Establishments, the organisations, political parties and associations: 1) all words are written from a capital letter in names of the legislative, executive and judicial public authorities solving questions of the Supreme government, for example: the Federation Council of the Russian Federation, the State Duma of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, 2) from a capital letter is written the first word (and a part proper names) in names of structural divisions of the above-named legislative, executive and judicial authorities (names of departments, committees, the commissions, names formed by the Russian parliament advisory and advisory bodies), for example: Management on public relations and interaction with State Duma administration mass media, the Commission of the Federation Council concerning development of institutes of a civil society, Department of the report of the Government of the Russian Federation, the Cassation commission of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, 3) all words are written from a lower case letter (except for the proper names entering about structure) in names of internal departments and divisions of operating bodies, for example: department of maintenance of legislative process of Legal department of the Device of the Federation Council, the State Duma committee administration on defence.

In names of posts and documents lingvo-legal and specialised directories reflect two-level hierarchy:

1) from a capital letter the first word (and a part proper names) names of posts of bodies of the machinery of state solving questions of the Supreme government, and also the name of the documents published by these bodies which have received the official status is written: the Chairman of the Federation Council of Federal Meeting of the Russian Federation, the First vice-president of the Government of the Russian Federation, the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation from October, 17th, 2008 №1489 «About Council at the President of the Russian Federation on development of the financial market of the Russian Federation», 2) all words are written from a lower case letter (except for the proper names entering about structure of the name) in posts of heads of structural divisions of authorities and documents which are at a stage of projects: The head of department on public relations and interaction with State Duma administration mass media, the decree project «About Council at the President of the Russian Federation on development of the financial market of the Russian Federation».

From the spent state-of-the-art review of linguistic and legal editions there is obvious, that an actual reality - a diarchy in rules of spelling of a capital letter: on the one hand, made by linguists «Rules of Russian spelling and a punctuation» 1956, with another - still operate at the permission of the questions connected with registration ofitsionimov, native speakers are compelled to address to lingvo-legal and specialised directories (if know about their existence). Journalists at the capital letter use in names of establishments
And the organisations ignore any norms: both linguistic, and legal. In research it is illustrated by examples from printing mass-media of different levels of media system:

«Already all in Russia know what to give our Russian orphans on adoption to America it is impossible. But to treat them abroad all the same it is possible. But in the ministry of social protection of Ekaterinburg consider, that the New newspaper, on April, 29th 2013] is impossible» [.

Both linguistic, and legal directories in names of the organisations and the ministries order to allocate with a capital letter the first word of the name, therefore a correct writing the Ministry of social protection of Ekaterinburg.

«Long years insurance existed carelessly on the Law on protection of the rights of consumers» [Economy and a life, on May, 6th 2013].

In the resulted example authors use the informal name of the document (the official name - the Federal law «About protection of the rights of consumers»). Both operating, and updated "Rules" a spelling depending on use sphere, recommending to allocate with a capital letter differentiates the first word in the official name of the document. The informal name should be written from a lower case letter.

Legal directories also in informal names of documents suppose a writing from a lower case letter. Hence, a writing the Law on protection of the rights of consumers and linguists, and lawyers recognise as a spelling error.

In paragraph 2.2. «Psychological function of a capital letter» is considered the capital letter use in common nouns by which in the text the special high sense is attributed. Printing and electronic newspaper texts, programs of political parties, the records placed in Internet communities became a material for supervision.

The author comes to conclusion, that since time of the edition of the standard spelling arch of 1956 considered function has undergone essential changes. Today the capital letter carries out psychological function in three cases, when: 1) to the common nouns allocated with the big letter, it is attributed the special high sense, 2) by means of the big letter is expressed respect, admiration, awe, respect, 3) by means of a capital letter the system of social values is fixed or new ideals are imposed, and also the attention is drawn to actual public events.

If in the Soviet directories it was supposed to allocate with a capital letter only words the Person, the Native land, Fatherland in modern Russian written speech we find out the whole groups of lexicon in which the capital letter carries out psychological function, namely:

• imenovanija the concrete person causing unconditional respect, for example: the Master, the Teacher, the Person, Talent from the big letter;

• imenovanija, connected with the Great Patriotic War, for example: the Great Victory, the People-winner, the Memory Candle;

• imenovanija the Native land and Russian world, for example: the Native land, Fatherland, Fatherland, Great Power, Russian world, Russian civilisation, Russian people;

• symbolical words (A.K.Mihalsky's term), for example: unity, Advantage, Freedom, the TRUTH.

• Aktualizmy, for example: «We grieve. Kemerovo», «We for Fair Elections», the Currency Mortgage (the concept "aktualizm" is entered into research for designation of words or expressions which are allocated with an initial capital letter or all capital letters while event or object are in the centre of public attention).

