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§ 1. Evolution of formation of multinational structure of Its Own Imperial Majesty of an escort, its structure and functions

With definition of date of establishment of an imperial escort in ¿ßß½Ññ«±óáÔѽѮ environment there was a paradoxical situation: one believe, that the report of history SEIV of an escort is estimated since May, 1st, 1828 when the order of emperor Nikolay I about sformirovanii lejb-guards Kavkazsko-mountain a platoon [219] has followed, others, in particular, director TSGVIA the USSR (nowadays RGVIA) V.A.Rybin, consider, that «in 1861 Own its majesties an escort in which three Caucasian Cossack squadrons, and also commands the Georgian, mountaineers have been included, the Lezghin, and after the Crimean Tatars» [220] have been generated. Clearness in this question archival sources can vneyosti only, and they testify to the following. prodolyozhaja Catherine II traditions in sphere of attraction of the Cossack commands for execution of ohranitelno-ceremonial service at the Court yard, on May, 18th, 1811 Alexander I has disposed to found lejb-guards the Black Sea Cossack one hundred «from an army Black Sea of the best people», for service «at Itself» in Petersburg, nade -

3 liv it «the rights and advantages what all other guards» [221] use also. dija »3. As first historian SEIV of an escort S.I.Petin specifies, chjarabota otyonesena modern researchers to the fundamental classical I rub - ladies [222],« this one hundred differed from guards only that its officers had aryomejskie the Cossack ranks and special proceeding on the Black Sea Cossack
To army »[223]. Besides, during the period from May, 17 till May, 21st, 1911 in Petersburg there passed the magnificent celebrations devoted to celebrating of centenary SEIV of an escort in which took part Nikolay II and the higher dignitaries gosudaryostva about what it is in details stated in the separate chapter of work of one more letopistsa an imperial escort - colonel-konvjtsa N.V.Galushkina [224].

It is necessary to notice, that formation of the Black Sea hundred has occupied all the summer long and the part of autumn - only in the middle of November, 1811 it has been sent to Petersburg where has arrived only in the end of February, 1812 [225] in structure: the commander of hundred (a staff - the officer), regimental esaul, horunzhie - 2, sotennye esauly - 14, trumpeters - 2, kayozaki - 100. In total 121 persons [226]. Thus, the Black Sea one hundred stood at sources and has begun Own Its Imperial Majesty to an escort: Cossacks participated in battles on a battlefield in OtecheYOstvennuju war of 1812 and provided Alexander's personal security I and Imperial main apartment during foreign campaigns 1813-1814 In a peace time chernomortsy carried out protection of the monarch out of residences and took part vrazlichnogo sorts a parabottom-ceremonial actions [227]. On March, 4th, 1816 chernomortsy as 7th squadron have been poured in in lejb - guards the Cossack regiment (with 6th squadrons of the Army Don) [228]. During this period chernomortsy-konvojtsy carried out protection of emperor Alexander I, bore a guard duty, participated in parades, reviews, doctrines, solemn divine services, ceremonials, and also accompanied a sovereign at departures from residence on trips and meetings of foreign delegations [229]. During time podavleyonija mutiny in the Kingdom Polish in 1830-1831 the Black Sea squadron obesyopechival safety of Imperial main apartment in Bialystok and «bezpreyostanno was sent to parties against appeared in Belostoksky area mjayo
tezhnyh gangs ».

On August, 27th, 1831 chernomortsy,« after a capture of Warsaw, have entered into capital of Poland at the head of the Guards case »[230].

On July, 1st, 1842 Nikolay I Vysochajshe has approved «Position about the Chernomoryosky Cossack army» [231] according to which chernomortsy have been allocated from lejb-guards of the Cossack regiment and are reformed in lejb-guards the Chernoyomorsky Cossack battalion which is registered as a part of the Separate Guards case. Thus, the battalion became independent military chayostju which number has been increased to 393 persons [232].

In the beginning of 1860th years, in connection with administrative-territorial reoryoganizatsiej the Cossack armies on caucasus and formation of the Kuban and Tersky armies, escort structure SEIV has been reformed also. So, on February, 2nd, 1861 lejb - guards the Black Sea Cossack battalion has been connected from lejb-guards by the Kavkazyosky Cossack squadron from which three have been generated Caucasian kayozachih a squadron of the Escort [233], is more detailed about it more low.

