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ž I. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC And POLITICAL predyoposylki REFORMS.

Association of Russian earths under the power of the Moscow princedom zayovershilos in the first quarter of 16 centuries when the Russian structure, already the Russian state included the Seversky earths (1500-1503г.г.).

Pskov (1510), Smolensk! 1514), Ryazan! 1521). Formation uniform gosudaryostva in the conditions of an ascending stage of development of feudal relations and otyosutstvija some real elements of bourgeois communications has entailed considerable changes in its social structure, ekonomicheyoskom and a political system 1.

16 centuries it was characterised by the further development proizvoditelyonyh forces. In agriculture growth agricultural kultuyory was observed. Development of the new earths, application of new methods selskohozjajstvenyonogo manufactures and distribution pashennogo agriculture. Peasants had been opened huge weights of the earths and thousand new poseleyony [11 [12] are created. On the mastered earths the system of agriculture [13] was widely used trehpolnaja, and the new agricultural culture developed. Some growth of efficiency of an agricultural production [14] was observed also.

Along with agriculture development by the most essential moment in economy of Russian state 15-16 century of century growth of a public division of labour that has found the expression in development of craft, cities and trade was. The division of labour between agriculture and craft and branch of the last from agriculture occurrence of separate areas, speyotsializirujushchihsja on manufacture of any leading group of the goods (that was defined by industrial and geographical conditions reyogionov) led to growth of the commodity reference.

Material basis of process of liquidation feudal razdrobyolennosti and creations of the centralised state was gradual overcoming of economic isolation of the separate Russian earths and usyotanovlenie market communications between them. This process of growth of the commodity reference, exchange strengthening between areas, development of the markets and posteyopennoe an establishment between them strong communications, became one of opredeyoljajushchih the moments of economic development of Russia 15-17 century of century, and at 15-16 centuries have been created the major economic preconditions of formation of the All-Russia market.

In first half of 16 centuries in various districts of the country began to appear small rural торжки2 which covered the population neyobolshogo area. On the basis of the small local markets developed oblayostnye the markets which largest centres were Novgorod, Tver, MoYOskva, etc. cities.

Commodity production growth to sulfurs. 16 centuries, given the chance to increase quantity of the goods intended for export abroad, ukyoreplenie the international authority of Russia promoted development and foreign trade. Joining of Smolensk has opened a convenient way for trade with Lithuania. The gain of Astrakhan and Kazan promoted development of trade with the near-Caspian and Central Asian markets. OtYOkrytie to Englishmen of Northern sea way to Russia and the organisation in England Russian trading company made active the foreign trade communications and with Western Европой3.

Century of century M-l. 1936. С.25; Bahrushin Russia//Owls. і osudjarpvo and prja -

In to. The 15-first a floor. 16 century of century reorganisation of the feudal landed property, by which displays of a steel, on the one hand, crisis of large seigniorial landed property, with another - intensive development zemleyovladenija monastic and pomestnogo was observed. In the conditions of development of the commodity reference gradually there was a ruin of the ancient princely and seigniorial surnames which ground possession were quite often pawned, split up for parts, and sometimes and продавались1. At the same time rasprostrayonjalas the new pattern of ownership on the earth-estate also became stronger.

Commodity-money relations in various forms all are deeper proyonikali in a feudal economy, that differently affected on hozjajstyove "reign also boyars-votchinnikov, and on an economy of noblemen-landowners” [15 [16]. Those measures which were undertaken by average and small land owners in 16 century, found means for the maintenance, probably, it is more sootyovetstvovali to new economic conditions, than former receptions of housekeeping, characteristic for large votchinnikov [17]. The requirement feodayolov in money forced to raise profitableness of their landed properties at the expense of increase in quitrents, introductions own zapashki, transfer of peasants into corvee [18]. Finally replacement of a natural quitrent monetary renyotoj, reduction of country plots at the expense of growth lordly zapashki, and besides and growth of national taxes and duties have caused that general lifting of the class struggle expressed in the most various forms: From heresies before open performances of peasants, lackeys and city naseleyonija against feudal lords [19].

Being time of the big and deep shifts in area ekonomiyoki, the considered period is characterised not less important izmeneyonijami and in sphere of class relations. Among which the major place is occupied with changes in structure of a class of land owners that was expressed in occurrence in a feudal class of special group of noblemen - landowners.