In paragraph 2.3. Conclusions on the second chapter are drawn.

In the third chapter «New tendencies of use of capital letters in modern Russian written speech» are characterised most often meeting cases of not standard occurrence of the big letter. The outlined spelling tendencies reflect four (new) functions of a sign: distancing function, emotivnuju, etiketnuju and hypertext functions.

In paragraph 3.1. «Distancing Function» is discussed a capital letter role in intended creation of the inconvenient form of the message. It is noticed, that the inconvenient form is created by introduction in a usual word of one or several capital letters both Cyrillic, and the Latin alphabet, for example: "ZlatoGrad", "avtostrojmir", «IGRAkovaja a tumour», "perenakrutka", "BURDOCKS", "pohitpv", «brasatelnaja cosmetics».

It becomes for the purpose of attraction of attention of reading, semantic complication (without text lengthening) and-or udobochitaemosti the text.

The majority of cases of not standard use of a capital letter is revealed in advertising. On supervision of the author, ostranyonnyj the advertising text: 1) tells about specialisation of the company and gives an estimation of its activity ("KNIGinja" - the name of book Internet shop), 2) presents the trade mark and gives to it a positive estimation (revolvoljutsija - concern "Вольво" advertising), 3) describes assortment of trading firm and the possibilities opening before the buyer («the HALF-WORLD underfoot» - the slogan of shop of floor coverings), 4) represents the trade mark and promises benefit to the future buyer («Creates AJATmosferu» - advertising of conditioners ART COOL), 5) presents the trade mark and gives an appreciation to a choice of the buyer («razhoomyj a choice» - drink advertising «Zoom»).

Also in sight of the author there are cases when the influencing effect of a capital letter reaches a manipulation. The manipulation the potential consumer is realised by trade mark concealment behind a word-homonym by means of the big letters and removal of inverted commas in graphic 13

Name registration, for example: «BE In the TONE» (advertising of sports club "Tone"), «LOOK RISING» (advertising of a new inhabited complex "Rising").

As has shown the analysis of advertising texts, advertisers can apply the same receptions to imposing of a product or service, using only the part of the name of the trade mark, for example, «is DIFFERENT OCCASIONS TO brilliant PURCHASE. For example, evening of Friday» (vodka advertising «Russian brilliant»).

The author of dissertational research draws a conclusion, that the capital letter as distancing repeatedly strengthens the influencing potential of the message: arising new senses help to lower criticality of primary perception of the information, induce the addressee to experience of certain emotions or the decision-making, favourable to the advertiser.

Infringements of spelling traditions have met and in literary works where deviation from rules is used by the author as an artistic touch aimed at semantic enrichment of the text. For example, in novel "kys" capital letters allocate words «from the past», i.e. time before Explosion, for example, ONERERSTETSKY ABRAZAVANIE, MOGOZIN, OSFALT. For the modern reader it is words with spelling errors and nonconventional for Russian spelling grammatical forms, for heroes of the novel - ekzotizmy which they and use on own harmony.

In paragraph 3.2. «Emotivnaja capital letter function» cases of a writing of a word or the statement by all capital letters for expression of strong emotions are considered at remote (virtual) dialogue.

Analyzing texts of popular social networks and SMS-MESSAGES, the author has come to conclusion, that many members of virtual community resort to expression of emotions by means of capital letters. And, typing the text all capital letters and creating a graphic image of shout, kommunikanty express a wide spectrum of emotions and feelings, in particular:

• indignation, anger, irritation, discontent, indignation, the protest, for example:

«I do not recommend to viewing. The next POOR-QUALITY attempt to come up at the expense of ALREADY CREATED idea!» (From a social network "VKontakte") (the spelling and a punctuation are hereinafter kept - a bus comment);

«Thanks, that victims - strong spirit people, as well as all their environment... BUT! Year and eight it is conditional? YOU it is serious?» (From a social network "VKontakte");

«Look at Torzhok with satelitnoj cards and will see, how on board sidewalks lay, that in rainy weather over a dirt to jump. Remove pink glasses!!! In the richest country people live worse Africans!!!» (From a social network "Schoolmates");

«The MOST DEAR CITY ON HABITATION SALE In the TVER AREA! FORCES are not present ALREADY to be silent! As it is not a shame to you!!!!» (From a social network "VKontakte");

• bewilderment, mistrust, for example:

«HOW??? HOW TOTAL EXAMINATION AT the ONE AND ONLY STATION WILL rescue us FROM TERRAKTOV? (From a social network"Instagram");

«TOO STRANGE IT CONDUCTS ITSELF(HIMSELF) And it is too suspicious» (from a social network "VKontakte").