In 17 years, after establishment of lejb-guards Black Sea Cossack sotyoni, on May, 1st, 1828 Nikolay I Vysochajshe has enjoined to form in structure SEIV of an escort of lejb-guards the Kavkazsko-mountain platoon of notable mountaineers [234]. A year later, on May, 2nd, 1829, the platoon under supervision of the captain of the Sultan-azamata-gireja has arrived to Petersburg in structure: subaltern officers - 3, effendy, cadets (corporals) - 6, oruzhenostsy - 40 and attendants - 23 [235]. According to the commander of Imperatoryosky main apartment and the Chief of gendarmes A.H.Benkendorfa, in whose conducting the Kavkazsko-mountain platoon, «the purpose has arrived, with kotoroju to Its Majesty it was necessary to appoint in Own escort of mountaineers, there is that that 4 years which have served here, could after returning to caucasus... To involve the sootechestvenyonikov in the intercourses amicable with us.» [236]. Involving mountaineers on service in impeyoratorsky an escort, Nikolay I counted on successful end Caucasian
The war lasting any more one decade. Besides it as writes D.A.scrap, «l.-gv. The Kavkazsko-mountain semisquadron in which soon razvernuyoli the platoon, constantly participated in solemn ceremonies with presence of the high-ranking overseas visitors. And if to consider, that to it have charged ohrayonu a sovereign of the emperor foreigners should overcome all doubts that Russia completely supervises the North Caucasus» [237]. It is characteristic, that at the introduction on service in SEIV an escort, mountaineers signed «the Oath promise» (oath), «is true and nelitsemerno to serve, not giving quarter the stomach, to last drop of blood. True and natural Vsemilostivej - shemu and to the Great Sovereign to Emperor Nikolay Pavlovichu» [238].

Continuing to improve Escort structure, on April, 30th, 1830 imperayotor has approved «Position about lejb-guards the Kavkazsko-mountain semisquadron» [239], not »3 according to which the platoon has been renamed into a semisquadron with utverzhdeyoniem its states - only 90 persons [240]. Under S.I.Petina's certificate, in poluesyokadrone princes and uzdeni (a sort of noblemen) Big and Small Kabardy, Chechen and Kumyksky, murzy and uzdeni nogajtsev Tohtamyshesky, Sablin - skih, and the people Dzhambulukovsky, Edisansky, Karanogajsky, Truhmen - skogo and Sablinsky» [241] served «.

As well as the Black Sea Cossack squadron, the Kavkazsko-mountain semisquadron took part in mutiny suppression in the Kingdom Polish in 1830-1831 So, on June, 16th, 1831, participating in attack under Kovno, mountaineers have flown by the Polish infantry through, having chopped up draughts of 50 persons and having taken prisoner two officers and 40 private soldiers [242]. On February, 28th, 1832 the Kavkazsko-mountain semisquadron has returned to Petersburg and began to take part in court ceremonies, maneuvers and so forth According to S.I.Petina, «the original type of mountain arms and its graceful appearance attracted the general attention, especially liked
To foreign honoured guests of Russian Court yard. So, in 1830, to French ambassador Djuku-de-Mortemaru, under its request, the full arms of the cadet of a semisquadron »[243] have been presented.

During time the Kavkazsko-mountain semisquadron, at the initiative of NiYOkolaja I, began to be filled with representatives of other nationalities of caucasus. So, on April, 30th, 1838 to a semisquadron the command the Lezghin [244] has been attached, into staff koyotoroj have entered: the lieutenant, a cornet, cadets - 5, oruzhenostsy - 20, the clerk, and also for supervision for loshadmi and barracks: the corporal, private soldiers - 12, strikers - 2. In total 43 persons [245]. On March, 11th, 1839, according to the Nominal decree «About sformirovanii a special command for an escort of Its Majesty, from a konno-Muslim regiment being in a field army» [246], the command of Moslems with the staff approved on October, 7th, 1839 has been formed: the lieutenant, a cornet, vekili (corporals) - 4, horsemen - 24, the clerk, and also for supervision for loshadmi and barracks: the corporal, private soldiers - 12, strikers - 2. In total 46 persons [247].

According to the order of the commander of Imperial main apartment of count A.H.Benkendorfa № 290 from July, 18th, 1839 in spite of the fact that Lezghins and muyosulmane have joined structure of Kavkazsko-mountain semisquadron SEIV of an escort, «these commands separately, everyone the nearest koman - dirom» [248] should cope. On February, 3rd, 1842 the order № 96 on SEIV A.H.Benkendorf's to escort each of commanders of commands of "Mohammedan confession» semisquadron has underlined, that, «in case of need has the full right to enter in writing and verbally with representations directly to me» [249]. Thus, considering mnogoyonatsionalnyj the Sostavkavkazsko-mountain semisquadron and possibility konyofliktov on international soil, the commander of Imperial main apartment reserved the right to itself their permissions, in case of occurrence.