The nobility position in relation to the grand-ducal power, on I.I.Smirnova's expression, "could not be hostile, protivoyorechivoj because each step to development centralised gosudaryostva meant strengthening of positions of nobility... That followed from osyonov its social nature, first of all from this a place which dvorjanyostvo occupied as a part of a feudal class, in system feudal ieyorarhii ' 4. The nobility supported the central power not only on peryovonachalnom a centralisation stage when there was a process of collecting of the earths in the uniform state but also when reorganisation of the power and management on the beginnings samoyoderzhavija became the centre of gravity gosudarstyovennoj politicians. The nobility saw in the state centralisation a strong guarantee of the class interests with reference to new ekonomicheyoskim to conditions. Therefore landowners aspired to strengthening of the central power as have been interested in resolute reorganisation tsenyotralnogo and the local device of the power and management in which the nobility aspired to play a main role and with which help effective protection of their feudal property would be possible, and also deduction in humility is feudal - the dependent population.

If the position of nobility in the course of creation of the centralised state was represented more certain the nobility position in relation to spent reforms was not so unequivocal. To neyodavnego time a question on dynamics of development kormlennoj systems rasyosmatrivalsja from the point of view of the thesis about opposition of nobility and двоşрянства2. Following graditsionnoj to the point of view, A.A.Zimin in the early works writes, that the nobility and boyars opposed to centralisation whereas the nobility great bulk supported ее*. However, the nobility position was more difficult and inconsistent and is far not so is distinct from a nobility position with which it was connected by aspiration to maintenance of class domination over wide layers of peasantry and posadskogo the population. Besides, to sulfurs. 16 century nobility did not represent homogeneous group of feudal lords, that also does not allow to consider nobility only as noyositelja political recourse.

For a refutation of representations about nobility and nobility struggle mnoyogo it is made by N.E.nasal and V.B.Kobrin [20 [21], and also A.A.Zimin in its later works. Their researches allow to draw a conclusion, that in 16 century the seigniorial nobility at all was not nositelnitsej traditions of feudal dissociation, as "... It is impossible to see aspiration to revive vreyomena feudal dissociation at one of groups knjazhesko - the seigniorial nobility. Speech can go about struggle for various ways of centralisation gosuyodarstva" 5. In other words, "the Nobility struggled (and that not always and far not all) not in general against any centralisation, and for such centralisation which more would correspond its social both political intereyosam... And the main condition of it put restriction of autocracy by the Bojaryosky thought" [22].

The second most important line characterising changes in obyolasti of class relations in 15 - 16 century of century, were increase specific veyosa and political activity of urban population and at the same time ustayonovlenie their union with pomestnym nobility. Tops posada a hook as well as noblemen, have been interested in strengthening of the imperial power, in acceptance of measures. Directed against the old feudal nobility, in more resolute foreign policy. "If the nobility has been interested in capture of the new earths for increase in the estates the urban population required expansion of the markets and capture of trading ways" 1. Economic and politiyochesky growth posadskogo the population, in particular, merchant classes, has affected in obyorazovanii especially exclusive groups of visitors, people of a drawing room and suyokonnoj hundreds which representatives carried out the important commissions in financial bodies and thus joined in state apyoparat.

In connection with development of the commodity-money reference certain changes occur to agricultural population. To sulfurs. 16 century more and more proyojavljaetsja peasantry stratification. From structure of a country community vydeyoljajutsja, on the one hand, a number of the richest peasants having znachitelyonye monetary средства2, with another, occurs pauperisation and obezzemeliyovanie an agricultural population great bulk, that in turn already to to. 15 century have led to occurrence in Russia solitary men, novoprihodtsev and ladles.

So, the end of 15-16 centuries were time of large changes in goyosudarstve. The general economic lifting, growth of an agricultural production, craft, trade, destruction naturally-closed feoyodalnogo economy have entailed changes in all spheres sotsialyonoj. kulgurnoj and it is final, a political life.

In these conditions existing to sulfurs. 16 century the political form of Russian feudal state - rannefeodalnaja the monarchy, could not remain without changes.