• suffering, a pain, fear, despair, for example:

«... We will accept Other any help from you with the big gratitude. Simply we have got to such vital situation. Understand, please, render though any help on your choice» (SMS-MESSAGE);

«To me it is terrible FOR us YOU. The LIFE AFTER Kemerovo» (from a social network of "Telegrams") is terrible.

In paragraph 3.3. «Etiketnaja capital letter function» the big letter is considered as attribute of the valid relation to kommunikantu.

The specified function in the operating standard arch is not mentioned and not described.

During research the sphere of action of a capital letter in etiketnoj functions is specified: the capital letter carries out new function in texts of contracts, in communiques, questionnaires, advertising, messages of greeting. Two lexical sets in which the capital letter carries out etiketnuju function are defined:

1) proper names which, at desire to express respect to the addressee, write capital letters completely, for example:

«VASILENKO to LYUDMILA ALEKSANDROVNE in day of the 50 anniversary», «to the Chairman of the Tver regional public organisation of veterans of the state civil and municipal service baryshevu to Vladimir Viktorovichu, members of the organisation» (from messages of greeting);

2) conditional own names.

In dissertations specifications are brought in treatment of conditional own names: the given term designates nominal names and pronouns which replace own names of persons and the organisations.

It is defined, that etiketnuju the capital letter carries out function in the following of the conditional own:

Pronouns you, yours. In modern Russian written speech of a pronoun you, yours appear in references not only to one, but also to several persons, for example:

«Dear Lyudmila Aleksandrovna! We congratulate you with an anniversary!», «accept, dear companions, sincere wishes of health to you and your families, well-being and new ideas, creative sversheny and victories and the further prosperity, fruitful work to employees» (from a message of greeting);

• the common nouns allocated with an initial capital letter. It is established, that such nouns replace today not only one name, but also groups of names. However this tendency concerns exclusively names of persons, for example:

«Separately the President has stopped on questions of struggle against corruption, having noticed, that struggle against it will be conducted resolutely, is system and is consecutive» [the Tver sheets, on December, 23-29rd 2011]; «Dear Partners, we congratulate you happy New Year and Christmas!» (From a message of greeting).

In paragraph 3.4. «Hypertext function of a capital letter» is established a role which is played by the big letter in text registration officially-official style.

Leaning against examples from standard documents on office-work, internal and external documents of the organisations, the author proves, that the graphic sign transforms the document into the hypertext, that is in system of the texts, allowing to choose sequence of reading and if necessary quickly to find interesting parts of the document. In this case the certain word is allocated by one or all capital letters.

Hypertext function is found out in recommendations of the basic sources making is standard-legal and methodical base of office-work where capital letter occurrence is connected, first of all, with allocation of structural elements of the document. Capital letters allocate names of a kind of the document, for example: the ORDER, the CHARTER, position, the list of staff; the short participle is co-ordinated in a coordination signature stamp, a short participle is confirmed also its forms (is confirmed, confirmed, confirmed) in a statement signature stamp.

In practice the list of words which are allocated with an initial capital letter or all capital letters, has appeared more widely, it have filled up:

1) names of documents, for example:

POSITION

ABOUT THE ORDER OF CONDUCTING CASH OPERATIONS AND RULES OF STORAGE, TRANSPORTATION AND COLLECTION OF BANKNOTES AND COINS OF BANK OF RUSSIA IN THE CREDIT ORGANIZATIONS IN TERRITORY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

2) conditional own in contracts as the texts intended for repeated use where on a place of the conditional own any surnames or names of the organisations can be entered, for example in the public offer about the conclusion of the contract on rendering of a telecommunication service:

«In a case if in malfunctions of the equipment or the software the Subscriber is guilty, their elimination is made by the Operator for an additional payment, according to the Price-list».

In names of this type the capital letter is connected with desire to unify documents and to optimise work of services of the documentary
Management maintenance;

3) short duplicating nominations which make the conceptual device of the contract, for example: the Contract, Apartment, the Credit, Percent, the Borrower, the Loan account, BANK.

The credit - the sum of the money resources given by bank, Percent - the sum for using the credit, the Borrower - the concrete person who has taken advantage of services of bank, the Loan account - the account in which the rest of the sum which are subject to return is reflected.

Short nominations promote laconicism of the text and are a signal to returning to certain section of the document or to a document part where the nomination for the first time is used.

Hypertext function of a capital letter is allocated and described for the first time in reviewed research.

In the paragraph 3.5.сделаны conclusions on the third chapter.

In the Conclusion conclusions become and prospects of the further research of the problematics declared in dissertational research are outlined.

The bibliography includes 106 names.

Dissertation substantive provisions are reflected in following publications of the author:

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A source: VASILEVA Margarita Igorevna. NEW FUNCTIONS of the CAPITAL LETTER In MODERN RUSSIAN. The dissertation AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2018. 2018

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