Meanwhile, SEIV the escort replenished also with the Cossack divisions: on October, 12th, 1832 the structure of an imperial escort included a command Caucasian liyonejnyh Cossacks [250] of deployed in the Kingdom Polish the Sborno-linear Cossack regiment which has caused a stir «in affairs against Lithuanian and Polish mjayotezhnikov bravery and especial diligence to service» [251]. In command staff voyoshli: sotnik, horunzhy, urjadniki - 4, Cossacks - 21, strikers - 3. In total 33 forehead - of a century [252]. March, 30th, 1833 staff a command has increased twice and has been divided on two changes: one within three years was on service, and the second - on a privilege, then they varied. Whether - the set of Cossacks was carried out now from all regiments Caucasian

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nejnogo the Cossack army [253].

The command of the Caucasian linear Cossacks regularly took part in maneuvers, reviews, parades. According to S.I.Petina, «being in Tsarskoe Selo, a command of linear Cossacks it is exemplary bore service of the Highest protection» [254]. In the autumn of 1837 a command linejtsev, together with Kavkazsko-mountain polueskadyoronom, accompanied Nikolay I during its voyage across caucasus [255]. According to D.A.Klochkova, this travel has been undertaken, «to gain authority of Russia among the Caucasian people, having shown to them the friendliness and

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Having rendered high degree of trust »[256].

With a view of perfection of service of an imperial escort, the summer of 1845 to Nikolay I had been presented «the Project corrected front service of Its Own Imperial Majesty of an escort», having familiarised with which the emperor briefed: «In case of alarm the escort should with naivozmozhnojuskorostiju arrive to the person of the Sovereign where to expect an order» [257]. In the Project were defined
States of all commands of an imperial escort, their order poyostroenija and front receptions was regulated. The same year it has been approved [258].

After the introduction on Alexander's throne II structure of the Escort has undergone to reforming. On June, 14th, 1855, according to the Nominal decree komanyodujushchemu Imperial main apartment, the command of linear Cossacks has been transformed to lejb-guards the Caucasian Cossack squadron [259], and on November, 21st the same year its staff has been approved: the commander of a squadron (the captain or polkovyonik), the shtabs-captain, lieutenants - 2, cornets - 3, the senior vahmistr, vahmistyory - 4, kvartirmistr, corporals - 10, Cossacks - 160, a staff-trumpeter, trumpeters - 3, the clerk, the medical assistant, invalids for supervision behind barracks (the corporal and private soldiers - 3), strikers - 7. In total 200 persons [260]. In turn, lejb-guards the Kavkazsko-mountain semisquadron have been reformed in three commands - mountaineers, the Lezghin and Moslems who needed to have on 2 subaltern officers (the lieutenant and a cornet), on 5 cadets (at Moslems - 5 vekilej), on 20 oruzhenostsev (at muyosulman - 20 horsemen), on one trumpeter. Besides them, in structure of not front ranks entered: the treasurer, the physician and the medical assistant at all commands, efendy for goryotsev and the Lezghin, efendy for Moslems, on one clerk and on 13 invalids, including the corporal, for supervision for loshadmi and barracks, strikers - 10. In total 141 persons [261].

Commanders of all three commands submitted now to the commander of lejb-guards of the Caucasian Cossack squadron «when commands will be nahoyoditsja in a system together with a squadron» [262]. Besides, on August, 26th, 1856 in day of crowning of Alexander II, the post of the commander Se - escort WILLOWS to which the colonel has been appointed, prince P.R.Bagration, with zachisyoleniem it in lists of lejb-guards of the Caucasian Cossack squadron [263] for the first time has been founded. Earlier,
Let's remind, the Escort was in conducting the commander Imperial glavyonoj apartment, now the commander of the Escort submitted to it on a vertical.

In the autumn of the same year in escort structure SEIV has occurred next reorgayonizatsija: under the Nominal decree from November, 18th, 1856 the command the Georgian «from young men znatnejshih princely and surnames of noble family prayovoslavnogo confessions from Tiflissky and Kutaisi provinces» [264] has been generated. As commands have been renamed into platoons with serial numbering from gruyozin 1st platoon has been formed. Acquisition of 2nd platoon of mountaineers osushchestvljayolos «is direct from caucasus, at the most strict choice of people, is exclusive from notable surnames»; 3rd platoon of Moslems was typed «from the most honorary surnames, khans and bekov the Transcaucasian edge, is direct from this»; in 4th platoon the Lezghin the decision «was accepted to accept not one dzhartsev, but also the Lezghin of Prikaspijyosky edge, from local znatnejshih surnames». All four platoons the Georgian, goryotsev, Moslems and the Lezghin were consolidated in lejb-guards the Caucasian squadron, accordingly the name «lejb-guards the Kavkazsko-mountain semisquadron» upyorazdnjalos. « The choice of people in all parts of the Escort "was given" to the Caucasian heads »in coordination with the commander Imperial main kvartiyoroj for representation on« the Highest statement ».