Necessity of mobilisation of all layers of a ruling class round an imperial throne for struggle against accruing movement krepoyostnyh peasants and posadskih people against the feudal state, zadayocha replacement of the feudal nobility from leading positions and strengthening politicheyoskoj roles pomestnogo the nobility becoming a support of the state, neyoobhodimost the further strengthening of the imperial power have led to change -

; Yushkov S.V. To a question... With. 42.

J Zimin A.A.reform... With. 108. JUshkoj S.V.histor... С.278.

zo

niju forms of government of Russian state: in the middle of 16 century the soslovno-representative monarchy which is "the intermediate form between rannefeodalnoj and absolute monaryohijami" 1 starts to develop. That is such form of government at which the power of the monarch is limited to bodies of class representation from various soyoslovy: Zemsky cathedrals and the local bodies constructed also on the basis of class representation.

"All process of reorganisation Supreme, central and local orgayonov the authorities and managements of second half 16 century, - on G.B.GalYoperina's expression. - a neck in the area of development of centralisation from the lowest form, vyrayozhavshejsja in a combination of orders to bodies dvortsovo-patrimonial upravyolenija, to the centralisation constructed on class representation and by that expressing higher step state edinstyova” <

16 centuries became time of deep changes in history of Russia, svjazanyonyh first of all with the reforms spent in years of board of Ivan Groznogo and having purpose strengthening centralised gosudaryostva.

In a soslovno-representative monarchy basically zayokonchilos formation of the Russian centralised state. At Ivan IV last destinies have been destroyed, belonging it bliyozhajshim and with the help oprichniny the whack on "knjazhatam" ’ has been put relatives, that also had the consequence and appreciable usiyolenie the imperial power. Wedding in 1547 on Ivan Groznogo's kingdom podyonjalo authority of the monarch on international scene.

The foreign policy problems facing to the state, potreyobovali carrying out of military reform. At the same time reorganisation vooru -

• Yushkov S.V.histor... С.278.

: Galperin G. B. Genesis and development of a class monarchy in Russia (15-16 century of century). Antoref. Foxes.... L - ra jurid. Sciences. L, 1968. With. 36.

• Yushkov S.V. To a question... С.45.

zhennyh forces, creation bulky official-bureaucratic appayorata have resulted and in reform of public finances.

The further forward development was impossible and without sushcheyostvennoj reorganisations of machinery of state.

During the studied period the Seigniorial Duma continues to play the important role in system of the supreme bodies of the state. But the structure of this body there are some changes: it is more and more lost aristokraticheyosky character of the Seigniorial Duma and the representation of noblemen that reflected the general process "odvorjanivanija a ruling class" 1 amplifies.

Among the higher official bodies there are new bodies - the Zemsky cathedrals assembled for the decision of most important gosudarstvenyonyh of questions: elections of tsars, decisions of questions on war and peace, ustanovyolenija new taxes, acceptance of laws. Decisions of Cathedrals appreciably defined the basic lines internal and foreign policy praviyotelstva and in the beginning of the existence served as a support of a monarchy and ukyorepljali the imperial power.

On change dvortsovo-vogchinnoj to system bodies tsentralnoyogo managements - the orders promoting strengthening of machinery of state come. Already in second half 16 century mandative management covered almost all branches. Of noble family chinovnaja the bureaucracy, special appayorat. Becoming rather bulky, started to play more and more important role in a political life of the country.

Centralisation process, folding of a soslovno-representative monarchy, restriction of the former rights of knjazhesko-seigniorial aristocracy and strengthening of class contradictions should cause reforms of local establishments and creation of the new bodies constructed on "others politicheyoskih the principles which are distinct from personal vassaliteta and votchino - the mandative beginnings and institutes of the period of feudal dissociation" 1. On change to feedings the system of bodies lip and zemskogo samoupravleyonija comes. Transition to this system meant introduction of absolutely other principle: instead of the representatives of the centre operating local territories, vvoyodjatsja bodies of class representation.

Without in-depth study of a being and value of this major reform of the government of Ivan Groznogo in essence it is impossible and vseyostoronnee judgement of all changes which have occurred in Russian state in 16 century. Questions of creation, the organisation, a legal status and dejayotelnosti zemskogo and lip self-management will be considered in 3 head of the dissertation.

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A source: MAKSIMOVA Natalia Anatolevna. LOCAL GOVERNMENT of Russia At 16-17 V.V. (ISTORIKO-LEGAL RESEARCH). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the master of laws. Saratov -. 1996

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