In borders of the competence, on March, 25th, 1857 commander-in-chief OtYodelnym the Caucasian case and the deputy on caucasus prince A.I.Barjatinsky left with the petition to the commander of Imperial main apartment to column V.F.Adlerbergu about "introduction" into 1st platoon the Georgian «young men from znatnejshih princely and surnames of the Transcaucasian Armenians of noble family», prinadleyozhashchih «to number of the most ancient Christians». On it it has been reported to Alexander II who «Is more most gracious on that has deigned, but so that in all Gruzinyosky platoon was no more the one fifth part of Armenians and that officers have been appointed from one Georgian.,» [265].

As to lejb-guards of the Caucasian Cossack squadron under the decree from November, 18th, 1856 it was divided on two parts replacing each other through 3 goyoda, and the part which is on service, was subdivided into 4 platoons [266].

Above we noticed, that in the beginning of 1860th years, in connection with administrativnoyoterritorialnoj reorganisation of the Cossack armies on caucasus and formation of the Kuban and Tersky armies, escort structure SEIV has been reorganised. 2 fevyoralja 1861 the Black Sea battalion has been connected with Caucasian Cossack esyokadronom from which three Caucasian Cossack squadrons of the Escort with staff of 587 persons have been generated, and squadrons were completed on % from kuyobanskih Cossacks and on % - from terskih [267].

On May, 26th, 1863 under the Nominal decree as a part of lejb-guards Caucasian kayozachego a squadron «over the complete set» the Command of lejb-guards of the Crimean Tatars [268] of disbanded lejb-guards Krymsko-Tatar esyokadrona has been founded at the Guards case [269]. On staff it consisted of 3 officers, 3 corporals and 18 bottom ranks. The command shared on three changes - one was on service three years, and two others - on a privilege in Crimea, in two years they were replaced. Each change consisted of the subaltern officer «from worthy krymskoyotatarskih surnames» in a rank not above the shtabs-captain, and from seven bottom ranks one was the corporal [270].

Since August, 1863 to imperial residence in Livadii for the period of stay there the emperor began to direct a horse platoon from preferential change of Cossacks. To it both preferential changes of the Command of lejb-guards Crimean tayotar were added also. In leave of an imperial surname they provided protection of Krymyosky coast of Black sea and exposed posts in the Livadijsky palace [271]. During Russian-Turkish war 1877-1878 two preferential changes Crimean tayo
tar together with preferential Cossack squadrons carried out protection of Imyoperatorsky main apartment [272]. On May, 2nd, 1890 the Command of lejb-guards of the Crimean Tatars has been excluded from escort structure SEIV, «with departure of the bottom ranks eja in the Crimean battalion for a transfer to the reserve, at least some of them not dosluzhili in the Escort of the term appointed it» [273]. We will notice, that the Crimean Tatars were last national command in escort structure SEIV.

Meanwhile, practice of acquisition three Caucasian Cossack eskadroyonov SEIV an escort on % from the Kuban Cossacks and on % - from terskih has shown the inconsistency. According to S.I.Petina, «in front and economic otyonoshenijah such formation represented big nevygody, especially if to take into consideration razbrosannost the Cossack villages on huge prostranstyove the North Caucasus, between the seas Caspian and Black. The commanders of preferential squadrons obliged annually to examine of the bottom ranks on mesyotah of their residence, drove about from end to end on all expanse of caucasus. So, eskadronnyj the commander living on Terek at the Caspian coast, should go to the Black Sea coast, and another at the same time aspired from KubaYOni to ustjam Terek.» [274]. On October, 7th, 1867 under the Nominal decree the existing order of acquisition has been abolished: now squadrons were completed «everyone separately from the army, namely - two squadrons from Kuban and one from Tersky» [275]. Thereupon squadrons have been named: 1st and 2nd lejb - lejb-guards the Caucasian Kuban Cossack squadrons and lejb-guards the Kavkazyosky Tersky Cossack squadron, and their regular number remained former.

On November, 14th, 1868 Vysochajshe new staff of lejb-guards of the Caucasian squadron, increased to 191 persons [276] has been approved. Still together with lejb-guards the Caucasian Cossack squadron they constituted one gvardejyoskuju part SEIV of an escort and during parades and reviews Caucasians vystraivayolis ahead of Cossacks. As the commander of 1st brigade of the Caucasian Cossack marks
Divisions, major general I.F.Tutolmin, in their appearance it was shown «stroyogo sustained military shchegolstvo; dry, blood horses, serviceable saddles, an elegant harness, graceful furnish of draughts and daggers showed their love to fighting conditions» and made due impression on associates [277]. OdYOnako, D.A.scrap underlines, that «ranks l.-gv. The Caucasian squadron all to a lesser degree received honour of performance of any special commissions, and gradually the role of east parts of an escort has decreased to uchayostija exclusively in parades and solemn ceremonies.naprotiv, kayozakov even more often involved for performance of difficult and dangerous missions. NaYOprimer, at visiting of caucasus by Alexander II in 1871 imperial protection was constituted by exclusively Cossack ranks of an escort of Its Majesty» [278]. ByYOlo and one more circumstance to which S.I.Petin pays attention: « The Caucasian squadron, on dexterity on a game, a little than differed from the Cossack. But the difference between squadrons most brightly acted in behaviour of ranks. KazaYOki representatives of east Escort often behaved irreproachably, and isklju -

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chalis for bad acts »[279].

During Russian-Turkish war 1877-1878 with the beginning of operations SEIV the escort provided Alexander's safety II and Imperial glavyonoj apartments. At departures of the emperor in armies it was accompanied by a command as a part of not less platoon of Cossacks, and in the most important trips - in structure tseloyogo a squadron. In the beginning of August, 1877 the Tersky squadron has received the permission of the emperor to participation in operations and has caused a stir in business under Lovchej. SoYOvmestno with a Vladikavkaz Cossack regiment and the Osset battalion of the Kavyokazsky Cossack brigade they attacked in the horse I build perfect Turkish infantry outnumbering several times and have chopped up to 4 thousand soldiers and officers of the opponent then tertsy have returned to Imperial main apartment. In turn, in the end of September, 1877 both Kuban esyo
kadrony have been directed for participation in operations to structure of group of geyoneral-major N.V.Ellisa and have caused a stir in fights under the Mountain Oak forest and Teli - shem. For courage and bravery in fights kubantsy have received distinctions on headdresses with an inscription «For difference in Turkish war 1877 and 1878», and tertsy - «For I Dodge on August, 22nd, 1877» [280]. For the sake of justice we will notice, that together with Cossacks preferential changes of the Command of lejb-guards of the Crimean Tatars carried out protection of Imperial main apartment, and also took part in a capture of the Mountain Oak forest, Dodge also Plevna [281].

And here about actions during war of lejb-guards of the Caucasian squadron of S.I.Petin writes: «the Caucasian squadron has spent All time of a Turkish campaign in area, being engaged in only preparatory exercises of front service and naezdnichestvom. Only some of its ranks were in the Escort of the Commander-in-chief the Caucasian Army.ne all behaved in Turkish vojyonu how that the debt and conscience of fair soldiers-Dzhigits ruled. RazzhalovanYOnye for change to our Government, one of them have died shameful death on the gallows, others are banished in a hard labour» [282].

It is necessary to recognise, that using only the possibilities, SEIV the escort could not prevent attempt of terrorists-narodovoltsev in Petersburg on March, 1st, 1881 on Alexander II in which result it was deadly rayonen. Accompanying crew of the emperor six Cossacks of the Tersky squadron led by captain P.T.Kulebjakinym and ordinarets a sovereign, the corporal 2­го the Kuban squadron Kuzma Machnev have got wounds of the various severity level, one of tertsev, Alexander Maleichev, has deceased in hospital. On dokyoladu the commander of Imperial main apartment A.V. Adlerberga vstuyopivshy on a throne Alexander III has granted pension to a family of the victim at a rate of 100 roubles [283]. Have been appointed to pension and other Cossacks-konvojtsam, postradavyo
shim during act of terrorism. Besides, they have been awarded by a medal «In memory of sad event on March, 1st, 1881» [284].

In the previous chapter it was noticed, that realisation of act of terrorism became vozyomozhnym in view of incompetence of some heads of imperial protection and absence of interaction between security structures, and the main thing - in otyosutstvii algorithm of actions of protection in cases of direct threat zhizyoni and to health of the emperor at act of terrorism. Eventually, Cossacks of the Escort were unauthorized to carry out the operatively-search actions directed on revealing, the prevention and suppression of terrorist activity «on distant approaches», and to them have not been trained, as that dejatelyonost was within the competence of other special services of Russia.

The come to the throne Alexander III, within the limits of reorganisation imperatoryoskoj protection, has carried out cardinal reforming and SEIV an escort. So, 2 deyokabrja 1881 in its structure one more squadron terskih Cossacks «on existing staff» has been added. To the Kuban Cossack squadrons it has been kept nuyomeratsija, and Tersky - 1st and 2nd numbers are appropriated. Constantly on service nahoyodilis on one squadron kubantsev and tertsev, and others two were on a privilege; change of squadrons occurred in 3 years. At last, lejb-guards the Caucasian squadron the decision to disband [285] was accepted. By this time the Caucasian war has been finished also political, and also economic efyofekt, was obvious. By S.I.Petina's recognition, «the annual expense on it was over 117000 rbl. whereas the maintenance of a superfluous Cossack squadron costed to 11000 rbl., 7000 rbl. of economy» [286] hence turned out. By February, 1st, 1882 Disbandment of the Caucasian squadron has been finished, its officers have been made in following ranks, having received the life annuity of 1200 roubles in a year [287].

With a view of streamlining of questions of acquisition SEIV of an escort by officers and the bottom ranks, service and educational gathering of preferential changes, and also a contentment and management, on June, 9th, 1889 Vysochajshe Position about Own Its Imperial Majesty an escort »[288] has been approved«. Into staff of Staff SEIV of an escort have entered: 1) Officers: the commander of the Escort (the colonel), poyomoshchnik it, it managing an economy (the captain), an aide-de-camp of the Escort (to the shtabs-captain inclusive), the treasurer of the Escort, it kvartermistr (to the shtabs-captain). In total 4 officers; 2) Class officials: the senior doctor, veyoterinarnyj the doctor, the clerk by an economic part, the inspector kayozarm. In total 4 class officials; 3) the Bottom ranks:) Front: trumpeters of Its Imperial Majesty - 4; not Front: the senior clerks - 2, younger clerks - 3, the senior medical medical assistant, the senior veterinary medical assistant, the senior smith, oboznye and for supervision behind barracks - 29. In total 41 bottom rank. Total: 49 persons in Staff SEIV of an escort.

Into staff of two lejb-guards of the Kuban Cossack squadrons have entered: 1) OfiYOtsery: commanders of squadrons (captains) - 2, shtabs-captains - 2, lieutenants and cornets - 8. In total 12 officers; 2) the Bottom ranks: Front: vahmistry - 2, platoon corporals - 8, kaptenarmusy - 2, corporals - 28, trumpeters - 4, Cossacks - 316; not Front: the younger medical medical assistant, the younger veterinary medical assistant, the smith, officer servants - 12. In total 375 bottom ranks. Total: 387 persons in two Kuban squadrons. As much and in two terskih squadrons. And all in four Cossack squadrons of 774 persons.

Staff of the Command of lejb-guards of the Crimean Tatars constituted only 16 persons. Thus, Position established aggregate number SEIV of an escort of 839 persons [289]. After on May, 2nd, 1890 the Command of lejb-guards Crimean tayotar from escort structure SEIV has been excluded [290], states of squadrons were uveliyocheny on 160 Cossacks [291]. It is characteristic, that after Command abolition lejb -
Guards of the Crimean Tatars, up to 1917 an imperial escort formirovalyosja it is exclusive Cossacks of the Kuban and Tersky Cossack armies.

On May, 26th, 1891 Vysochajshe Position about SobstYOvennom Its Imperial Majesty an escort »[292] which eliminated otdelyonye defects in acquisition and performance of duty konvojtsami has been approved new«. As military unit, squadrons have been renamed into hundreds and all konvojtsam were priyosvoeny the Cossack military ranks. Replenishment of staff by officers osushchestvljayolos by means of their transfer from front parts of the Caucasian Cossack armies after obligatory service not less than two years. In the head of a corner the principle of an army accessory was put, i.e. in lejb-guards the Kuban hundreds Escort pereyovodilis is exclusive officers from the Kuban Cossack army, and in Tersky - from Tersky accordingly. Without fail was accepted in vnimayonie the educational qualification: the preference was given to the officers, finished military men or junkerskie schools under the higher categories. For the first time states SEIV of an escort provided number of staff «on a wartime» and «on a peace time». For example, the quantity of front bottom ranks in 4 hundreds should vary from 616 to 520 accordingly [293].

During the Russian-Japanese war, on May, 23rd, 1904, already at Nikolay II, Position about Own Its Imperial Majesty the Escort »[294] which, first of all, corrected acquisition questions the bottom ranks of structure of the Escort« on wartime staff »and passage of service by them has been approved new«. Especially the attention was given to physical and moral qualities of candidates on service: «the Bottom ranks intended in the Escort, should be: quite mature, physically got stronger, absolutely healthy, visible, without physical defects, growth not below 7 vershoks (1 vershok = 4,445 sm, however in those days growth of the person was constituted from arshin and vershoks and as growth of the adult person seldom happened less than two arshin, i.e. 142 sm,
That in this case is a question of seven-vershoks over two arshin, i.e. approximately 173 see - a bus), good morals and perfectly acquired treboyovanija services ».ukazannoe Position, the third under the account, operated till 1917

During 1st Russian revolution 1905-1907 when the internal political situation has sharply become aggravated, Nikolay II has approved on April, 23rd, 1906 « polozheyonii about the Palace Commandant »[295], having allocated D.F.Trepova special powers on a management and coordination of activity of guarding structures, in chastyonosti, SEIV the escort has been transferred in conducting the Palace commandant. In this peyoriod, with a view of suppression of the slightest threats to life and to health of the emperor, impeyoratritsy and« the most august children », at direct participation of Palace commandant D.F.Trepova a number vnutrivedomstvenyonyh the normative acts regulating daily service konvojtsev in the conditions of become aggravated operative conditions, in particular,« the Instruction to day horse travelling in Imperial parks "and" the Instruction to horse posts of Its Own Majesty of an escort in of Tsarskoe Selo, Peterhof and Gatchina »[296] has been developed and approved. In the specified instructions the emphasis was placed on actions of Cossacks - konvojtsev in case of encroachments for a life of a family of the monarch, circumstances for weapon application were especially in details considered.

For maintenance of safety in residences in August, 1906 D.F.Trepovym had been approved the instructions regulating service as all daily details konvojtsev, as a whole, and on concrete posts in a palace, in particular. In them and duties, and also possible algorithm of actions as officers, and Cossacks the rights scrupulously registered in cases, ugroyozhajushchih lives of a sovereign, and an order of application of the weapon. It is characteristic, that instyoruktsija intended to concrete ranks of an imperial escort, zastupavyoshim on service, for example, «on duty sotennomu to the commander","the person on duty
To the officer "," to internal pedestrian posts "," the night sentry »planting in the Palace» and other [297].

After the sociopolitical situation in the state was vozyovrashchena in a normal channel, in February, 1907 an imperial escort have returned under the beginning of the head of Imperial Main apartment. However konvojtsy remained under the authority of the Palace commandant «concerning execution of security service» [298]. New Palace commandant V.A.Dedjulin actually began to change nothing in service sphere konvojtsev as the base which has been put in pawn by D.F.Trepovym, has appeared strong enough. At V.A.Dedjuline, at direct participation of the head of group of the Security agency of A.I.Spiridovicha and the chief of Petersburg security branch A.V. GerasiYOmova, in February, 1907 preparation for act of terrorism on Nikolay II has been opened. The son of the chief of Palace pochtovo-cable office in New Peterhof Vladimir Naumov tried to enlist in terrorist group of the Cossack Se - WILLOWS of an escort of Nikolay Ratimova, however that has reported on command and as a result spent operatively-search actions it has been detained 18 zloyoumyshlennikov. On a court sentence on September, 3rd, 1907 three from them, including Naumov, have been hung up, and the others 15 are sentenced «for different terms in ka -

3

To the auction and the reference »[299].

Especially it is necessary to note participation SEIV of an escort in mass actions which were always accompanied by the big congestion of the people. Besides participation in parades and opening of monuments, konvojtsy bore service on solemn celebrating of the 200 anniversary of the Poltava fight in 1909, 100 anniversaries SEIV of an escort in 1911, the Patriotic War 100 anniversaries in 1912, at last, the 300 anniversaries prazdnoyovanija Romanov's Houses in 1913 Last celebrations were most masyoshtabnye: SEIV the escort provided protection of the most august surname during voyages on a route: Tsarskoe Selo - Vladimir - Suzdal - Nizhni Novgorod

- Kostroma - Yaroslavl - Moscow - Tsarskoe Selo. As marks N.V.GalushYokin, «in memory of the 300 anniversary of Reign of the House of Romanovyh Vysochajshe utveryozhdeny a breastplate and a medal. The breastplate has been welcomed by the Sovereign to the commander and all officers of the Escort who were in the service in it in days of Romayonovsky celebrations. All officers, officials and Cossacks of the Escort have acquired the right of carrying of a medal» [300].

With the beginning of the First World War from the Kuban and Tersky Cossack armies in SEIV an escort Cossacks of a stock with which arrival kazhyodaja one hundred was doukomplektovana to 160 persons have been called. In connection with expansion of functional duties formation of 5th Summary hundred Escort [301] has begun. The increase in office functions was promoted Nikolay's by regular departures II in the Rate of the Supreme commander in chief of grand duke Nikolay Nikolaevicha to Baranovichi. After in August, 1915 imperayotor has taken up command and has got over in the Rate to Mogilyov, at it constantly there were two hundreds konvojtsev, - Kuban and terskaja, - which alternately varied with remaining in Tsarskoe Selo. Since December, 1915 of hundred SEIV of escort were sent on a battlefield and accepted uchayostie in operations, being sustained by loss and showing heroism [302].

After Nikolay's renunciation II from a throne, by order of № 344 chiefs of the Staff of Supreme commander in chief M.V.Alekseeva from March, 4th, 1917 SEIV the escort has been renamed into «the Escort of the Supreme commander in chief» and subordinated directly to the Staff of the Supreme commander in chief [303].

On April, 27th the Military council has approved «Position about rearrangement of the former imperial escort in the Kuban and Tersky Guards Cossack battalions», with their inclusion in structure of the Caucasian army [304]. It is characteristic, that VoYOennoe the Provisional government ministry has resolved a number printsipialyonyh the questions connected with process of rearrangement «were imperayo
torskogo an escort ». So, for example, with a general staff it has been adjusted, that« all officers, urjadniki and Cossacks leave the Escort with uniform preservation, as awards ». Officers« have been renamed into following ranks ». Private soldiers kazayoki, not dosluzhivshie in the Escort till 4th years, have been made in urjadniki. A number of personal petitions has been satisfied also, for example, the former lejb-trumpeter impeyoratora Zaharchenko, 34 years which have served in the Escort,« skilled and big ljuyobitel horses », has been made in a class rank and has received a place in konnozayovodstve. We Will pay attention to one curious fact: the General staff soyoglasilsja to give out« to each officer of 1000 roubles from the economic sums », odyonako the given decision« has not been carried out, as officers otkayozalis from the grant »[305]. To it we will add, that in days of Civil war many were konvojtsy, both officers, and Cossacks, took part in Dobroyovolchesky army and in 1920 have emigrated abroad.

Thus, it is necessary to brief, that SEIV an escort which was stayorejshej an elite part in structures, providing safety rossijyoskih monarchs, it was originally created on the eve of a Patriotic War of 1812 in the name of the Black Sea Cossack hundred for protection of the emperor and Imperial main apartment on a battlefield. After end of foreign campaigns and returning by a peace life when danger of threats to life of a sovereign was minimised, chernomortsy actually pass to execution paradnoyotseremonialnyh functions, however, in cases of mutinies and excitements in a number teryoritory Russian empire, still remaining an elite efficient part. Practically similar functions carried out and koyomanda the Caucasian linear Cossacks a little bit later.

Involving on service in an imperial escort of natives from caucasus, the authorities tried to solve the main internal political problem - successful end Caucasian vojnyi joining to Russia of territories of the North Caucasus. Not casually on service on protection of the Russian emperor candidates got out
Exclusively from notable and authoritative sorts as, on the one hand, such step promoted as now would tell, to strengthening of image pomazanyonika Divine in the opinion of the Caucasian nobility by means of which impact on other representatives of the contradictory party would be made, and with another - consolidation of weight of Russia in a foreign policy life of Europe. It is possible konstayotirovat, that both objects in view have been reached, despite huge financial expenses under the maintenance in northern capital of Caucasians which, besides participation in a parabottom-ceremonial actions, it is active ispolzoyovalis and in operations at suppression of mutinies, for example, in the Kingdom Polish.

After the termination of the Caucasian war and administrative-territorial transformations in the North Caucasus when the Kuban and Tersky Cossack armies have been formed, need for service in SEIV an escort of Caucasians has disappeared, and up to Nikolay's renunciation II from a throne, the Escort replenished iskljuchiyotelno with Cossacks of the specified armies. It is necessary to underline also, that for all the more than century activity, SEIV the escort consisted under the beginning rukovodiyotelja Imperial main apartment as an elite army part and podchiyonjalsja to the head of imperial protection only in sphere guard sluzhyoby. For all this time one essential failure took place only - act of terrorism concerning Alexander II, however would be incorrect to assign all fault for it only on the Escort. Realisation of act of terrorism became possible in view of nekomyopetentnosti and short-sightedness of separate heads imperial ohyorany and absence of interaction between security structures, and the main thing - in absence of algorithm of actions of protection in cases of direct threat to life and to health of the emperor at act of terrorism. At Alexander III and Nikolay II similar omissions in protection any more were not, and at last emperor loading on konvojtsev on performance of duty has reached a limit, especially in days of the First World War.

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A source: Guchetl Arthur Azamatovich. INSTITUTE of the STATE PROTECTION of RUSSIAN EMPIRE XIX - HH CENTURIES (istoriko-legal research). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the master of laws. Krasnodar - 2014. 2014

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